John Zube


Quotes, Notes, Comments & Slogans
for Individual Liberty & Rights
against Popular Statist Errors & Prejudices

Index - U

(2013 - 2014)



ULTIMATUMS: I am unconditionally against ultimatums of any kind in relation between states.” – Sakharov, quoted by Samuel Pisar, Of Blood and Hope, p.175, upon the question: “Did he contemplate a sort of Western ultimatum to the Soviet government – change your system first, and then we’ll talk of coexistence?” – The West should rather have considered coexistence with the captive nations in a form that would give them hope. A.) By proclaiming quite rightful war and peace aims. B) By realizing on its own side all individual rights and liberties, to the extent that they are already recognized and wanted by members of voluntary communities in the West and for themselves. C) By fully recognizing and letting independently exist already, in its sphere of influence, all kinds of governments and societies in exile, all of volunteers only, all only under personal laws and exterritorial autonomy and, with regard to the Soviet Union, they should have been made up mainly out of refugees and deserters who would also try to represent all those likeminded people then still subjected in the USSR, as their own kind of government or society, in the future, once they are quite free to individually chose them for themselves. None of these governments or societies in exile would have recognized the territorial empire of the Soviet Union or any territorial borders in and around that sphere, but they would have also recognized, any kind of communist or other state socialist government in exile, indicating that their concern was not a crusade against communism or State socialism as such, but merely one against the continuing imposition of such systems upon dissenters. - If such alternatives had been set up, practised and proposed in time, the Soviet Union would not have lasted as long as it did. The nuclear strength of the Western Powers did also do very much to prolong that regime. It threatened the victims of the regime and not its rulers. It also clearly indicated that liberation was not the aim of the Western Powers, just like the nuclear Strength of Soviet Russia indicated that “liberation” or what they pretended to be genuine liberation, of the “proletariat” or what they considered to be merely a “proletariat” was not their real aim. - International politics should certainly no longer be the monopoly of territorial governments. They have abused this monopoly all too often for that. – JZ, 14.8.08. The Soviets and other totalitarian communist regimes certainly never made any secret out of their ultimate intention to overthrow what they considered to be an “exploitative capitalist” system in the West and never admitted that their own system was a tyranny and the worst possible form of capitalism, namely state capitalism. – JZ, 17.4.14. - WAR AIMS, PEACE AIMS, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, ALL ONLY FOR VOLUNTEERS, NWT, TOTALITARIANISM, SOVIET REGIME, COMMUNISM, CONFRONTATION WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM ALTERNATIVE FOR ALL SYSTEMS PEACEFULLY PRACTISED BY VOLUNTEERS AMONG THEMSELVES, APPEALS TO & FRATERNIZATION WITH THE SUBJECTS RATHER THAN THEIR VICTIMIZERS, THE RADICAL ALTERNATIVE TO THE COMMUNIST WORLD REVOLUTION: VOLUNTARISM IN EVERY SPHERE, TOLERANCE FOR ALL TOLERANT PEOPLE

UN: A shrill and contentious assembly of pauperized beggar-states united only in the dishonorable determination to extract international alms from more progressive, advanced, self-sustaining and virtuous states. …” – Norman Spinrad, A Thing of Beauty, ANALOG, 1/73. – Are there “virtuous” States? Can there be, on the territorial model, i.e. when they are much larger than a private national company? Perhaps some of the mini-states with tiny territories, may come as close to ideals as territorial States can. But all the others have, as a rule, several dissenting minorities. – Has any libertarian ever made an evaluation and comparison of all the mini-states? - JZ, 8.8.08. – Even private corporations, due to protectionism, patent monopolies, tax concessions and other interventions and privileges, have often already much exceeded their optimum size as free and quite competitive enterprises of volunteers. – JZ, 17.4.14.

UN: and the United Nations Organization becoming more and more the Organization of United Dictatorships.” – T. F. P., Brazil, quoted in NEWS DIGEST INTERNATIONAL, 6/74. – At least in this respect considerable changes have taken place in the meantime. There are many less totalitarian States and dictatorships now. – Only territorial authoritarianism still prevails everywhere. - JZ, 8.8.08.

UN: As an example, a friend of mine, when discussing the United Nations, uses a very effective and humorous analogy. He asks: “What would you think if the Chief of Police in Queensland and his top official sat down with the heads of the biggest organized crime syndicate in the state to discuss crime and law enforcement?” After they all got together, the Chief of Police stated: “Some of you people are robbing banks all over the place. … let’s go out and get them” – And the crime syndicate leaders looked up, smiled and vetoed.” – Simply stated, that is the United Nations! – QUO VADIS, July 78. - JOKES

UN: By our membership in the UN we are lending support, credibility and even financial support to what is rapidly becoming an assembly of murderers.” – Marshall Bruce Evoy, “The United Nations: Forum for Murderers.” - LIBERTARIAN OPTION, 1/75. – At least now the murderers seem to be in the minority there. – JZ, 8.8.08.

UN: Established to prevent wars, yet since its inception, has witnessed 234 wars between 1945 and 2012. - Nizam Ahmad shared Capitalism's photo. - Capitalism - The Angel Clark Show – Facebook, 5.2.13.

UN: Five years ago the organization of the United Nations was ushered into the world as the guarantor of peace. It has failed. Despite that obvious fact, there are many whose faith in some sort of a super-state as an instrument of peace is unshaken, and who lay the failure of the UN to the limitations put upon it by the autonomy of its members. That is to say, they believe in peace through authoritarianism; the more authoritarianism, the more peace. - History cannot give this faith the slightest support. The glory that was Rome did not prevent its parts from coming into conflict with one another, or from rising up against the central authority. Even our American coalition of commonwealths came near breaking up in a war, and uprisings have all but disintegrated the British Empire. Centralization of power has never been a guarantor of peace. On the contrary, every such centralization has been accomplished by war and its career has been one long preoccupation with war. – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.120. – CENTRALIZATION, PEACE, POWER,

UN: I do not sanction the grotesque pretense of an organization allegedly devoted to world peace and human rights, which includes Soviet Russia, the worst aggressor and bloodiest butcher in history, as one of its members. (*) The notion of protecting rights, with Soviet Russia among the protectors, is an insult to the concept of rights and to the intelligence of any man who is asked to endorse or sanction such an organization.” – Ayn Rand, in PLAYBOY interview. Date? - (*) Red China may by now have killed even more innocents, especially if one includes its compulsory abortions. – JZ, 8.8.08, RUSSIA, SOVIET REGIME, CHINA, AYN RAND

UN: if all the diplomats were kicked out, the U.N. could be turned into the finest bordello in the world and do just as much, if not more, for international harmony.” - F. Paul Wilson, The Tomb, 1984, 1985, New English Library, p.221/22. - & DIPLOMATS, JOKES, UNITED NATIONS, JOKES

UN: its absurd Declaration of Human Rights is proof of its untrustworthiness to wield supreme authority’. – Edmund A. Opitz, quoting Robert V. Andelson, in THE FREEMAN, Aug. 72. – DECLARATION OF ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE UN’S “UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS”.

UN: mankind’s greatest fraud – the United Nations.” – Frank Chodorov, One Is A Crowd, p.130.

UN: more than 150 wars have been fought since 1945.” – Rosalie Bertell, No Immediate Danger. Prognosis for a Radioactive Earth, The Women’s Press, 1985, p.337. - So “effective” has the UN been as a peace promoter! - As “united” they have been by it. – JZ, 30.6.13. No wonder, it represented territorial governments rather than peoples and populations in all their varieties. It never advocated exterritorial secessionism for individuals and minorities or full monetary and financial freedom or condemned collective responsibility and has largely misunderstood individual rights and liberties and does not know or recognized important ones of them at all, no more so than territorial governments do. According to another source, I do not remember, in any year since 1945 always between 30 to 90 wars have been going on, somewhere. – JZ, 29.9.07. - & WAR & PEACE, SECESSIONISM, PANARCHISM

UN: That the Security Council should be as powerless as the United Nations of which it is part is wholly consistent with the theories, which gave birth to them both. That nations, which are manifestly unable to govern themselves individually – many having acquired nationhood since the day before yesterday – should be credited with the ability to govern all nations collectively, including those with centuries of tradition and cohesion behind them, is the final absurdity. – Kenneth McDonald, THE FREEMAN, 1/78: “Who Guards the Guardians?” – They are all basically wrong and irrational by being territorial regimes, usually with several more or less suppressed or outvoted minorities. If all the “nations” represented there were merely communities and societies of volunteers, all only exterritorially autonomous, it would be quite another matter. Then all of them would have some fundamental interests in common. – JZ, 8.8.08.

UN: The drive to transfer power from the individual to the state – indeed to render the individual powerless – finds its natural extension in the transfer of power from individual nations to the international body which foreshadows the world state.” - Kenneth McDonald, THE FREEMAN, 1/78: - “Who Guards the Guardians?”

UN: The motive force can be ascribed to two distinct impulses. First is the natural tendency of the state to dissolve its responsibility in committees. The drive to escape responsibility, so seek the shelter of a consensus, at all costs to be fireproof, is the inevitable corollary or social theories which hold that no one is to blame for anything.” – Kenneth McDonald, THE FREEMAN, 1/78. – COMMITTEES, RESPONSIBILITY, GOVERNMENTALISM, STATISM, POLITICIANS

UN: The problem with supernational global service organizations, whether they are educational or economic, is that they represent the ultimate form of imperialism; for whoever dominates the technology of the organization is in a position to impose their values upon the rest of the world – whether they mean to or not. And the cultural consequences of the imposition of one society’s values upon a very different culture are invariably unpleasant, not only for the society, but for the world.” – Paul Walker, GALAXY, 39/3, p.132. - supranational?

UN: The Secretary of State put his finger on the fundamental absurdity of the United Nations as at present constituted. We have set up an organization for the alleged purpose of preventing war and aggression, and we have included in its inner command the power that is carrying on perpetual war and aggression. We have put the top criminal on the Police Commission.” – Louis Bromfield, A New Pattern for a Tired World, quoted in THE FREEMAN.

UN: The UN – it is moonshine to think otherwise – consists of two hostile camps, one held together by the American dollar, the other by fear of the Soviet army. Neither law, morality, nor ideology is a cementing influence….” – Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.121. – All of them then and now have one thing in common, namely, they do all represent territorial and all too statist governments – and not their involuntary subjects, more or less victimized or outvoted. Under voluntarism there might be several international federations, all only with voluntary members and none claiming to represent all the people of this world. – JZ, 303.6.13. - INTERNATIONALS

UN: The UN is already too much of a world government or world federation. – JZ, 1.12.12. – Only as a freely competing society of volunteers could it be rightful. Its “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” is all too incomplete and full of flawed and false claims, which are no genuine rights. However, it is good enough for its remaining voluntary victims. – JZ. 2.12.12. – WORLD GOVERNMENT, WORLD-FEDERATION, TERRITORIALISM OR VOLUNTARISM?

UN: The UN so far represents merely territorial governments, not even territorial populations. It and other territorial internationalists attempt to impose a form of world-wide federalism upon all populations. It does not have a single voluntary subject or member, except its own employees and the representatives of the territorial States appointed to represent them there. Entry to and exist from it takes place only through the decisions of territorial governments. It does not envision and propose competition with itself by other international bodies, representative ones or appointed ones. In none of its attempted solutions has it, to my knowledge, deviated from the territorial model or even ever discussed the exterritorial and voluntary alternatives to it. Even many small territorial governments are still more powerful than it is and despotic ones tend to ignore its and its resolutions altogether. Its “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” of Dec. 10, 1948 is one of the worst ones in existence. It is statist and largely state socialistic and excludes man important individual and especially economic rights. Nevertheless, it has not yet been sufficiently and publicly criticized and publicly confronted with any of the better drafts of genuine individual rights and liberties. That would have been a job especially for libertarians and anarchists – but they, too, have neglected it for decades. (*) Its army consists merely of detachments of military forces of territorial States and these all too often behaved badly or were prevented from offering significant protection if they could have and would have wanted to. The UN, after trying to define aggression for about 5 years finally gave up. I do not know whether that attempt has been taken up again in recent years. Only one aspect of it interests me: It has its headquarters in N.Y.C. – and there it has an exterritorial status. – JZ, 6.7.04, 24.3.09. – (*) My collection of over 130 PRIVATE human rights drafts, online as part of a disc reproduced at – received hardly any response. I find that scandalous for the anarchist and libertarian movements, apparently largely consisting of stagnant pools of such sectarians. – JZ, 17.4.14.

