John Zube

A Selection of Unconventional Thoughts on Democracy




This selection of passages on Democracy gives plenty of food for thought. If, after reading them, you still think that democracy is the best political system ever devised by the human mind, then it is clear that your dictatorial or submissive tendencies are too strong to be eradicated. Nevertheless you should contemplate the fact that individuals exist who want to be neither masters nor servant and they deserve to fulfil their aspirations with different systems of social organization other than representative totalitarian democracy.

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DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is necessarily despotism, as it establishes an executive power contrary to the general will; all being able to decide against one whose opinion may differ, the will of all is therefore not that of all: which is contradictory and opposite to liberty." - Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace, II, 1795.

DEMOCRACY: "... a people who are in general excluded from any share of the legislative, are to all intents and purposes, as much slaves, when twenty, independent of them, govern, as when but one dominates." - Burke, A Vindication of Natural Society, 40.

DEMOCRACY: "Let the people think they govern and they will be governed." - William Penn, 1644 - 1718, Some Fruits of Solitude, I, 67. (1693, 1.337.)

DEMOCRACY: "Republican despotism is more fertile in acts of tyranny, because everyone has a hand in it." - Napoleon I, Maxims, 1804-1815.

DEMOCRACY: "Majoritarian democracy by itself is not freedom but the rule by a larger group. ... Under a victorious democracy the most important task for liberal principles is thus the protection of minorities, especially of those which do not have a chance to gain the majority for themselves." - Carl Friedrich von Weizaecker

DEMOCRACY: "The rule of the many by the few, we call tyranny. The rule of the few by the many (democracy) is tyranny also, only of a less intense kind." - Herbert Spencer

DEMOCRACY: "Our contemporaries are constantly excited by two conflicting passions; they want to be led, and they wish to remain free: as they cannot destroy either one or the other of these contrary propensities, they strive to satisfy them both at once. They devise a sole, tutelary, and all-powerful form of government, but elected by the people. They combined the principle of centralisation and that of popular sovereignty; this gives them a respite: they console themselves for being in tutelage by the reflection that they have chosen their own guardians. Every man allows himself to be put in leading-strings, because he sees that it is not a person or a class of persons, but the people at large that holds the end of his chain. - By this system the people shake off their state of dependence just long enough to select their master, and then relapse into it again. A great many persons at the present day are quite contented with this sort of compromise between administrative despotism and the sovereignty of the people, and they think they have done enough for the protection of individual freedom when they have surrendered it to the power of the nation at large. This does not satisfy me: the nature of him I am to obey signifies less to me than the fact of extorted obedience." - Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy in America is doomed when the people learn to vote themselves money from the public trough..." - Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America.

DEMOCRACY: "As if democracy could be realized otherwise than by the distribution of authority and the true sense of the world democracy would not mean abolition of government." - Proudhon, Confessions.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is nothing but the Tyranny of Majorities, the most abominable tyranny of all, for it is not based on the authority of a religion, not upon the nobility of a race, not on the merits of talents and of riches. It merely rests upon numbers and hides behind the name of the people." - Proudhon, Demokratie und Republik, S. 10.

DEMOCRACY: "In the theory of the democrats the problem of governments consists in the following: To exclude by means of the ostensibly general franchise all ideas of public opinion except the one and to elevate this one, which has the majority behind it, to rule exclusively." - Proudhon, ibid, 9

DEMOCRACY: "... the political cycle shows us again and again that new Democracy is but old Despotism differently spelt." - Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology, 276.

DEMOCRACY: "After having judged all men without exception as capable of governing the country, we declare them incapable of governing themselves." - Bastiat, in Roche III, Bastiat, 129.

DEMOCRACY: "This is one of the paradoxes of the democratic movement - that it loves a crowd and fears the individuals who compose it - that the religion of humanity should have no faith in the human being." - Walter Lippmann, "Routineer and Inventor", A Preface to Politics, 1914.

DEMOCRACY: "Envy is the basis of democracy." - Bertrand Russell, The Conquest of Happiness, VI, 1930.

