In this page are listed and briefly introduced papers on the theme of Territorialism and Aterritorialism. Some of them present cases of non-territorial governance that are quite relevant for panarchy, theoretically and practically.
 Eric B. Schnurer
E-Stonia and the Future of the Cyberstate
Foreign Affairs, January 2015
Virtual Governments Come Online
 Eric Smalis
The Future of Governance is In The Cloud
Foreign Affairs, January 2015
A framework for legal governance in the digital age
 Jason Potts & Trent Mac Donald
The Future of Cities as Non-Territorial Public Goods Clubs
What is the future of cities? We argue there are three-stages in the development logic of cities. First, that over the past millennia or so the raison d’être of cities has changed, shifting from political purposes based on centralisation to commercial trading purposes based on specialisation. Second, because of the first change, city governance becomes increasingly competitive. Coupled with growing mobility of factors and people, this condition gives rise to what economists call ‘Tiebout sorting’ (Tiebout, ‘Pure’) over local public goods. In essence, cities begin to compete for globally mobile factors through offering various bundles of taxes and public goods. Third, the next developmental stage is to remove the territoriality from the public goods, creating non-territorial public goods clubs.
 Janique Dubois,
Beyond Territory : Revisiting the Normative Justification of Self-Government in Theory and Practice
The International Indigenous Policy Journal, Vol. 2
Abstract: "The association of sovereignty with control over territory is being challenged both internally and externally inmodern societies. Demands for political autonomy from sub-state minorities undermine the natural link between nation, state and territory from within, while the movement of capital, goods and information across borders contests the relationship between these concepts from without. Scholars of international relations,law, philosophy and political science have already suggested that the sovereignty of nation-states is underattack; however, scant attention has been paid to the way in which changes in the relation between nation,state, and territory affect the normative weight associated with each of these concepts in discussions aboutsovereignty and self-government. The objectives of this article is to examine the way in which nation, state,sovereignty, and territory are addressed in normative justifications of indigenous self-government and to better understand how these notions are being treated in its implementation."
 Carl Watner
The Territorial Assumption: Rationale for Conquest
Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 22
From the conclusion:
"As we know, most people in the world today have been acculturated to take the state for granted, and they, at most, seek to limit the state within the confines of national boundaries. Most people have never thought about the fact that taxation is theft, nor have they ever questioned the legitimacy of state boundaries. Most of our contemporaries simply assume that the state must exist, “and accept grudgingly or willingly, the enormous impact it has on [their] lives.” Nevertheless, there are still those few siren voices that call the nation-state into question and claim that we can live without it. Some of those people are libertarians, and it is they who identify the territorial assumption as a rationale for conquest."
[February 2010] Jurgen Brauer and Robert Haywood
Non-state Sovereign Entrepreneurs and Non-territorial Sovereign Organizations
We propose two new concepts, of non-state sovereign entrepreneurs and the nonterritorial sovereign organizations they form, and relate them to issues pertaining to state sovereignty, governance failures, and violent social conflict over the appropriation
of the powers that accrue to states in modern international law. The concepts deal with the rise of transboundary non-state actors, as they impinge on and aim to supplement or supersede certain powers of state actors. We provide examples to show that non-state sovereign entrepreneurs and their organizations already exist. We are interested in their potential role in conflict transformation.
[February 2010] Joseph Kopsick, Jurisdictional Aterritorialism: Bastiat vs. Bauer
"One would expect these two thinkers to agree on little, but surprisingly, they developed conceptions of their respective economic systems which were startlingly similar."
[December 2008] Sherrill Stroschein
Making or Breaking Kosovo: The Case for Non-Territorial Autonomy
In this article, I make a case for a dispersed state control model as an alternative to the territorial and hierarchical principles of the Weberian state. Rather than allocating governance powers in terms of territory, dispersed state controls are based on a functional principle, in which governance is allocated to various subunits by issue area or function. This examination is informed by recent debates in international relations theory on contractual and imperial network models of control, as well as work on non-territorial autonomy in the fields of nationalism and ethnic conflict. I examine the practical application of a dispersed control model in the context of the governance structure proposed for Kosovo, which declared independence from Serbia in February 2008. I conclude with an overview of the advantages of creative designs for states that move beyond territory and hierarchy, to deal with complex demographic and governing realities in regions such as the Balkans.
[November 2009] Pál Nyíri
Extraterritoriality, Foreign Concessions: the Past and Future of a Form of Shared Sovereignty
A current look at extraterritoriality as implemented by the Chinese in Asia and in Africa. The author still seems unaware of the larger view of extraterritoriality beyond the state.
 Andreas P. Kyriacou
Functional, Overlapping, Competing, Jurisdictions and Ethnic Conflict Management
By allowing ethnic groups to organize areas important to them regardless of their geographic distribution, functional, overlapping and competing jurisdictions (FOCJ) have an important role to play in the management of ethnic conflict in plural societies.
The application of FOCJ to the area of ethnic conflict management calls for institutional structures which take into account possible problems stemming from the existence of economies of scale in the production of some public goods, the need to maintain ‘competitive equality’ among jurisdictions and the danger that the functional devolution which is inherent to FOCJ may harden group boundaries over time.
 Ali Khan
The Extinction of Nation-States
American University International Law Review, Vol. 7, Issue 2
 John H. Herz
Rise and Demise of the Territorial State