UN: The UN, as it has evolved, has become the happy hunting ground of all the two-bit bully boys who talk about liberty and use stolen property to bolster their one-party regimes.” – John Chamberlain, THE FREEMAN, 11/74.

UN: the United Nations is rather like a Society for the Protection of Women, where the local rapist has power of veto.” – Editorial, FREE MARKET No. 6, March 80. - JOKES

UN: These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.” – UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 29(3). - Are the organization, principles, aims and methods of the UN quite rightful, so rightful in their wrongness, that even freedom of expression, information, association and assembly might be thus "rightfully" suppressed by such a world government institution? Its very name is already a misnomer. It "united" at best and temporarily only some governments, not their victims, the diverse peoples in every country. It does not include exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers. Its "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" of 10.12.1948 is one of the worst that governments have ever produced and contains more non-rights or mere claims than genuine rights and liberties - and does not even mention all too many real rights and liberties and greatly restricts others to the prejudices or whims of governments and their legislators. - JZ, 22. 11. 06. - UNITED NATIONS

UN: This is why the UN is dangerous. When power and prestige are given to men and nations whose only moral directive is the rule of the knife and the gun, then no nations is safe. Others will follow their example, and the world will slide into chaos.” – Marshall Bruce Evoy, LIBERTARIAN OPTION, 1/75. – He underestimated the attractiveness of the better territorial States. – JZ, 8.8.08. – Majority-despotic democracies are still spreading in the world and even with their all too much limited rights and liberties for their subjects, with their fragments of economic liberties, they attract floods of illegal immigrants and thus, largely with popular support by their under-informed subjects, established xyz immigration barriers against them, including internment camps or concentration camps, due to the usual inability of governments to provide more jobs for millions able and willing to work productively. – JZ, 17.4.14.

UN: To suppose that, by seconding them to the United Nations, national bureaucrats acquire qualities superior to those of their fellows at home, is one of the first in a chain of assumptions. If experience leads us to doubt the validity of the domestic assumption – that all wisdom resides in the state and, by implication, in its servants – the sheer impertinence of the international assumption may well leave us breathless.” - Kenneth McDonald, THE FREEMAN, 1/78: “Who Guards the Guardians?”

UN: Un – A prefix used to intensify a negative. - See United Nations. - Joke reported by David Pedlingham. – At most it represents disunited territorial governments in a debating club. – The people, the majorities, far less are dissenting minorities, are not represented in it. - JZ, 25.10.08. - JOKES

UN: Well, can you trust a nation in the U.N. any better than out?“ – Robert Frost, to Untermeyer, Robert Frost, Life and Talks, Walking, p.397, in 1957. – The U.N. never united “nations” but at best their territorial governments. Moreover, it did not “unite” these governments, either, put merely put representatives of them into one permanent discussion or debating club. – JZ, 8.8.08.

UN: What has the organization ever been except a place where old men insult one another?” – Alfred Coppell, Thirtyfour East, p. 315.

UNANIMITY: Only unanimous action can be properly described as “social action”, since we are all members of society and of the “organism”. The moment unanimity ceases and conflict arises the ‘organism” disappears and none of the conflicting groups can with propriety claim to represent ‘society’.” – Victor Yarros, LIBERTY, March 7, 1896. - PARTIES, SCHISMS, FACTIONS, TERRITORIALISM, UNITY, REPRESENTATION, POLITICS, VOLUNTARISM, CONSENT, MANDATE, INDIVIDUALISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, SOCIETY, ORGANISM, “SOCIAL ACTION”

UNANIMITY: The key feature of the indigenous African political system was unanimity. Majority opinion did not count in the council of elders. This explains the African penchant for debating, sometimes for days, to reach unanimity. The primary reason for unanimity was survival. If a head of a lineage was irreconcilably opposed to a measure, he could leave the village with his lineage to settle elsewhere. This, of course, was a frequent occurrence in African political history, as evidenced by migrations of families and even whole tribes. To prevent such break-ups of the tribe, unity of purpose was always advanced.” – George B.N. Ayittey, Africa Betrayed, St. Martin’s Press, A Cato Institute Book, 1992, p. 41. - This raises the question: Why was it that progress was, nevertheless, so slow in Africa? Ignorance and prejudices prevailed there almost everywhere, far longer and more extensively than in Europe. One part-answer might be: Territorialism was continued and emigration cannot sufficiently counter-act it when there are no longer any useful unoccupied territories left. – JZ, 29.9.07. - UNITY & SECESSIONISM IN AFRICA, MAJORITY DESPOTISM, AFRICA, SCHISMS, UNANIMITY

UNANIMITY: Unanimity, n. Completely concealed disagreement.” – L. A. Rollins, Lucifer’s Lexicon, p. 125. – JOKES

UNANIMOUS CONSENT: As I tried to show in “The Venus Belt”, people live their everyday lives by Unanimous Consent. Yet I found that the process is so natural that it’s transparent – invisible – in fiction unless you focus on its most political (and therefore least natural) aspects.” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.80. - & PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW

UNANIMOUS CONSENT: Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness – That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the … Unanimous … Consent of the Governed.” - “The unanimous consent of the governed”. Back home, consent usually means the result of an election. One side wins, the other loses.” – “And a lot of other sides, … don’t get any hearing at all. Of the minority eligible, only a few actually vote, especially the way they would if they had a completely free choice of candidates or issues – things that never get on the ballot, somehow. And of those few, only slightly over half will win. The real majority always loses. Consent of the governed? Confederate delegates represent themselves and only those others who publicly and explicitly give them permission to do so.” – L. Neil Smith, The Probability Broach, p.262. A Del Rey Book, 1980, published by Ballantine Books. - PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOTING, ELECTIONS, TERRITORIAL POLITICS VS. VOLUNTARISM & INDIVIDUAL CHOICE

UNANIMOUS CONSENT: Some folks have an impression that, under Unanimous Consent, nobody does anything without everybody else’s permission. On the contrary, no group does anything without the Unanimous Consent of its members, which is a different thing, indeed.” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.79. - Well, on minor matters of choice, like clothing, reading matter, food, entertainment, etc. for the day or hour, in most voluntary communities, otherwise uniform, people will still have individual choices rather than being under the commands of their collective. – Even most totalitarian regimes did not quite abolish such choices. – Different communities will concede to their members different bills of rights and different degrees of rights – if any, except the absolute and uniform right to secede from all of them. - JZ, 27.9.07. - PANARCHISM & POLYARCHISM

UNANIMOUS CONSENT: Under the most absurd political handicaps, the Unanimous Consent system produces and distributes goods and services more broadly, more efficiently, and much more cheaply than any other economic system in human experience, giving us the highest standard of living anywhere in history, anywhere on Earth.” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.80. - As if it were already fully realized anywhere on Earth! Under the most absurd political, statist and territorial handicaps it is, obviously, not allowed to operate quite freely, note ven in the best democratic States. Moreover, almost unanimous consent can be achieved, on some subjects, although only temporarily, or for long periods, e.g. even among monarchists. Compare the popularity of protectionism, central banking, governmental provision of road, statism, territorialism. State socialists, religious fanatics etc. achieve it to a large extent and among them it usually does not produce a high standard of living but, instead, much poverty and misery. – Quite different unanimous consent systems should be allowed to compete freely, all only for their own volunteers, whatever ideology etc. they do have in common. – At least here LNS failed to realize unanimous consent outside the economic free market system and failed to realized it for a free market for non-territorial alternative economic, social and political systems. – His ideal and mine are certainly not yet the ideal of the majority of human beings. – So why should they be territorially forced upon them? Naturally, we should not be forced to submit to any other territorial and statist system, either. - JZ, 27.9.07, 17.4.14. - & PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, CHOICE, VOLUNTARISM, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY

UNAWARE: If you are unaware, you are unaware of being unaware.” – Merrill Jenkins. – RED.

UNBELIEVER: One who believes in an opposite direction.” – L. L. Levinson, Webster’s Unafraid Dictionary.

UNCERTAINTY: It is not certain that everything is uncertain.” - Blaise Pascal – What other result do you expect when you add 2 to 2 or multiply 2 by 2? – JZ, 8.8.08.

UNCLE SAM: Instead of Uncle Sam as a government symbol, it should be a clown riding a dinosaur.” – Stormy Mon, Imagine Freedom, No.10. – TERRITORIALISM, JOKES

UNCLE SAM: Sam’s your uncle, not your mother or father.” – Tibor Machan, Liberty & Culture, p. 155. … It has its place, as a referee, but not as a supervisor, inspector, regimentator. Uncle Sam is not Father or Mother Sam! - T. M., ibid, p.157. – LIMITED GOVERNMENT VS. WELFARE STATE

UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER: A condition which will not be complete until everybody is a corpse.” – Adous Huxley. – And yet, last century, some of the most civilized States in the world still demanded it and did not distinguish between the unconditional surrender of a totalitarian State and that of the majority of the population dominated and exploited and abused by it. – A separate peace treaty should always be offered to all the diverse groups of the oppressed, optimally via panarchistic governments in exile. - JZ, 9.8.08. – NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, SCORCHED EARTH POLICY, AIR RAIDS AGAINST CIVILIANS, TOTAL WAR, FIRE-STORM BOMBING, RIGHTFUL WAR- & PEACE AIMS, FRATERNIZATION, SEPARATE PEACE TREATIES, LIBERATION

UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER: Even here, he thought, the old, old evil: surrender your beliefs or surrender your life.” - Brian Daley, RON, based on a screenplay by Steven Lisberger, story by Steven Lisberger & Bonnie MacBird, A Futuristic Adventure Motion Picture from Walt Disney Productions, page 68. – These two choices are largely identical. – JZ, 12.9.07. - DESPOTISM, INTOLERANCE, TOTALITARIANISM, TERRITORIALISM, ENFORCED OBEDIENCE, SUBORDINATION, COERCION, THREATS, DOMINATION, IMPERIALISM

UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER: Unconditional Surrender’ shackled victors and vanquished alike.” – John Terraine, in review of: Rudolph Bohmier, Monte Cassino, tr. by R. H. Stevens, Cassell, 314 pages, in THE AUSTRALIAN, 17.9.64. – WAR AIMS, UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER DEMANDS, TERRITORIALISM, NWT

UNDER-GOVERNED: There is no such thing as being under-governed. All countries are over-governed, at least territorially. All countries have territorial governments and that, in itself, means already that they are over-governed. There is no such thing as a rightful degree of territorial government, good government, mini-government or limited government. Only communities of volunteers, under personal laws and exterritorial autonomy can have rightful governments – of whatever kind they may be, or can form communities or societies that are right for their voluntary members, at their stage of development and enlightenment. – JZ, 5.1.75, 2/75, 14.8.08, 28.3.11. – LIMITED GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, OVER-GOVERNED