DEMOCRACY: "A democracy is a state which recognises the subjection of the minority to the majority, that is, an organisation for the systematic use of violence by one class against the other, by one part of the population against another." - Lenin, The State and the Revolution, 1917.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is simply a method for stating 'might makes right' without actually fighting it out." - Fritz Knese, quoted in TC119 p.27

DEMOCRACY: "You say what you want and do what you are told." - Berry

DEMOCRACY: "We have sometimes been tempted to define democracy as an institution in which the whole is equal to the scum of all the parts." - Keith Preston, Pot Shots from Pegasus, 138.

DEMOCRACY: "All modes of government are failures. Despotism is unjust to everybody, including the despot, who was probably made for better things. Oligarchies are unjust to the many, and ochlocracies (government by the masses) are unjust to the few. High hopes were once formed of democracy; but democracy means simply the bludgeoning of the people, by the people, for the people." - Oscar Wilde, The Soul of Man Under Socialism, 1891.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is not always best perceived as the power of the majority to do everything to everyone else." - Oscar Wilde.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is what puts the rule of the majority over the rights of the minorities." - J. Kesner Kahn, quoted in News Digest International, September '82, p. 46.

DEMOCRACY: "Representative government means: 'the rule of every three men out of five, and the subjugation of every two men.'" - Auberon Herbert, quoted in Rampart Journal, Fall 68.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy, like any other government, is government from, by and for politicians." - J.Z., 27.3.82.

DEMOCRACY: Democracy is organized envy and robbery. - J.Z., 8.7.92.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy, n. Government of the sheep, by the shepherds, for the wolves." - L.A. Rollins, The Devil's Lexicon.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy. Nobody bothers to think. And everybody may say what he thinks." - Werner Mitsch.

DEMOCRACY: "DEMOCRACY: in which you say what you like and do what you are told." - Sir Gerald Berry, b. 1899.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy meant that whatever ultimate power there was should be in the hands of the people. But the term implied nothing about the extent of that power, and certainly not that it should be unlimited. An elected legislature that does not confine itself to establishing universal rules of just conduct will soon be driven by vested interests to serve particular private ends." - F. A. Hayek, The Confusion of Language in Political Thought, p.8.

DEMOCRACY: "And even now, when the Socialists all over Europe are becoming political parties, and profess the democratic faith, there remains among most impartial men a well-founded fear of the VOLKSSTAAT or 'popular State' being as great a danger for liberty as any form of autocracy, if its government be entrusted with the management of all the social organisation, including the production and distribution of wealth." - Kropotkin, in 19th Century Opinion, pp. 244/245.

DEMOCRACY: "But the falsehood and absurdity of your whole system of government do not result solely from the fact that it rests wholly upon votes given in secret, or by men who take care to avoid all personal responsibility for their own acts, or the acts of their agents. On the contrary, if every man, woman, and child in the U.S. had openly signed, sealed, and delivered to you and your associates, a written document, purporting to invest you with all the legislative, judicial, and executive powers that you now exercise, they would not thereby have given you the slightest legitimate authority. Such a contract, purporting to surrender into your hands all their natural rights of person and property, to be disposed of at your pleasure or discretion, would have been simply an absurd and void contract, giving you no real authority whatever. - It is a natural impossibility for any man to make a binding contract, by which he shall surrender to others a single one of what are commonly called his 'natural, inherent, INALIENABLE rights'. - It is a natural impossibility for any man to make a binding contract, that shall invest others with any right whatever of arbitrary, irresponsible dominion over him." - Lysander Spooner, Letter to Grover Cleveland, Section VII/11.

DEMOCRACY: "... a true democracy - that is, ... anarchy - ..." - Zenker on Proudhon, 74. - Better, perhaps: "Anarchy - the true democracy." - J.Z., n.d. - True self-government can only be achieved via individual sovereignty, voluntary associationism, voluntary disassociation or secession and exterritorial autonomy for the remaining organizations. - J.Z.,7.10.02.

DEMOCRACY: "... in a democracy everyone is the slave/victim of everyone else." - George Kysor, TC 111p21, 16 April 83.

DEMOCRACY: "Individual liberty can be violated by a government democratically chosen just as readily as one autocratically imposed." - Miller Upton, THE FREEMAN, 9/74.

DEMOCRACY: "'Democracy' is no longer a prerogative of the free peoples: - It is now a word used by every gutter dictatorship on the face of the planet, and many of our western intellectuals do not dissent or protest when 'democracy' is appended to regimes which deny their citizens elementary human rights." - Stephen Haseler, Quadrant, 7/77.

DEMOCRACY: "The misplaced faith in government is largely based on the delusion that every evil suffered during the past century has been due to too little government and can be corrected by increasing the scope and functions of political action. Throughout history people have displayed a pathetic faith in government, misunderstanding its true nature. We have chosen to disregard the warning of George Washington, who said : 'Government is not reason, it is not eloquence - it is force! Like fire, it is a dangerous servant and a fearful master!' In the final analysis government action is coercive, but in a democracy most people overlook this." - Ben Moreell, Log I, 173.

DEMOCRACY: "... all consider themselves qualified to discuss everybody's business and are no longer expected to mind their own." - Sir Ernest Benn, The State the Enemy, 57.

DEMOCRACY: "... any democracy will destroy liberty when the 'have-nots' discover that they can raid the public treasury for handouts, by electing political scoundrels who promise 'free' benefits from government, thus destroying freedom." - Robert Charlton, FREEDOM MAGAZINE, Spring 74.

DEMOCRACY: "... democracy is that system in which the majority is induced to rob from the minority - with the government as the middle man who takes his 'cut' of the 'take'. And, generally, the biggest thieves get elected." - Sam Wells, Jr., OPTION, 4/77

DEMOCRACY: "... misguided notions of democracy that allowed the opinions of two morons to outweigh one mind of any worth." - James P. Hogan, Mirror Maze, 137.

DEMOCRACY: "... even if we accept, as the basic tenet of true democracy, that one moron is as good as one genius, is it necessary to go one step father and hold that two morons are better than one genius?" - Leo Szilard,  The Voice of the Dolphins, 36.

DEMOCRACY: Democracy brought the wrongs and evils of monarchism to millions, by allowing each to rule over millions with his vote, while also subjecting each to the votes of millions. Only in voluntary and exterritorial free market relationships and autonomous organizations can the millions who sufficiently agree with each other come to rule themselves and their own affairs, instead of dominating all dissenting groups. - J.Z. 14.11.92, 4.1.93.

DEMOCRACY: "... a curious delusion - as if adding zeros could produce a sum." - Robert Heinlein, Glory Road, 232.

DEMOCRACY: "... one of the evils of democracy is, you have to put up with the man you elect (*) whether you want him or not. That's why we call it democracy." - Will Rogers, Autobiography, 299. - (*) No, that others have elected! - J.Z., n.d.

DEMOCRACY: "A democracy is a form of government in which the people often vote for something different but seldom if ever get something different." - Dr. Laurence J. Peter, in his excellent compilation: PETER'S QUOTATIONS, Ideas for our Time, 1977-1980.

DEMOCRACY: "... we have devised a way to justify all this waste, cheating and inconsistency. We call it 'democracy in action'. It seems almost anything is acceptable as long as we can exercise our right to go to the polls." - Joan Marie Leonard, THE FREEMAN, 2/77.

DEMOCRACY: "If men were truly free, no government could force them to do anything they did not want to do. If government truly represented you, you could give IT orders. The reality, of course, is the opposite. Quite obviously, notwithstanding what people have been taught to believe, democracy is not synonymous with freedom." - Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, 47.

DEMOCRACY: "... unlimited democracy ... is objectionable. It is not who governs but what government is entitled to do that seems to me the essential problem." - Hayek, Social Justice, Socialism & Democracy.

DEMOCRACY: "... a democracy can itself be as tyrannical as a dictatorship, since it is the EXTENT, not the SOURCE, of government power that impinges on freedom." - William F. Buckley Jr., God and Man at Yale, 82.

DEMOCRACY: "... a form of servitude most galling to the blood - servitude to many and changing masters - and for all the slights that accompany the rule of Jack in office." - Robert Louis Stevenson, quoted in THE FREEMAN, 8/78.

DEMOCRACY: "... the modern conception of democracy is a form of government in which no restriction is placed on the governing body." - R. Wollheim, A Paradox in the Theory of Democracy, quoted by Hayek, ibid.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is just a numbers racket." - Patrick Brooks, during an AIR meeting, in the seventies, debate on referendums.