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: Actually, even the presently most developed countries are, at least in some respects, still underdeveloped. E.g., they still suffer from taxation, monetary despotism, territorialism, and bureaucracies and an excess of laws and regulations – and political interferences. – The USA is a good example for this. - JZ, 9.8.08. – How short could be the period become between severe under-development to of the present type or limits under full the full freedom options of personal law, exterritorial autonomy for volunteers? We do not know for sure, because we never had this chance as yet. All the economic “wonders” of history still happened under all too many economic or anti-economic and other restrictions, - JZ, 17.4.14. -  DEVELOPMENT, FOREIGN AID, LIBERATION, REVOLUTION, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, ECONOIMIC WONDERS, DEVELOPMENT SPEED

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: Foreign aid might be defined as a transfer from poor people in rich countries to rich people in poor countries.” - Douglas Casey

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: It is irrational to prohibit activities considered desirable on ground that because they are desirable the government ought to provide them.” – Manuel F. Ayou, The Ideology of Underdevelopment, THE FREEMAN, 10/78. – STATISM, GOVERNMENTALISM, AUTHORITARIANISM

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: Many backward nations (*), whose greatest need is food to feed their people, sell their crops and bankrupt themselves to buy – not food – but advanced military hardware for the purpose of defending themselves against their equally backward neighbors, who are doing the same thing.” – John Gall, Systemantics, p.16. - And supposedly good and civilized governments sell them such weapons for this purpose! – Gall states also some panarchistic views in this book, in a unique terminology. – (*) territorial governments! – JZ, 9.8.08. – DEFENCE, MILITARY SECURITY, ARMS RACE, FOREIGN AID, CHARITY, GOOD GOVERNMENT OR NO GOVERNMENT? PANARCHISM, JOHN GALL

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: nine-tenths of the trouble in the poor countries springs from bad or corrupt government. Denmark has become a prosperous country on a small land that was mostly sand, and she asked for no charity.” – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 10/75. – POOR COUNTRIES, POOR PRIMARILY IN FREEDOM, FOREIGN AID, DEVELOPMENT

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: The developed world has about 3 soldiers for every doctor, the underdeveloped world ca. 8 soldiers for every doctor.” – Beyond 2000, 9.6.92. – The underdeveloped countries are especially underdeveloped regarding individual rights and liberties. Not that the developed countries, i.e., the somewhat developed countries, set shiny examples in this respect, either. – JZ, 14.8.08.

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: The Frontier Is Freedom. – Certainly, the backwardness of many an underdeveloped nation today is related to the fact that the enterprising individual is stigmatized and ruined by his neighbors and the local officials. To have lived in some remote “native” village long enough to know how their social curbs on progress operate is to understand why the best laid plans of economic development schemes have a way of failing utterly.” – Edward P. Coleson, THE FREEMAN, 3/76. – The innovators ought to be given the chance to become exterritorially autonomous. – JZ, 9.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: The most thoroughly rural countries exhibit the most unproductive agriculture.” – Vincent H. Miller, OPTION, 2/77. – FARM POLICIES, PRICE CONTROLS, AGRICULTURE

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: the underdeveloped (translation … over-controlled) nations.” – Skye D’Aureous, LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 31.3.73.

UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: underdeveloped countries need good government rather than charity.” – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, Dec. 77. – Towards the end of his life, he died in 1978, H. M. seems to have sometimes forgotten his anarchism. He never accepted panarchism. I would rather reword this to: Underdeveloped countries need no government, but free trade, free migration, free investments, free banking, at least for volunteers, but not any territorial government, no matter how good it is supposed to be, or any charity or foreign aid. – JZ, 6/82, 9.8.08. - When THE SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER of 9/78 quoted this remark by Meulen, I commented: No government rather than bad or even good government and charity. – JZ, 8.6.82. – No territorial government but competing governance, personal law, exterritorial autonomy for volunteers or panarchism or polyarchism etc. instead. – JZ, 17.4.14.

UNDERDOG: Excessive concern with the so-called underdog has not given every underdog equal rights and equal liberties but, rather, has turned everyone more or less into an underdog – at least for some others. – JZ, 29.7.86. –  Under territorialism the top-dogs tend to be the top criminals. – JZ, 17.4.14. - SUBJECTS, RULERS, POLITICIANS, GOVERNMENTALISM, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM OF THE OFFICIALLY ORGANIZED CRIME SYNDICATES, PEOPLE AS PROPERTY

UNDERDOG: I rather work for the benefit of those who are morally and intellectually above average than those who are below. (Apart, naturally, from looking after my children and grandchildren, as long as they still need it.) This world is not yet sufficiently organized in favor of the former or to give them an equal chance but, rather, victimizes them all too much and all too often, as a result of all too popular errors, myths and prejudices. This does not only happen in totalitarian States. Instead of the superior people becoming leaders or initiators with voluntary followers only, they tend to become suppressed or ignored, while popular errors, myths and prejudices become territorially and legally institutionalized and the worst kinds of people get to the top, even in democracies. (See Hayek, “The Road to Serfdom” on that.). Precisely by the many, who are concerned about the “underdogs”, under all kinds of false premises and conclusions, e.g. class warfare notions, it is the superior people who are actually treated as underdogs and exploited, e.g. by progressive taxation, which largely destroys capital that otherwise would have greatly benefited especially the poor, if only it had been left in the hands of productive capitalists. Those trying to help the supposed underdogs do this, as a rule, by statist measures, which, as a rule, are wrongful and monopolistic, preventing self-help, and do all-over, more harm to the supposed underdogs than they benefit them, simply because they suppress their individual rights and liberties. – One of the best essays on this subject is: W. G. Sumner, The Forgotten Man and other Essays, 1918. – JZ, 26.9.08, 14.8.08, 28.3.11. - CONCERN FOR UNDERDOGS, SOCIAL JUSTICE, FAIRNESS, WAR AGAINST POVERTY: A WAR AGAINST THE POOR, EGALITARIANISM, IDEAS ARCHIVE, TALENT CENTRE, TERRITORIALISM, WELFARE STATE

UNDERDOG: I’m for the upper dog.” – Miller Upton, quoted in THE FREEMAN, 3/73.

UNDERDOG: That the independent and creative should be made to feel guilty, as if they were the parasites, with the dependent and the passive lauded as the salt of the earth – such a reversal of values is the mark of a society with a death wish.” – Peregrine Worsthorne, in a recent article in HARPER’S MAGAZINE, quoted in THE FREEMAN, “Ideas on Liberty”. - POVERTY, NEEDY, UNDERPRIVILEGED

UNDERGROUND ECONOMY: Agorism is the view that, regardless of whether or not it is sanctioned by the State, free trade conducted morally is still moral. Crack dealers, midwives, porn pushers, truckers using CB to outrun Smokey, coyotes, and tax evaders are to be regarded as truly free-market business-persons and moralists; law- and regulation-abiding types are seen as wimps; and tax-subsidized, loan-guaranteed corporate heads are seen as a bunch of fascists.” - J. Neil Schulman, Alongside Night, p.238. - Can there be a moral and rational free trade with mass extermination devices? - JZ, 22.1.02. - BLACK MARKET, AGORISM, FREE MARKET, FREE EXCHANGE, SMUGGLING

UNDERGROUND ECONOMY: Can the Underground Economy Save Europe? - - I would much prefer its rapid replacement by free markets, in every sphere, at least among all those, who do prefer them for themselves. No black market is a sufficient substitute for a free market. One can still somewhat move even while in chains, but not sufficiently. – JZ, 25.11.11, on Facebook. – For instance, they do not have sufficiently publicity, jurisdiction facilities and quality controls. – JZ, 17.4.14.– BLACK MARKETS OR QUITE FREE MARKETS?

UNDERGROUND ECONOMY: Prior to the Revolutionary War, colonial “America was a vast, uncharted wilderness beyond he reach of most politicians and tax collectors.” Everyone there realized “it was too big and too far away for” British laws to be enforced there. “In short, America was a huge underground economy.” - Rick Maybury, WHAT WOULD THOMAS JEFFERSON THINK OF THIS? (1994), p.93. -– BLACK MARKET, FREE MARKET

UNDERLINGS: The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, // But in ourselves, that we are underlings.” – Shakespeare in his “Caesar”? Source not noted. - STATISM, SUBORDINATION, GOVERNMENTALISM, TERRITORIALISM

UNDERPRIVILEGED: The grotesque term “underprivileged” … is invariably a call for MORE political privilege.” – Pyrrho, THE CONNECTION 121, p.46. – Are all libertarians and all anarchists sufficiently interconnected as yet, through the Internet or does much remain to be done to achieve that and to save oneself the labor, costs and time to browse through thousands, if not tens of thousands of websites, with insufficient help from xyz still flawed automatic search engines? – Thousands to millions of different links lists are not good enough while there is not also a common one, with a sufficient description for each website. - JZ, 14.8.08, 28.3.11. – Not only a comprehensive digital libertarian library on a single powerful disc is missing but also xyz reference works, abstracts, reviews, indexes and bibliographies, an ideas archive, a refutations encyclopedia, a list of all ongoing libertarian projects. – JZ, 17.4.14. – NEW DRAFT

UNDERPRIVILEGED: The really “underprivileged” people in the Welfare State are the productive people. – JZ, 24.9.76. - WELFARE STATE, BUSINESSMEN, TAXPAYERS, SUBJECTS OF AVALANCHES OF COUNTERPRODUCTIVE & WRONGFUL LEGISLATION

UNDERSTANDING: All experience seems to testify that when ignorance clashes with ignorance the sparks will fly and breed ill will, animosity. But when understanding and clear exposition are administered to ignorance, affection and esteem tend to flower.” (*) – Leonard E. Read, Elements of Libertarian Leadership, p.139. - (*) - All the more, when the less the ignorant are “administered”, top-down but can, instead, engage freely in their own experiments, always only at their own expense and risk and that of their voluntary associates. - JZ, n.d. - IGNORANCE, ARGUMENTS, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, SELF-HELPF, THINKING, LOGIC, WORDINGS, RED., LANGUAGE, REASONING

UNDERSTANDING: Among all the incisive material in “A Time for Truth”, there is one statement by Simon that continually flashes before me: “I am confident that the American people would demand massive reforms, if they understood the situation.” - Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.22. – STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, LAISSEZ FAIRE, CAPITALISM, FREE ECONOMY, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, MONETARY & FINANCIAL SITUATION, NWT, DEFENCE

UNDERSTANDING: Anything you don’t understand is dangerous until you do.” – Larry Niven, Flatlander. – KNOWLEDGE, IGNORANCE, DANGER

UNDERSTANDING: Are you thinking it is too late for understanding instead of destroying?” - Deborah Wheeler, Jaydium, p.331. - It is not merely a choice between two terms or two actions. Understanding what? E.g. territorialism, monetary despotism and taxation as factors promoting wars and exterritorial autonomy, monetary freedom and voluntary taxation as factors making for peace? In my ABC Against Nuclear War I listed and described shortly 500 factors that are involved, in causing wars and preventing peace, which are certainly not all of them. And this book was and still is a record non-seller. Who shows the interest to really understand all these factors, rather than leaving them to the supposed experts? – JZ, 16.9.07. - & WAR - - NWT, EXPERTS, POLITICIANS

UNDERSTANDING: as John Stuart Mill said, you cannot understand your position until you have argued it with someone who does not agree.” – Jerry Pournelle & Jim Baen, in introduction to Dean Ing, Evileye, in FAR FRONTIERS, Vol. II, Summer 1985, p.160. - & DISCUSSION WITH AN OPPONENT

UNDERSTANDING: Before you criticize people, you should walk a mile in their shoes. That way, when you criticize them, you've got a mile-long head start. And you have their shoes.The Lion – Try to comprehend or at least to tolerate the point of view of others, as long as they confine it to their own affairs. – JZ, 6.4.12. - UNDERSTAND BEFORE YOU CRITICIZE, JOKES

UNDERSTANDING: But one’s obligation to hate, and even one’s avenging instinct, were being weakened by understanding. Inability to understand was the most important ingredient of hate. Did they say hatred obscured understanding? No; it was understanding that obscured hatred. …” - Hans Habe, Off Limits, The Year 1945, p.130. – It was a conventional territorial democracy, with all its usual remaining flaws, that made the Hitler Regime possible. But the latter maintained itself only through internal terrorization of the whole population. – Its foreign enemies overlooked that and thus counter-attacked the whole German population, as if it had consisted only out of convinced Nazis. – Those, who had managed to escape this regime should have convinced them otherwise. But these refugees were interned, instead, as enemy subjects! - JZ, 9.8.08. - Moreover, all too many of them were still only territorialists and among them, many still subscribed to collective responsibility notions and hardly anyone of them knew and appreciated all monetary and financial freedom options, the panarchist and alternative defence, liberation, revolution, and military insurrection alternatives. - JZ, 28.3.11, 17.4.14. - HATRED, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY NOTIONS, TERRITORIALISM, DEFENCE, LIBERATION

UNDERSTANDING: Do you not know, my son, with what little understanding the world is ruled? - Julius III, to a Portuguese monk who sympathized with the Pope's burdens.” - STATE, IGNORANCE, BUREAUCRACY, POLITICIANS, RULERS, LEADERSHIP, KNOWLEDGE, RULERS, TERRITORIALISM, IGNORANCE, PREJUDICE

UNDERSTANDING: Each hears only that which he understands.” - Goethe, “Sprueche in Prosa”, JZ tr. of: “Es hoert doch Jeder nur, was er versteht.” - HEARING, LISTENING, AUDIENCES, PUPILS, STUDENTS, FOLLOWERS, RED., READING

UNDERSTANDING: Even so, I have faith that the vast majority of the American people want liberty and are willing to accept the personal responsibility which liberty requires. I believe that the only requirement for the return to liberty is an understanding what it is. I believe that we will understand it and that we will then return to it.” – Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, p.36. – The former liberty was not complete. Thus more than a return to it is required. For instance: Full monetary and financial freedom and full exterritorial autonomy for volunteers of all kinds. Also a complete declaration of all individual rights and liberties  and a suitable militia for their protection. – JZ, 9.8.08, 17.4.14. – Whatever kind of paradise is possible for human beings does not lie in our past but in our future  - if we still have then, i.e., if we do not let our errors and territorial institutions destroy us. - JZ, 28.3.11. - NWT, PEOPLE, ENLIGHTENMENT, LIBERTY, NWT

UNDERSTANDING: Every understanding is the identification of something that is not alike.” – Nietzsche. (“Jedes Erkenntnis ist ein Identifizieren des Nichtgleichen.”)

UNDERSTANDING: For I am sure that when a person understands freedom, he must believe in it.” – Ben Moreell, THE FREEMAN, 4/75. – Even if he does not understand it, he has the right to make his own mistakes - at the own expense and risk. - JZ, 28.3.11. - FREEDOM

UNDERSTANDING: If a great man has said something seemingly illogical laugh not at it, but try to understand it.” – Barakat, 19b, in “The Wisdom of Israel”, ed. by Lewis Browne. – Men recognized as great are rarely laughed at, although people do not always understand them. It is much more difficult to listen carefully to obscure people who have something different but worthwhile to say, something that is moral, rational, consistent and factual and, perhaps, even very important. – JZ, 25.6.92, 14.8.08. – On the other hand: Who of the supposedly great men was really great when it comes to knowing and respecting all individual rights and liberties? How many of them were merely the better kinds of territorial statists? How many of them were e.g. personal law advocates and advocates of full monetary and financial freedom? – JZ, 30.6.13, 17,4.14. - RED., RIDICULE, IDEAS ARCHIVE, TALENT CENTRE, PREJUDICES, GREATNESS, LEADERSHIP, RULERS

UNDERSTANDING: Ignorance enslaves. Understanding frees the individual.” – Leonard E. Read, Legacy of Truth.

UNDERSTANDING: It is a luxury to be understood.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803-1882. – Compare: “To be appreciated only by a few belongs to my value.” – Laotse. – Also: “Communication takes place only between equals.” – Often quoted by Bob Cowin, Wollongong.

UNDERSTANDING: Less Knowledge, more Understanding!” – John Henry Mackay, Abrechnung, S. 31. (“Weniger Wissen, mehr Erkennen!”) – Or: “Less knowledge, more judgment!”? – JZ, n.d. – Or: Less false pretenses of knowledge! – JZ, 17.4.14.

UNDERSTANDING: most men and women, once they understand the facts, will act in good faith.” – Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.328. –  HONESTY, FACTS, KNOWLEDGE, IGNORANCE, HONESTY, GOOD FAITH

UNDERSTANDING: Nothing in life is to be fared. It is only to be understood.” – Marie Curie, quoted in READER’S DIGEST, 1/77. – I fear e.g. nuclear war, totalitarianism, cancer, death and central banking, nevertheless! – JZ, 9.8.08. – My understanding is sufficient for that! - JZ, 28.3.11. - FEAR, PREVENTION OR ABOLITION

UNDERSTANDING: One has only to read the daily newspapers to recognize the learned inability to understand which has become the feature of the madness in Western nations.” - John C. Grover, The Hellmakers, Veritas Publishing Co., PO Box 42, Cranbrook, WA 6321, 1993, p.282. - RATHER THAN LEARNING, SCHOLARSHIP, LACK OF JUDGMENT, PREJUDICES, ERRORS, MYTHS, DOGMATISM, MASS MEDIA, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, PREJUDICES

UNDERSTANDING: Our understanding of the world is achieved more effectively by conceptual improvements than by discovery of new facts...” - Ernst Mayr. - COMPREHENSION, JUDGMENT, CREATIVITY, IDEAS VS. THE MERE ACCUMULATION OF FACTS, DEFINITIONS, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DEFINITIONS

UNDERSTANDING: Sometimes you might try understanding the things you want to suppress. I have been assured that it works wonders.” – Poul Anderson, Orbit Unlimited, p.10. - RED., COMPREHENSION VS. SUPPRESSION, REPRESSION, PROHIBITIONS, PUNISHMENTS, COMPULSION, COERCION

UNDERSTANDING: The educated man is mature. His maturity is based on articulation; an understanding of general principles, not gadgets, and on truth, not boosterism. The educated man seeks more truth – more education all his life. His love of humanity is not sentimental but honest, and he expresses it by the way he acts. He can be trusted. And he serves himself by serving liberty, which is his fundamental principle.” – Philip Wylie, READER’S DIGEST, 10/47.

UNDERSTANDING: The noblest pleasure”, said Leonardo, “is the joy of understanding.” The pleasure of understanding produces a high, which no artificial stimulant could provide. An indescribable exhilaration comes over you. You’re so excited that you want to spread the word. For the first time, morality and ethics and virtue and love have meaning to you.” - Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.17. - CREATIVITY, IDEAS, ENTHUSIASM, INSPIRATION

UNDERSTANDING: The old saw about: ‘To understand all is to forgive all!’ is a lot of tripe. Some things, the more you understand the more you loath them.” – Robert Heinlein, Starship Troopers, p.97. – On the killer of a baby girl, also charged with kidnapping, demanding ransom and criminal neglect with regard to her. - FORGIVENESS,

UNDERSTANDING: The will to understand requires that he be willing to admit those errors and to correct them. It requires that he operate on the premise of intellectual honesty, confidence and courage. Rather than a source of humiliation, an error should be seen as a green light signaling the necessity for new thought that can lead to another level of understanding, increased knowledge and intellectual growth. It presents one with the opportunity to expand his ability to deal with the world around him; to increase his efficiency as a person. Man cannot be right all the time, and he cannot be certain about everything all the time. One’s past assumptions may be proven in error by his future knowledge; …” - Anne Wortham, THE FREEMAN, 8/75.

UNDERSTANDING: To explain something means to convey an image of its essence.” – Helmar Nahr – (“Eine Sache erklaeren, heisst ein Bild ihres Wesens vermitteln.”) – EXPLANATIONS

UNDERSTANDING: To understand is not to forgive.” – From film: “Until They Sail.”

UNDERSTANDING: To understand is to forgive!” – Forgiveness for real wrongs? – To understand everything means to forgive almost nothing. – JZ, 31.5.78. - By all means, try to understand, but do not to forgive major wrongful actions. – JZ, 9.8.08. – FORGIVENESS, EXCUSES, CRIMES WITH VICTIMS

UNDERSTANDING: We are accustomed to see men deride what they do not understand, and snarl at the good and beautiful because it lies beyond their sympathies.” - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. – Let them, as long as one has or gets the freedom to experiment together with other volunteers. – JZ, 23.1.09. - & SYMPATHY

UNDERSTANDING: We know that understanding takes time.” – Henry M. Boettinger, Moving Mountains, p.35. – The problem consists in how to reduce that period until sufficient understanding by enough people is achieved. In this sphere very much remains still to be done, something that I call a “genuinely cultural revolution” has to take place. – JZ, 14.8.08. – See NEW DRAFT, in RTF, 1.256 MBs, zipped 306 KBs., free upon request from me: JZ - RED., CULTURAL REVOLUTION, ENLIGHTENMENT, EDUCATION

UNDERSTANDING: We sometimes get all the information, but we refuse to get the message.” - Cullen Hightower - LISTENING, COMPREHENSION, JUDGMENT, IDEAS, INFORMATION, FACTS, RED.

UNDERWRITING BY GOVERNMENTS: Equally important, the government should not underwrite business in any manner: no favors, subsidies, bailouts, tariffs, regulatory agencies, credits to exporters, loan guarantees, and so on. As Libertarians dismantle these interventions with all deliberate speed, the day will be hastened when all businessmen operate solely in the competitive sector, and none remain in the privileged, protected sector.” – Roger McBride, A New Dawn, p.52. – Unless they are members of a corresponding panarchy, with voluntary victims only. – It is unlikely that all people will ever subscribe only to the supposed ideal of a “limited” but still territorial government. - JZ, 9.8.08. - GUARANTIES, SUBSIDIES, ASSISTANCE, PROTECTIONISM, PRIVILEGES, PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, WELFARE STATE, POLYARCHISM

UNEARNED INCOME: It is precisely the condition of the free market that no one has any unearned claim on the person or property of another.” – Murray N. Rothbard, Man, Economy and the State, p.153/54, quoted in Carl Watner, On Justice, p.31. -

UNEARNED INCOME: No man shall seek or give the unearned or undeserved.” – Ayn Rand? – Not even to small children? – JZ

UNEARNED INCOME: Part of the”unearned” income is income from improvements.” – Bastiat, Economic Harmonies. – And workers get benefits from discoveries, inventions and better ideas as well as capitalists and managers. – Just like workers as well as capitalists and managers do all too often get unearned benefits, at the expense of others, from legalized monopolies or privileges. - JZ, 9.8.08.