DEMOCRACY: "Now, which is more democratic, each individual man or woman choosing his or her own spouse, or having a referendum throughout the length and breadth of the land every time someone wants to get married?" - Terry Arthur, 95% Is Crap.

DEMOCRACY: "Democracy is merely a counting of hands to decide an issue, without recourse to morality or principle." - Marshall Bruce Evoy, LIBERTARIAN OPTION, 9/75.

DEMOCRACY: "A man can ethically tap only his own resources. A thin veil called democracy cannot conceal plunder. Coercion by a majority is no less reprehensible than that perpetrated by a tyrant, even if its application is less bold and bloody and bright." - James W. Muller.

DEMOCRACY: "A popularly elected tyranny is often more rapacious than a despot who takes his power by force or inheritance. For instance, the popularly elected Socialist government of England has withdrawn more privileges and immunities from great masses of Englishmen and imposed more compulsions upon them than any one of the most despotic English Kings would have dared to decree. Of course the Socialists did all that they have done with a professed dedication to the general welfare. Nevertheless, the motive does not diminish the area of the personal deprivations..." - Clarence Manion, The Key to Peace, 63.

DEMOCRACY: "A really democratic government is not one for the people but a government against the people and for the individual." - Leopold Kohr, Weniger Staat, 66.

DEMOCRACY: "A tyranny of the masses is no less tyrannical because it represents the majority will." - Miller Upton, THE FREEMAN, 9/74.

DEMOCRACY: "A society that is pluralistic and in which the only sure thing that all people share is their individual rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, would perpetrate grave injustice by submitting a great many of the people's concerns to a democratic process." - Tibor Machan, Liberty and Culture, 40.

DEMOCRACY: "I am reminded of a remark made by M. Abart who says of the system as it stood some forty years ago in France, where parliamentary government was combined with rigid Centralisation and restless Government interference - he says that it was the pride of every Frenchman, when he looked into the glass in the morning, to think that he saw there the twenty-seventh millionth part of a tyrant, but that he was apt to forget that at the same time he saw the whole of a slave." - Sir J. R. Seeley, 1834-94, Political Science.

DEMOCRACY: "One asserts the right of the bare majority to do what it will. It believes such a majority should impose on the entire community whatever laws or structures it pleases, guided only by what it conceives to be the general good. The other denies this right. On the contrary, it asserts that minorities and individuals have rights and interests which cannot be overridden by a majority, however large." - Lord Hailsham, SMH, 13.5.78.

DEMOCRACY: 'A man is none the less a slave', said Lysander Spooner, 'because he is allowed to choose a new master once in a term of years.'"

DEMOCRACY: "The plain fact about democracy is that it is a physical impossibility. In an aggregation of millions of individuals, such as we always have in modern society, we may get government OF the people and even government FOR the people, but never for a moment government BY the people." - Herbert Read, The Politics of the Unpolitical, 6. - See: People.

DEMOCRACY: "In a democracy, the dictators are elected rather than self-appointed." - Scott Edelstein, Saying Goodbye, IF, Oct. 74.

DEMOCRACY: "I hold with Adolf Hitler that our political democracy is a lie... There is no antithesis between authoritarian government and democracy. All government is authoritarian; and the more democratic a government is, the more authoritative it is; for with the people behind it, it can push its authority further than any Tsar or foreign despot dare do." - George Bernhard Shaw, Letter to The New Republic, April 14th., 1937. - Sometimes in his later writings the former anarchist insights of G.B.S. broke through again. - J.Z., 20.7.94.

DEMOCRACY: "I oppose democracy not so much because of my emotional value structure, but rather because I don't think it works; it doesn't deliver the goods as advertised. One problem with it is that it relies on voting, which is fine for small groups, but not much good in mass society. Consider this about voting : '... who would take his best friend, who had come down with a strange disease that defied easy diagnosis, to a gathering of 1,000s, of whom the great majority had no knowledge of medicine, and let them vote on the diagnosis ...? (This example concerns) the welfare of a single person, and yet we should not dream of settling for such methods. Oddly, when the issues at stake affect the welfare and quite literally the lives, the liberties, and the pursuit of happiness of very large numbers of people, millions find no fault with such procedures.'" - From: Without Guilt and Justice, by Kaufmann, 210. - Jim Stumm, TC102 p.28.

DEMOCRACIES & DICTATORSHIPS: "How dictatorial democracies can be - can be judged e.g. by their many statist monopolies, territorial constitutions, laws, jurisdictions, police and prison systems and their military organization. They have sterilized supposedly unfit people and taken children away from their parents and prosecuted or suppressed minorities, deported people or put them into concentration camps, imposed taxes, military servitude, educational servitude, monetary despotism, compulsory licensing, protectionism, regulations etc., long before the modern totalitarians did the same things to us, more comprehensively and ruthlessly. " - J.Z., 9.4.95, 11.5.00.

DEMOCRACIES VS. DICTATORSHIPS: "Are democracies any better than dictatorships in their decision-making monopolies about war and peace, armament and disarmament, their territorial rule, legislation & jurisdiction and policing & their compulsory taxation? If so, then by degrees only. By these features they are also authoritarian, if not totalitarian regimes. " - J.Z., 7.9.98, 12.5.00.

DEMOCRACY & AUTHORITARIANISM: "Democracy is based on the assumption that a million men are wiser than one man. How's that again? I missed something. Autocracy is based on the assumption that one man is wiser than a million men. Let's play that over again too. Who decides? " - Lazarus Long.

DEMOCRACY VS. PANARCHIES: "Democrats want only large, territorial, exclusive and coercive collectives to have the government of their dreams. Panarchists want every individual to have free choice among governments and also among non-governmental societies but in each case only for themselves. " - J.Z., 29.3.89, 31.3.89.

DEMOCRACY VS. EXTERRITORIALITY: "Democracy brought the wrongs and evils of monarchies to millions, allowing each to rule over millions and subjecting each to the vote of millions. Only in voluntary and exterritorially free market relationships and exterritorially autonomous organisations of volunteers can the millions come to rule themselves and their own affairs in their own preferred ways. " - J.Z., 14.11.92, 21.7.94.

DEMOCRACY VS. REPRESENTATION: "Democracy is not a representative form of government. The idea that democracy IS a representative form of government is the biggest political lie since the doctrine of the divine right of monarchs. - Representation is a voluntary relationship between one who is represented and an agent or agency acting as a representative. And individual cannot be conscripted into a representative relationship with an agent. An individual, whose relationship with an alleged 'agent' is voluntary in every way save that this relationship cannot be terminated, is not in a fully voluntary relationship and is thus not represented by the 'agent'" - Philip E. Jacobson, TC116, p.37.

DEMOCRACY, PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY: "Participatory democracy is possible only in small groups. " - David Nicholls, The Pluralist State, 7. - This is true only for territorial organizations with involuntary membership. Exterritorial ones could be large, even world-wide, representative or direct democratic, and consent on or participation in fundamentals would always be implied - as long as voluntary membership remained. - J.Z., 28.2.88, 3.4.89.

DEMOCRACY & STATISM: They call themselves democrats, but they yearn for dictatorship. They call themselves revolutionaries, but they want to make the government omnipotent. They promise the blessings of the Garden of Eden, but they plan to transform the world into a gigantic post office. Every man but one a subordinate clerk in a bureau, what an alluring utopia! What a noble cause to fight for! - Ludwig von Mises, Bureaucracy.

DEMOCRACY & VOTING: "Voting has to be abolished over the affairs of all dissenters - with the abolition of compulsory membership in States. At the same time it has to be greatly extended, to achieve individual and voluntary group contracts with politicians who are freely competing for our sponsorship or custom. In other words, the politicians ought not to be given any powers or privileges over non-consenting victims but only over consenting ones. " - J.Z., 9.1.93, 21.7.94.