UNEARNED INCOME: the market will not supply income to a man who will not supply something which people want.” – Stigler, The Intellectual and the Market Place, p.96. – While the present remnant of a general free market, apart from the effects of monetary and financial despotism, and xyz other wrongful government interventions, does already relatively well cater well and, in some instances, far too much, to many mass interests and the interests of strong minorities, it does not cater well enough to individual interests or that of members of numerous small minorities, not influential in most cases, as voters, if they are allowed a vote at all, spread all over the world, who do often not even know of each other’s existence. That applies especially to new ideas and new and unusual talents. For them special markets have to become established, world-wide, to bring existing and future supplies and demands in this sphere almost automatically together. Naturally, the new digital media and channels could greatly assist in that. What could not be found in the largest local supermarkets or directories, or libraries or handbooks could thus be found – somewhere in the world. – “Release all creative energies!” – Leonard E. Read. - JZ, 9.8.08. - IDEAS ARCHIVE, TALENT CENTRE

UNEARNED INCOME: Whenever you rebel against causality, your motive is the fraudulent desire, not to escape it, but worse; to reverse it. You want unearned love, as if love, the effect, could give you personal value, the cause … you want unearned admiration, as if admiration, the effect, could give you virtue, the cause … you want unearned wealth, as if wealth, the effect, could give you ability, the cause … you plead for mercy not justice, as if unearned forgiveness could wipe out the cause of your plea. And to indulge your ugly little shams, you support the doctrines of your teachers, while they run hop-wild proclaiming that spending, the effects, creates riches, the cause, that machinery, the effect, creates intelligence, the cause, that your sexual desires, the effect, create your philosophical values, the cause.” – Mrs. Young, Sydney, in a manuscript on Ayn Rand, p.28. - Hog-wild? - JZ

UNELECT: Second, the Un-Party will try “To ‘UnElect’ and Rehabilitate Bureaucrats and Politicians.” – NEW LIBERTARIAN WEEKLY, Aug. 14, 1977. - I do very much doubt that this can be done by any political party or under territorialism. Rather, exterritorial autonomy for all parties and movements of volunteers - over their own affairs! - JZ, 28.3.11. - RECALL, UNPARTY, PARTIES, TERRITORIALISM, LP, FACTIONS, SCHISMS, INSTEAD OF PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAWS, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY OR EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM IN ALL SPHERES FOR ALL PEACEFUL DISSENTERS: VOLUNTARISM, LAISSEZ FAIRE, META-UTOPIA

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE: a device so sheltering that many employables prefer their handouts coercively taken from taxpayers to earning their own way.” – Leonard E. Read, Who’s Listening? p.45. – Unemployment is a preventable but not an insurable risk. Likewise inflation and war. – All three are man-made – to any degree, with despotic territorial laws and powers. - JZ, 20.4.09, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE: Satisfy needs through full freedom to purchase – with your own claims, IOUs, clearing certificates or credit account against your own labor, services and products. – And allow people to associate properly for this purpose so that their IOU’s etc. become quite acceptable, at least in the local market, as useful means of payment in a perfected clearing system, i.e. one that would make full use of even such certified obligations or indebtedness by putting them into the hands of people who could and would productively use the labor, knowledge and skills offered in these IOU’s. – It is absurd to expect all possible and desired exchanges to become achievable through any kind of monopoly money. – Do liberate, in every possible way, the monetary and clearing demand for able and willing labor. - JZ, 7.8.75, 4.10.08, 28.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE: There can be no doubt that unemployment compensation reduces the incentive to hold on to an old job or to find a new one. (*) It helps unions to maintain artificially high wage rates, and it prolongs and increases unemployment. One economist has likened it to “a bounty for keeping out of the labor market.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.91, referring in the footnote to: W. H. Hutt, The Theory of Idle Resources, London, Jonathan Cape, 1939, p.129. – (*) Unemployment itself, without such compensation, rather increases the incentive to hold on to an old job, which one dislikes, while not providing enough chances to get another job that one would like more or that would pay more

UNEMPLOYMENT: AAA: Ever since my best friend, Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, told me once that whoever will succeed in describing, convincingly, on a single page, cause and cure of unemployment, will bring about the greatest social revolution, I have tried, again and again, to approach this ideal and some of the results of this effort are included here. I am likely to continue with this effort as long as I can, until I either do succeed in it or someone else does. Perhaps the sequential form of displaying this discussion is not optimal, nor is an alphabetized compilation over various statements, as offered here. I have not yet got around to try to tackle the topic with the digital “argument mapping”, which Paul Monk and others offer online. A host of popular errors, prejudices and misunderstandings is involved, which does not make it easy to bulldoze a pass through all of them to the truths on this subject. I can only hope that many other libertarians, anarchists and other social reformers will systematically tackle this task and do better than I did, so far. – JZ, 30.6.13, 18.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: A free job market requires that the effective monetary demand for labor is freed from the restrictions of monetary despotism. – JZ, 11.9.98. - JOB MARKET, FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY DEMAND FOR LABOR

UNEMPLOYMENT: A free labor market would have nothing in common with a slave market and would in no way be perceived as such. The unemployed should get off their imagined slave market blocks, on which they wait and wait all too patiently for a financial bidder for their labor to appear, bidding for them with the State's monopoly money. In their concepts and attitudes and actions they think and show themselves as being in such an undignified and unfree position. Instead, they should interest, inform and train themselves in order to monetize their own labor potential, skills and services and those of all other goods and services, so that they can appear competitively, in monetary or clearing form, in many hands, on a truly free market, bidding for all also competitive competitively supplied labors and services and goods. In consequence of such issues all productive labors and wanted services and goods would automatically be sellable - being paid in service vouchers, tickets for performances, goods warrants and certificates issued upon them and redeemable in them. Only the free monetization of all productive labors, services and wanted consumer goods, can get the unemployed off their slave blocks and dissolve the blocks and taboos in their minds, which keep them unemployed. In my 1990/92 visit to L.A. I have seen groups of unemployed waiting around certain street corners, for potential employers driving by and making a bid for them as occasional and temporary laborers. That was as close an example to anyone waiting on a slave block for a bid, as I have seen. I presume they expected to be paid only in the by now customary and unquestioned forced and exclusive paper dollar of the State. When they assemble, instead, at official employment offices only, their basic attitude is the same but they show then even less initiative. Others, in L.A., showed a bit more initiative, as hawkers, offering e.g. fruit for sale, on the dividing strips of the road, near traffic signals to drivers stopping at the signals. And in N.Y.C., e.g. in Broadway, one can find, for kilometers in a row, sidewalk hawkers of books and other used goodies. Much less initiative is shown by job applicants waiting patiently by the dozens or even hundreds, for each advertised vacancy, always under the assumption that there are real and able “employers” about and that the unemployed could not arrange for their full employment themselves. (Neither the State nor employers, with the present employer mentality, are "miracle" workers, who can provide jobs on their own with ideal currencies. Both are observably helpless and ignorant and merely prejudiced in the face of mass unemployment. They are not only the agents of and believers in monetary despotism, together with the present unemployed, but also its victims.) From the above limited initiatives to monetary freedom interest, thinking and actions there are many large steps to be taken. However, monetary freedom can begin simply among a few and can gradually but fast expand to a free local, nation-wide and even world-wide exchange network and numerous private payment and clearing communities. I will describe some such options elsewhere. Here I try only to point out the conceptual connection between monetary freedom and full employment. JZ, 25.12.92, 31.12.92, 18.4.14. - & SLAVE BLOCK MENTALITY

UNEMPLOYMENT: A million men and women in an army are as much unemployed as a million men and women in receipt of unemployment ‘benefits’. Both impoverish society and endanger its members.” – H. S. Ferns, The Disease of Government, p.3. - Add all the politicians and most other “public servants” and many of the rest of them are working largely in monopoly enterprises or subsidized ones and thus largely uneconomically. – JZ, 4.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: A picture shows reconstruction work on a church damaged by fire. Two workers observe the work: JIM (regarding damage done to church by fire), “Good job it wasn’t a factory, Bill” – BILL: “You’re right, mate. Only one man put out of work, and he draws his money!”- JOKES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Ability to pay: Anyone would have a much better chance to pay his own way, to the limit of his ability to supply goods and services, if he were free to pay with assignments upon his own labor services and goods. By combining his own issues with a sufficient number of other issuers, he would make the combined issues more widely acceptable as means of payment, at least locally, as an alternative local currency. - JZ 31.12.92. – Obviously, the acceptance of his own currency for his products, services or labor, would provide him with employment, for which he was already paid, when he issued his currency. In effect, he would merely clear what he has to offer to others for what they had to offer to him. There is no other inherent limit to such mutually beneficial exchanges, freely cleared or paid for with the sound exchange media of monetary freedom, free market monies, i.e. with the productivity of those involved (regarding wanted and needed services), goods and labor, at market prices), expressed in sound value standards. Any money issue monopoly and exclusive and forced value standard impose artificial limits upon free exchanges. They amount in effect to artificially rationing how much can be produced and sold, and how much labor can be productively employed. – JZ, 19.4.09. – ABILITY TO PAY, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Abolition of unemployment through freedom to issue typified and standardized goods- and service warrants in money denominations. – Why does unemployment exist at all? Obviously not because there is too little work to be done or there are too many workers. For the needs and wants not only of the unemployed but also of the already employed are, in practice, unlimited and never quite satisfied. To satisfy them, at least gradually, they constitute an inexhaustible potential source of labor, which is always greater than the amount of ready for sale labor is, which the unemployed and the already employed could immediately or very soon supply. The greater the unemployment and under-employment is, the greater is the need and want for goods and services i.e., the need for productive labor being employed in providing them. The needs and wants of those, who had to sell their labor at emergency sales prices, paid in all too scarce monopoly money, to get work at all (a practice still common in under-developed countries, where, alas, their productivity in the absence of better tools and sufficient machines, is also very low), can only be gradually satisfied by making good enough exchange media available in sufficient quantities to pay, with them, the productively employed at their local market rate of wages. Thereby the local sales of consumer goods and services and the “sale” of underemployed or unemployed labor, will become easier and surer. More will be produced and sold and, gradually to fast, savings will built up, which can be used for better tools and at least intermediate technology machines and, later, for advance production equipment. The catch-up requirements in these countries is enormous and as long as their output can be easily sold, for alternative currencies (or clearing certificates or free market currencies and account credits) provided by some of the participants (e.g. shopping centers or large department stores), in short-term turnover credits, even for wages and salary payments, then their present unemployment and under-employment will soon be turned into over-employment and a rapid advance in living standards. The same process is also and still very useful in those countries already somewhat developed – but with their exchange media supply grossly underdeveloped by their supposedly most advanced note-issuing system, namely that of their central bank. - In the obviously under-developed - and also in the already somewhat developed – countries, the stock of ready-for-sale goods and services, including willing and able labor, almost always tends to exceed the available monopolized exchange media to pay for all of them. – Only once the governments forced and exclusive currency has been so much over-issued that even its monopoly status and nominal legal tender power can no longer enforced its acceptance, will it become widely refused. By then it has already done enormous wrongs and damage. Nevetheless, in ignorance of or popular errors or prejudices against full monetary freedom, the monetary despotism system will once again be started with a new forced and exclusive currency. - JZ, n.d. & 28.3.11. – ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FROM RAGS TO RICHES, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: About 200 000 Deutsche Mark was the average cost of a working place in Germany in 1986. – To that extent the supply of capital for efficient modern production matters greatly. With less capital invested per laborer, i.e., with less machines, tools and infrastructure, only a greatly reduced living standard can be obtained. - The supply of both, exchange media (or clearing options) and the supply of working capital (productively invested savings) must be free and sufficient to achieve the highest productivity. Any coercive and monopolistic interference with these supplies and their usage will have negative feedback results. – Laissez-faire and laissez-passer (Let people produce and exchange!) - are particularly important in these spheres. – It would be interesting to see similar figures for each country and each year, in comparison with the average living standard or income achieved during that year, perhaps separated by working income and capital and enterprise income. - JZ, 13.8.08. – CAPITAL, MACHINES, TOOLS & OTHER REQUIREMENT FOR MODERN LABOR, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: According to radio news on 29. 12. 92, there exist now ca. 19 million refugees in foreign countries and another 24 million refugees who are internally displaced. Under freedom the own acute needs and wants of these millions of unemployed and of the other unemployed in all countries, could express themselves monetarily as a demand for labor equivalent to the demand for labor in a large and productive nation. It would not be an insuperable transport problem to either bring supplies, temporary buildings and machines to these laborers or to bring these laborers to the existing factories and supplies and machines that work below their full capacity. - JZ, 30.12.92. - The total of these unemployed comes to about twice the population of Australia. - JZ, 28.3.11. – At one stage the rate of unemployment in China alone was estimated to come to ca. 200 million people. – JZ, 18.4.14. - & NUMBERS OF REFUGEES, DISPLACED PERSONS, UNEMPLOYED & UNDEREMPLOYED