DEMOCRACY & VOTING: The right to decide and vote on the own affairs is the most important right. It realises self-government for individuals. The right to vote on the affairs of others, with one vote among millions, is the least important right. It realises "self-government" only for large collectives and their "representatives". And yet what we call "democracy" is exclusively built upon the latter and rather deceptive formality and ritual, under all kinds of false pretences, like "government by consent" and "mandate given by the people". - In fact, through the various stages involved, the "majority rule" becomes "minority despotism": If 2/3 of the people are entitled to vote, 2/3 go to the polls, the elected combine 2/3 of these votes upon themselves and do make all their decisions with 2/3 majorities, then, in fact, only 2/3 x 2/3 x 2/3 x 2/3 = 16/81, i.e., roughly 1/5th of the people are "represented" in these final "majority" decisions, these "landslide victories" of the "democratic process". - Add to this "democratic" tendency the effect of party discipline to enforce the decisions of committees formed by a few members of parliament. - Mostly the victory margins are much smaller, which led one of my boys to declare, many years ago: Why should the 49 rule the 51 or the 51 rule the 49, instead of the 49 ruling the 49 and the 51 ruling the 51? Nevertheless, this simple and rightful alternative is not yet part of the official "political science" and practice. - Why? Because most people are so far only able to think in terms of exclusive territorialism in this respect, although for most practical purposes in their daily lives and decision-making associated with it, they have long discarded it and regard the necessity for doing so to be so self-evident that they never give it a thought. Alas, this does prevent them from applying the principles of their daily actions to the political, economic and social spheres that are still pre-empted by territorial governments. - J.Z., 7.10.02.

DEMOCRACY, MAJORITY RULE, VOTING: Imagine if all of life were determined by majority rule.  Every meal would be a pizza.  Every pair of pants, even those in a Brooks Brothers suit, would be stone-washed denim.  Celebrity diet and exercise books would be the only thing on the shelves at the library.  And - since women are a majority of the population -- we'd all be married to Mel Gibson. - P. J. O'Rourke, in  Parliament of Whores.

DEMOCRACY, VOTING & MAJORITIES: Democracy: 2 wolves and a sheep voting on: "what's for dinner?" ? Sydney Anarchist Quarterly, Autumn 95.

DEMOCRACY, REPUBLICS & MONARCHISM: People think they have taken quite an extraordinarily bold step forward when they have rid themselves of belief in hereditary monarchy and swear by the democratic republic. In reality, however, the state is nothing but a machine for the oppression of one class by another, and indeed in the democratic republic no less than in the monarchy. - Friedrich Engels.

DEMOCRACY, PARTIES, POLITICIANS: Under democracy one party always devotes its chief energies to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule - and both commonly succeed, and are right. - H. L. Mencken.

DEMOCRACY & LEADERS: No one is capable of running many other people's lives better than they could themselves. - Most people find it difficult enough to run their own lives well enough. The supposed great abilities of "leaders" are more fiction than fact. How many of them, for instance, are capable of "running" their own family life happily for many years or decades, far less their own parties? - J.Z., 28.3.94, 22.7.94.

DEMOCRACY & DIVERSITY: " 'Democratic' decision making is a means for finding and implementing the will of the majority; it has no other function. It serves, not to encourage diversity, but to prevent it." - David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, 88.

DEMOCRACY & TAXATION: "Now, stealing is illegal if I put a mask on, poke a gun in a guy's back, and say, 'Stick 'em up!' But if I vote for another fellow (a politician) who promises to take away from the guy and give to me, I am now a democrat. This is LEGAL THEFT and I am no longer a criminal but an honourable citizen. If I get enough people to steal with me, we form a democracy." - Sam Wells, Jr., OPTION, 4/77, pp. 26-27.

DEMOCRACY & TAXATION: "This practice of buying votes with political favors is inherent in political government. It is the weakness of democracy. It is not due so much to the depravity of the politician as to the human hunger for something-for-nothing. - However, this weakness of democracy is only as dangerous as the amount of the citizen's wealth the government has at its disposal. Before 1913 the American government was comparatively poor and political jobbery was correspondingly limited in scope. When the government acquired this power of confiscating the national wealth, the corruption was limited only by the amount that expediency would permit it to confiscate. At this writing the confiscation amounts to one third of the production of the citizenry. That is a lot of 'pork' with which to buy votes." - Chodorov, The Income Tax, 95.

DEMOCRACY & INTERESTS.: "There is no reason whatever to expect that an omnipotent democratic government will always serve the general rather than particular interests (*). Democratic government free to benefit particular groups is bound to be dominated by coalitions of organised interests, rather than serve the general interest in the classical sense of 'common right and justice, excluding all partial or private interests.'" Hayek, ibid, p. 35.- (*) The general interest does not contribute to a party's funds! - J.Z., 20.7.94.


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