UNEMPLOYMENT: All compulsory licensing and registration to be confined to members of those volunteer groups that favor it. No unemployed, not engaged in any deceptions or false pretences, to be hindered by compulsory licensing and registrations or their fees to offer his labor and services under agreeable conditions, for any currency, which is competitively supplied and acceptable, to those offered it. - JZ 31.12.92, 18.4.14. - COMPULSORY LICENSING, FREEDOM TO OFFER ONE’S LABOR OR SERVICES FOR ALTERNATIVE CURRENCIES

UNEMPLOYMENT: All political parties and other groups of volunteers to enjoy full exterritorial autonomy to apply their own employment schemes to their own members and voters. None to be given their the chance any longer to impose the costs and restrictions of their schemes upon non-members and non-voters or the voters and members of other parties. Under full self-responsibility the successful experiments of others would soon teach all with sufficient interest in their own affairs what does work and what does not. I simply predict that all schemes embodying monetary and financial freedom would succeed. -  JZ, 31.12.92, 18.4.14. - PARTIES & EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM OR PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, FULL FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, ASSOCIATION, SELF-HELP OPTIONS OR LAISSEZ FAIRE IN THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL & SOCIAL SPHERES, ENDING ALL THE MONOPOLIES OF TERRITORIALISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: All ready for sale consumer goods and services, including labor, could and should be effectively monetized by their owners and providers, in suitable payment associations, up to the moment when the first discount for such clearing certificates or purchasing voucher appears. Then further issues or acceptances of them will cease until that discount has disappeared again, as a result of the reflux of these certificates to their issuers. – Such money like theatre and sports tickets are easily self-regulating in their numbers and volume. - JZ, 30.6.98. – FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM, SHOP FOUNDATION MONEY, DEBT FOUNDATION MONEY, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION FOR COMPETING CURRENCIES, TICKET OR FREE MARKET MONIES, CLARING CERTIFICATES & ACCOUNTS, ALL USING SOUND VALUE STANDARDS, FREELY CHOSEN BY THEIR USERS

UNEMPLOYMENT: All taxes and public fees and charges to be payable in private goods and clearing warrants at their market value, so that no one need any longer be made unemployed by enforcing tax payments in an exclusive and forced currency with which he might be insufficiently supplied. But any productive person would always be able to pay to a large extent with assignments upon his own goods and services, in as money-like a form as he could arrange, alone or in associations with others. - Ultimately, naturally, all tax slavery is to be abolished, too or reduced to its practice among exterritorially autonomous protective communities of volunteers, thus becoming essentially voluntary, too. - JZ, 31.12.92. – The future communities of volunteers might use their subscription claims as a foundation for their kind of tax-foundation or subscription foundation monies, just like insurance companies could anticipate their near future premium payments with their kind of currency or clearing certificates or account credits. – JZ, 18.4.14. - MONETARY FREEDOM & TAXATION, TAX FOUNDATION, CLEARING FOUNDATION, SHOP FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow all consumer goods and services to become monetized into standardized and typified claims for them, in the usual money denominations, and allow wages and salaries, taxes and other debts to be paid in them, provided the trading people involved agree upon this. (*) This monetization to be undertaken by those who have the goods and services ready for sale. Moreover, only they are to be obliged to accept their own money tokens or certificates always at their nominal value at any time during business hours. The value standards use in the pricing of the goods and services and in these notes and clearing certificates should also be freely agreed upon. – JZ, 24.9.98. 27.9.08. - - Once comments or notes on this subject become too numerous they should perhaps be numbered to facilitate comments and cross references. I consider this relationship to be so important that I try again and again to express it as clearly as I can, which means, not always satisfactory even to myself. Instead of merely criticizing me, please, do better! You might succeed where Ulrich von Beckerath and I failed, in spite of in numerous attempts. I wish the whole subject and all sub-subjects were, gradually, dealt with the method of electronic “argument-mapping.” – JZ, 27.9.08. - (*) Up to the amounts of their circulation at which they are still readily accepted at par with their nominal value. The first discount in local circulation indicates their current issuing limit. - JZ, 28.3.11. When sufficiently known or published it would prevent over-issues on the side of their issuers and through their potential acceptors, refusing to accept them or accept them only at a discount, while the issuer would still have to accept them at their nominal face value. – JZ, 18.4.14. - FULL EMPLOYMENT & MONETARY FREEDOM, INFLATION, DEFLATION & STAGFLATION PREVENTED THROUGH ENDING THE ISSUE MONOPOLY, LEGAL TENDER POWER, PUBLICITY, DISCOUNTING & REFUSALS TO ACCEPT DEPRECIATED OR SUSPECTED OR UNKNOWN CURRENCIES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow all owners of ready for sale goods, services and labor to transform them, temporarily, into monetary demand for them, as if they were tickets for these goods, services and labor of the issuers, which are wanted or needed by others, at market prices (wages, salaries, fees and subscriptions and other debt payments included). Only the issuers would be obliged to accept and “redeem” them, at their face value (nominal value, expressed in a sound value standard) with what they are able and willing and promised to deliver in exchange for them, for what others want from them, upon the reflux of these token monies or clearing certificates issued by them, i.e. payment for them with their own their shop currency, which is also locally accepted by others, but finally always used as means of payment against their issuers. That monetary freedom alternative would put an end to most monetary crises and to the unemployment and sales difficulties and bankruptcies caused by monetary despotism - by eliminating its inherent inflations, deflations and stagflations, simply by keeping the goods and services supply in balance with the total of the exchange media for them. – Over-issues require legal tender power and a monopoly and under-issues are only possible under an issue or clearing monopoly. -JZ, 10.9.98, 18.4.14. – FREE BANKING, COMPETITIVE NOTE ISSUES & CLEARING, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION OR CLEARING FOUNDATION, UNDER FULL MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow all the presently unsold but ready for sale goods and services, including the services offered by the unemployed and under-employed, to be expressed in alternative and additional monetary demand for additional employment opportunities for those already employed but want to work more or longer, as well for the still unemployed and under-employed, in form of wage and salary offers for additional productive labors, especially in the form of local shop currencies, issued by shopping centers or shop associations, which would price out their goods and services in sound value standards and use also these value standards in their shop currencies. All these potential issuers to issue their alternative currencies, apart from their use in payment of their current expenditures, including their wages and salaries, and their suppliers, in their form of “cash” payments and beyond that providing short-term loans to other employers, to pay with them their current and additional labor force, at  current market rates for wages and salaries, to the extent that their employees are willing to accept such means of payment. (If they are using sound value standards, while the government’s paper money is being inflated, then such means of payment if allowed or illegally agreed upon, might even be preferred to payment in the government’s inflated money.) These issues could thus increase and assure their sales. Naturally, such issues must not be legal tender in general local circulation but merely towards their issuers. They must be subject to free market rating and full publicity on their issues and reflux. Their value standard must be agreeable to their users, whatever form it may take. The issuers might by contract oblige their debtors to also accept such private notes at par with their nominal value. This and all the other aspects and consequences of full monetary freedom might become – one of the best chapters of monetary history. – JZ, 13.6.98, 29.9.08, 18.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow any employer to offer and any employee to accept anything agreeable to both in payment of wages. Don't force both sides to deal only in a monopolistic and mostly deteriorated exchange medium, that of the government’s central bank. Let us have exchange media and clearing certificates and accounts as competitively supplied as knives, forks and spoons are now - and we will have neither a shortage of exchange media, nor any inflation, which would mean that all ready for sale goods and services and labor, that are desired by others, in exchange for their goods, services and labor, could then be easily exchanged for the sound free market monies so issued or the free clearing options thus offered. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files, n.d. & 18.4.14. – WAGES & SALARIES PAID IN ALTERNATIVE EXCHANGE MEDIA & CLEARING CREDITS, USING SOUND VALUE STANDARDS, FREELY AGREED UPON.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow people to be hired and paid with optional alternative means of payment that are competitively supplied. Then most involuntary mass unemployment would soon come to an end. – JZ, 20.5.99. – The current forced monopoly money of the central bank is obviously not sufficiently supplied to mediate, as an exchange medium, the employment of the unemployed for the consumer goods and services they want and need and are willing to work for, while also producing more consumer goods and services. – Some of the consumer goods and service are becoming embodied in capital savings, investments and assets for making production more productive. Without assured sales of the consumer goods and services the capital equipment that helps to produce them, would become reduced in market value. Therefore, restoring sufficient turnover credits with sound and competitively supplied alternative exchange media is a first step or foundation for a sound economic recovery. Exchange media without legal tender cannot inflate prices expressed in sound value standards. At most they could become depreciated and thus discounted and refused themselves. – They could be issued up to the limits of their natural cover in wanted or needed consumer goods and services, thus avoiding deflations as well. Examine all your monetary freedom options and take them more serious than the laws that outlaw them. - JZ, 25.9.08, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow people to spend their own notes, issued privately, either alone in association with others, for all their needs, wants and requirements, to the extent that they find willing acceptors for them, and their notes will inevitably return to them to be redeemed in their goods and services. Thereby the others will be provided with sales for their products, labor and services, just like the issuers will be. And both groups would become free of their dependence upon the provision of means of payment by the government’s monopoly issuer for a forced currency, the central bank. To the extent that they succeed in ignoring or breaking this monopoly they would become monetarily emancipated and fully employed as laborers, retailers, tradesmen, professionals or independent businessmen. It is absurd to confine people to those exchanges only that they can manage to achieve with the governments mismanaged and often depreciated and sometimes short supplied monopoly money. Any mere exchange medium should be free to mediate all possible and desired exchanges in its sphere, just like tickets sell seats, and that with freely chosen value standards. Just like mere clearing certificates or clearing accounts in a perfect clearing system would not establish any bottlenecks or injustices but simply clear all the mutual debts, apart from the risk factors to be covered by interest rates embodying an insurance premium. In this sphere we have acted as if we needed the government to tell “liquidity”, the water in creeks and in rivers and in lakes, to go or be taken to where it is needed and as if without government guidance and regulation water flows would occur naturally or could not be privately arranged through various irrigation systems. – JZ, 5.12.82, 3.10.08. – Territorial statism had and still has terrible results, in this sphere as well. – JZ, 19.4.09, 28.3.11. – FREEDOM OF NOTE ISSUES & FOR CLEARING ACTIONS, BASED UPON THE READINESS-TO-ACCEPT FOUNDATION FOR SUCH NOTES & CLEARING CREDITS IN PAYMENT FOR WANTED GOODS & SERVICES AT FREE MARKET PRICES FOR THEM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow the dozens of millions of refugees in the world to be paid for productive work with private and cooperatively issued purchasing vouchers and clearing certificates or clearing account credits, for wanted or needed goods and services, in money denominations, using standards of value of their choice, with these issues being based largely but not exclusively on goods and services which are now hard to sell. Then all needing or seeking productive jobs could soon find them and could and would be thus paid for them, and, consequently, would become able to pay for their accommodation, food, etc., too. Moreover, if they are asylum seekers, legal immigrants or illegal immigrants, they would then tend to become welcomed guests and helpers in a further division of labor and development process, which would tend to enrich everybody, rather than being hated as foreign competitors for jobs. The system could easily be expanded to similarly benefit all the native unemployed and underemployed, as well. – There is no limit to the productive jobs that could and should be done, even if machines, robots and automatic production facilities are developed to the utmost. Think of the extreme cases of artificial space habitats and of the work required to make whole moons or planets habitable for humans. – We haven’t even got a world library as yet, although a digital one could by now almost become established in every village. Even the Library of Congress requires only around 15 TBs and book-sized 4 TBs external HDDs are already cheaply offered. - JZ 29.12.92, 28.3.11, 18.4.14. - & REFUGEES, JOBS, WORK REMAINING TO BE DONE, REFUGEES, DEVOPOMENT, TERRAFORMING, SPACE SETTLEMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Allow the unemployed to pay with their own assignments upon their own labor, to anyone willing to accept such certificates, and then to redeem them with their own productive labor by accepting them in wages and salaries paid to them. (*) In this way they could open up the labor market for themselves. Allow also all those offering ready-for sale products and service to issue goods and service vouchers that would, if given in short term loans to potential employers, allow them to exert an additional monetary demand for the labor of those presently unemployed, who are able and willing to work and to accept such alternative money in payment for their work. Naturally, the goods and services offered as well as such notes or clearing certificates or shop foundation money should be denominated in sound value standards, not in the depreciating paper value “standards” of the government’s forced and exclusive paper money. – JZ, 7.8.75 & 4.10.08, 28.3.11. - (*) Unless a perfect clearing system is already established, clearing notes and clearing account credits will have a hard stand in free competition with shop currencies, which are immediately covered not only with readiness to work productively but already with the products and the services of productive labor, as are available for immediate sale in the shops. However, the demand for wage payment means is also huge and it can, probably, become at least partly satisfied by such notes or clearing certificates. – If employers are, finally, satisfactorily and sufficiently supplied with wage payment means by shop association banks then they will have less sales difficulties for what they produce and there will simply be no unemployed left to contemplate whether he could employ himself by issuing his own clearing certificates based upon his ability and readiness to take up work and be paid in his notes. – JZ, 10.4.09, 28.3.11. – Naturally, there should not longer be a law against this or it should no longer be applied. (Perhaps after being declared to be “un-American” and then rapidly repealed. They should be free to accept jobs in which they would be paid with alternative sound currencies, e.g. with a local shop currency that would satisfy them and which would also serve to abolish local sales difficulties, because it would be redeemed in the wanted consumer goods and services by the issuers of such currencies. – JZ, 30.6.13.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Alternative monies: All of us, as producers and consumers, as employees or employers or self-employed, can only be fully free when we can issue or agree upon a money of our choice for all our trades with each other. Any imposed monopoly money can only cause us troubles - and fail to achieve all the exchanges we desire and which would otherwise be possible for us. - JZ 21.12.92, 28.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, FREEDOM OF NOTE ISSUE VS. MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY OF CENTRAL BANKS

UNEMPLOYMENT: And if the wage and price structure are flexible, the free economy (*) has an insatiable demand for labor; when the market is truly functional (*), jobs are abundant.” - Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 10/75. - (*) It is free only if the supply and demand for sound exchange media, clearing options and sound value standards are also quite free. –A second requirement of a free labor market is that all participants are free of legalized financial despotism, especially tax tribute levies. – Other and more obvious (for enlightened and rational people) requirements are free trade and free migration: A complete de-monopolization of the economy is required for maximum benefits for all from it, at least for all those, who are enlightened enough to choose it for themselves. Voluntary restrictions of the statists, imposed only upon them, leaving all others alone, should be continued as long as they still need its practical lessons, in a kind of legalized sado-masochism that hardly deserves the term of being an economic system, since it does not maximize prosperity but minimizes it. It impoverishes instead or enriches, it frustrates or forbids rather than rightly encourages productive and profitable actions. With its numerous crises the anti-economics of statism increases rather than reduces satisfactions and happiness. However it should remain an option for those ignorant or foolish enough to with to continue it among themselves, at their own risk and expense, in all its varieties. – Leave the abolition of the remaining non-territorial or personal law of voluntary statism to those, who would continue to suffer under it. – All the others would have seceded from it as soon as possible, to do their things among themselves. They would be all the more successful the more they free themselves to practise all their individual rights and liberties among themselves. - JZ, 29.9.08. 19.4.14. – MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM & GENERAL ECONOMIC FREEDOM FOR ALL GROUPS VOLUNTEERING FOR IT & STATISM & ITS IMMORAL & IRRATIONAL INTERVENTIONISM ONLY FOR THE REMAINING STATISTS, IN ALL THEIR VARIETIES, UNTIL THEY ARE CURED OF IT, VOLUNTARISM, FREE CHOICES, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM VS. COMPULSORY TERRITORIAL COLLECTIVISM, STATISM & WARFARE STATES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Any employment is just an act of exchange. As such it is dependent upon the provision of exchange media and the value standard used. Under monetary despotism the exchange media and value standards are monopolized, imposed and mismanaged and phenomena like deflation, inflation, stagflation, recessions, credit restrictions, depressions and mass unemployment do appear and persist under it. Without going to their root causes and abolishing them, i.e. without the introduction of full monetary freedom, including clearing freedom and free choice of value standards, these problems will persist and recur again and again. - JZ, 31.12.92, 3.10.08. – I do not only recognize but also insist that all other anti-economic restrictions, especially compulsory taxation, legalized monopolies and prohibitions of all kinds do also reduce employment, prosperity and development, e.g. subsidies to unemployed, minimum wages, imposed public debts, building restrictions, and governmental “enterprises”. They all do also help only to maintain and increase crises and poverty. Only once all these restrictions are confined to their voluntary victims - and more or less State soialist advocates - will they cease to be obstacles to economic exchanges between the other people. To each and all the own system – and its consequences. No one to be any longer entitled to impose his or her preferred system territorially upon any non-criminal and non aggressive dissenters. – JZ, 19.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Any involuntary and unsubsidized mass unemployment could be overcome tomorrow or within days if the owners of ready for sale goods, services and labor were free to offer to monetize them with their own shop currencies, IOUs and clearing certificates, which would assure their sales in their reflux to them and would enable them to fully pay their own way right away and even to grant short-term credits with such media, on a stable value basis, which, in their repayments to them, would assure constant sales for their goods, services and labor to them. Alas, this solution is not impossible but merely outlawed, unknown and unappreciated. It thus requires sufficient enlightenment of the victims of the existing monetary despotism, repeal of despotic monetary laws or the ignoring of them in a monetary freedom revolution. Neither the enlightenment required nor such a peaceful and rightful revolution are so far sufficiently achieved and prepared for. – JZ, 30.7.98, 6.10.08. – “Ticket money” or shop foundation money, that’s the ticket. Instant printing shops can provided them in almost any needed quantity. The remaining obstacles are insufficiently enlightened minds, including those of the legislators of obstructive and anti-economic legislation. Theoretically, all such legislation could be repealed by a single law for a whole country, just like the monopoly of a hierarchical church could be repealed for it. But under the present state of enlightenment or lack of it, this cannot be achieved. It can be achieved only through the already somewhat or full enlightened people effectively seceding and doing their things among themselves, undisturbed by the remaining statists, in full freedom of contract, association and experimentation, together with like-minded other volunteers – under full exterritorial autonomy or personal law. Those aware of their monetary and clearing freedom options could then abolish unemployment among them within days. – JZ, 19.4.14. – “Release all creative energies!” – Leonard E. Read – MONETARY, FINANCIAL & OTHER RIGHTS & LIBERTIES AS A SECSSIONIST OPTION FOR ALL DISSENTERS AGAINST THE RELIGION OF STATISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Apart from the employment promoting effects of monetary freedom, a genuinely free market would assure full employment by a) realizing the right to work in presently coercively closed shops and b) the right to make individual work contracts, rather than being subjected to collective bargaining, c) repealing wage and price controls, especially minimum wages, d) abolishing compulsory licensing, e) abolishing compulsory unionism, which in many ways closes its ranks against competition, f) ending subsidies to the unemployed, granting them during the transition period rather loans than hand-outs, g) the repeal of all laws imposing an upper or lower age limit on workers, like child labor laws and compulsory pensioning-off laws, h) the repeal of laws establishing exclusive privileges to exploit natural monopolies. (Access to these, especially from among the ranks of the unemployed, could be assured by the establishment of "open cooperatives" for all these monopolies, i.e. enterprises, which would not exclude any worker or investor but would reward them only according to their input into the open enterprise.) - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & FREE MARKET, OPEN COOPERATIVES, ANTI-MONOPOLISM, LIBERATION OF ALL WRONGFUL PROHIBITIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Are machines, which can mass-produce consumer goods for the masses, the cause of unemployment, as all too many people still believe? - That could only happen if free enterprises are prevented from mass-producing, as well, the extra but also sound exchange media required to purchase all this enormous output and service supply ability. (Naturally, such exchange media must be competitive, market rated, optional, discountable and refusable and redeemable only in wanted consumer goods and services, expressed in stable value standards, just as such extra private exchange media should be, to be self-limiting in their quantity, as representing wanted or needed consumer goods or services, ready for sale, just like tickets for wanted performances represent the seats available for them.) Free pricing, free wage agreements and the absence of all other governmental and anti-economic intervention and controls are presumed to have been achieved or that they could be fast achieved. – Presently, the existing massive goods production output and service capacity, largely made possible by machines and automation, can only be sold for the government’s monopoly money, which is not always sufficiently supplied or in a sound enough form. - Moreover, the goods and services that cannot be internally sold can then, likewise, not be sold in other countries, when and wherever the purchasing power of the potential producers and consumers in these countries is also limited by their monopolistic and despotic central bank of issue. - At the same time, sound alternative but private clearing certificates to pay for imports and thus automatically balance them with exports, are, likewise and usually, outlawed and thus cannot be used to free international trade. Once the mass producers can also mass produce the purchasing power for their goods and services, in sound alternative monies or clearing certificates, to be earned by additional and very productively used labor, the prejudices against machines and automation will disappear and they will be clearly seen as tools to increase one’s productivity and thus one’s standard of living and also the number of different job opportunities. - Decades ago there were already ca, 400 000 different jobs. By now there might be many more. Most of them would not exist without their special equipment and the special knowledge and skills required to use them. If, suddenly, we were somehow deprived of all automatic production equipment, machines and suitable tools and would have to try to survive by manual labor only, with primitive and perhaps self-built tools, most of us would, probably, starve to death or work ourselves to death in the attempt to survive in this way. Machines and automated equipment are not our enemies but our allies. They do probably already vastly outnumber us – and, in spite of this, have not rendered all of us unemployed. This primitive explanation of unemployment must, therefore, be false. – JZ, 3.2.97, 28.9.08, 28.3.11. 28.3.11, 19.4.14. - MACHINES, POVERTY, JOBS, AUTOMATION, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, STANDARD OF LIVING, 

UNEMPLOYMENT: Are the unemployed, to some extent, themselves to blame, too, for the existence of unemployment? I can only offer a qualified "yes!" to this question. Why? They are the main and most numerous victims of it but they do not show any real and deep and persistent interest in the cause or causes of unemployment but rather accept it as if it were a natural catastrophe. They are e.g. not interested in the right to work interpreted as the right to undertake any monetary, financial and organizational measures to provide themselves with work, without depriving anybody of a job. They show no interest in their own individual economic rights, least of all in their monetary rights and liberties. Very few of them show any interest in replacing dependent employee positions by cooperative and partnership jobs, becoming self-employed capital owners and businessmen and entrepreneurs. They do not believe in self-help when it comes to changing the established statist economic “system” into a self-help and self-employment system. They do not recognize the existing situation as one in which artificial, legal and constitutional barriers are put up against free exchanges of labor, goods and services, especially those of monetary despotism. They remain unaware and disinterested in legalized and prescribed conditions that do not allow them to freely exchange their labors under conditions acceptable to all contracting partners. If questioned, they rather defend and rationalize them than attack such wrongful and irrational restrictions. To that extent they do deserve their unemployment and employment difficulties. They are emancipated in many way, e.g. in religion and sexually, also with regard to science and technology but monetarily they still have to become emancipated, i.e. free to vote with their own dollars or the free market monies of others in a free market. They should no longer consider the dollars of monetary despotism as their own or as the only or best possible dollars, or as sufficiently and soundly supplied by central banking to solve all their employment difficulties. - JZ, 21.12.92, 31.12.92, 28.3.11, 19.4.14. – RIGHT TO WORK REDEFINED

UNEMPLOYMENT: As long as exchange media and clearing methods are monopolized the sale of labor will in many cases be difficulties and in some cases impossible, at least temporarily. But this is not the same as a shortage of jobs. It is rather a shortage of sound exchange media and clearing actions. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 28.3.11. – CENTRAL BANKING & REGULATED BANKING VS. FREE BANKING OR FULL MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Assure sales and you assure maximum production and full employment. To assure sales, pay all suppliers, tradesmen, employees, profits, taxes, utilities etc. - with assignments upon the own goods and services, in money denominations, which only the issuer and, by contract, his debtors will have to accept at any time and at par. To the extent that such private “banknotes” are freely issued and accepted, they will then, quite inevitably, stream back to their issuers as payments for their sales, just like tickets to wanted performances and they will thus provide sales and further employment opportunities. – JZ, 9.9.98, 28.3.11. That is almost self-evident. And yet, this kind of self-help and monetary emancipation is almost never discussed by the unemployed, the employers, the retailers and the wholesalers and only all too rarely be economists at universities and writers of books on economics. Almost all their attention and hopes and proposals are merely directed to the central bank system with its monopoly for note issues and its forced currency with compulsory acceptance and forced value, and this in spite of the fact that this system has never delivered what it was supposed to deliver, namely, a stable currency and a sufficient supply of exchange media to make possible all desired and neded exchanges. In that situation an improvement is not to be expected from the masses of ignorant and prejudiced voters, legislators or top bureaucrats but merely from full freedom for monetary and financial experiments by and among dissenting volunteers, trying out, quite unhindered, their alternative hypotheses, theories, principles, opinions, ideas and methods – all at their own risk and expense, leaving the others undisturbed to enjoy, all the benefits and disasters of the existing monetary and financial despotism, as long as they really can or want to. Thus there should be no strong opposition against this kind of experimental freedom, except from those fearing for their power and monopoly position if the successful experiments should spread by more and more volunteers joining or copying them. But should we “protect” these monopolists and power mongers? – JZ, 27.9.08, 28.3.11. – MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, CENTRAL BANKING, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM EXPERIMENTS, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, SELF-HELP OPTIONS, SALES -ASSURED ONES, FULL EMPLOYMENT, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Can a Jobs Campaign Create Real Jobs? - - Jobs don't need "creation" by charity or government action. They occur quite naturally where there is FULL freedom of exchange, including the clearing, credit, money-token and financing sphere. Instead we have uncounted and largely unknown legal obstacles and prohibitions, wrongfully interfering with all rightful and rational economic activities. – JZ, 25.11.11, Facebook. - & ITS ABOLITION, JOB “CREATION”, MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Competition and choice: The unemployed can never have too many employers bidding for their labor with too many different exchange media and value standards, based on too many real redemption funds consisting out of goods, labor and services, i.e. they cannot have too many competing and optional free market currencies offered to them, as long as they remain free to refuse, discount and negotiate any such offers. - JZ 31.12.92, 28.3.11, 19.4.14. – COMPETITION, MONETARY FREEDOM, WAGE PAYMENT MEANS, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Consumer sovereignty is restricted when consumers and their agents (the employers) are only allowed to ask for labor (goods and services) with the money of monetary despotism. (That condition hardly deserves to be called free enterprise, capitalism, free market, economic freedom – without this freedom of contract and freedom to exchange. – JZ, 20.4.09, 19.4.14.) Then mass unemployment, recessions, depressions, inflations, stagflations and mass bankruptcies must follow, inevitably, frequently and for long periods. Let all consumers, and their (unappreciated) agents, the employers of “bosses”, become also free to choose in a free market, with their own (not the government's) dollar notes, or those among competitive private note issues which they do prefer for their factories or businesses. Then they could and would soon employ every willing and able worker for the satisfaction of the needs and wants of the public. - Under fully free competition good monies would drive out inferiors ones. - JZ, 21.12.92, 3.10.08, 28.3.11. – FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM! MONOPOLY MONEY WITH LEGAL TENDER POWER IS BAD MONEY, INSUFFICIENTY SUPPLIED OR OVER-SUPPLIED IN UNSOUND FORM. COMPETING FREE MARKET MONIES WITH A SELF-CHOSEN VALUE STANDARD, OPTIONAL, REFUSABLE, DISCOUNTABLE, ARE GOOD MONIES, IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITIES & THEY ARE INFLATION- AS WELL AS DEFLATION-PROOF MONIES. GRESHAM’S LAW, GENERALLY MISUNDERSTOOD AS “BAD MONEY DRIVES OUT GOOD MONEY” OR VERNON ORVAL WATT’S LAW, THAT “UNDER FREEDOM GOOD MONEY DRIVES OUT BAD MONEY”? – JZ, 19.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Contrary to popular opinion, unemployment cannot be due to a “surplus” of labor – because the very needs of the unemployed constitute a still severely under-supplied potential market with almost unlimited sales opportunities for consumer goods and service. (It is limited only be the capability of the unemployed to give productive labor in return.) The production of these goods requires labor. Thus there is not a surplus of labor but a shortage of money, which makes it appear as if there existed a shortage of labor. Free the supply of sound money, optional, refusable, market rated, expressed in sound value standards and suitable for wage payments and the sales difficulties for labor, goods and services will disappear. – Those presently still employed are also under-supplied in many ways, if all their wants and needs are taken into consideration. They ability to pay is also all too limited still and their productive capacity is not as yet as much increased as it could and should be, bringing them higher earned incomes. - JZ, n.d., file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. - If we could satisfy all our needs and wants already with only 10 hours of work per week, we would also be fully employed, to the extent that we want to be employed, at that rate of working hours. – Full time work up to the limits of our capacities for it, is not the purpose of our lives – unless we are e.g. artists and our artistic activity is the main purpose of our lives. Otherwise we earn a living for all the times that we are not working and for the meal breaks during our work. – JZ, 15.8.08, 28.3.11, 19.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Cooperative production versus the fixed wage and employer-employee system. Theodor Hertzka argued that only in cooperative production would the earnings correspond to the maximum profits that are obtainable by adjusting the prices of products to market demands. Only when production would be thus transformed would there be at least one less "fixed" demand for ready cash. (See W. Roscher, Grundlagen der Nationaloekonomie, p.519.) - To that extent a cooperative way of production would be less likely to lead to a deflation than a production and exchange system based on the employer-employee relationship and monetary despotism. At least the cash requirements for wages and salaries could then be rapidly reduced to cope with a lessened cash supply (all supposing the continuance of a system of monetary despotism, of an exclusive and forced currency). Self-intensifying currency famines, or deflations, would then be less likely. (Likewise, self-intensifying inflations, in which prices, finally, race ahead of the capacity of the note-printing presses. - JZ, 28.3.11.) The risk that the workers (in the widest sense) could not buy back their product, would be lessened. - But there is another factor - under monetary despotism - that would tend to keep the cash supply and the non-cash means of payment below the sum required to purchase all goods and services offered. - Cautious and businesslike calculation of wages, salaries and cooperative takings from expected profits, will try to keep these expenditures (combined with the other fixed expenditures) below the amounts to be realized from sales. Thus, including the wages and takings of those trading with the manufactured goods, less money might be circulating in form of exchange media than would be required to purchase back the products and services at retail prices. - If the cash supply or alternative exchange media or clearing certificates or the supply of clearing account options is not elastic, rapidly responding to current requirements with sound exchange media and clearing options, and the non-cash means of payment are based upon this non-elastic supply of cash and when the cash put into circulation is not in close correspondence to the sum of all the retail prices of ready for sale goods and services, payable in cash, but remains below it, then workers, traders and capitalists between them could not buy back the product and services at retail prices and any sudden and wide-spread price reductions could help to set a deflationary spiral into motion. - Bureaucratic negligence and inertia could also bring about that the cash confiscated by bureaucrats as taxes would be extraordinarily slowed down in its return to final consumers, bringing about the risk of a currency famine. That happened in Germany just after the end of the German great inflation in November 1923. Private hoarding, e.g. in revolutionary times or during deflations, could have the same result, while monetary freedom remains suppressed. Much of the then already all too short official supply of exchange media was then hoarded, for all too long, by the authorities not rapidly enough spending the tax funds collected and thus causing a sharp deflation and much unemployment. Full and self-regulating monetary freedom was so far not introduced anywhere and at any time, in spite of the recent past of and enormous abuse of monetary despotism. - One thing is certain: Under the present system the money supply and the wage and salary rates - and often not even the prices – and other debt contracts - are insufficiently elastic nor are they put into a fast and automatic correspondence to the sum of the retail prices for goods and services. They will at least sometimes move disharmoniously and thus can and do bring about economic crises. There is more adaptation under cooperative production or other self-management schemes than in the wage system (employer-employee-relationship) but this, on its own, cannot make up for all the other flaws involved. - Nor could widespread and sudden price reductions overcome a cash shortage fast enough - because whilst fallen prices encourage buying, falling prices discourage from it. Under sales difficulties numerous price reductions might soon become generally falling prices leading, at least for a while, to more and more cash hoarding – among those, who can afford any hoarding of it. – JZ, n.d. & 20.4.09, 19.4.14. - DEFLATION, HOARDING, COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Demand for labor: Free the monetary demand for labor, services and goods, by allowing any exchange medium or non-cash payment system, any kind of clearing certificates or mutual account balancing method and any freely agreed-upon value standard - to be used for expressing, measuring and satisfying this demand, anything that is acceptable to the contracting exchange partners. This to be in addition to any other labor and sales conditions acceptable to freely contracting individuals and groups. Under full monetary and financial freedom the conditions for the suppliers of goods, services and labor will be found to be much more acceptable for them and their customers and employers. - JZ, 21.12.92, 28.3.11, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Depression and mass unemployment are not caused by the free market, but by government interference in the economy. – Ludwig von Mises, HUMAN ACTION, 1949. quoted byAfrikanus Kofi Akosah sharing Bastiat Institute's photo. - Facebook, 25.3.13. – The primary interference is the money issue monopoly of central banks and its legal tender power (compulsory acceptance and forced value), for its paper money. – JZ, 19.4.09. - DEPRESSIONS, CRISES, DEFLATIONS, INFLATIONS, STAGFLATIONS, RECESSIONS, DEPRESSIONS, CRISES, GOVERNMENT IINTERVENTIONISM VS. THE FREE MARKET, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM INSTEAD OF FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Economic crises make also many employers unemployed. – JZ, 7.11.83, note to Ulrich von Beckerath to G. Holzhauer, 13.2.42. – Both groups should show much more interest in finding out causes and curesfor involuntary unemployment, sales difficulties and many bankruptcies and what they could and should do about it. – They certainly cannot rely on governments to solve rather than cause and prolong any economic crisis for them. – At the very least they should stand up for full experimental freedom in this sphere among volunteers. - JZ, 3.10.08. – & EMPLOYERS MONETARY FREEDOM, SELF-HELP, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Employers are not really employers but merely middlemen and agents of the consumers. Consumers employ - if they are free to employ, on a quite free market, via their consumer choices, with the monies at their disposal. The employers are merely and the agents and middlemen acting on their behalf. In a fully free market the consumers can express their needs and demands for goods, services and labor in any exchange and clearing medium and method which they and their agents and the middlemen, the employers and they themselves, as producers and consumers, have supplied themselves and are satisfied with. Thus no exchange medium or clearing method or value standard should be imposed upon them and monopolized, regulated, restricted and manipulated - independent of their individual choices. Under full monetary freedom all desired, possible and economic exchanges, including those of all labor, services and goods, can and would take place. Involuntary unemployment and sales difficulties would be ended. - JZ 21.12.92, 28.3.11. – CONSUMERS & EMPLOYERS, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Employment: Job provision should not be run at a loss, like a private charity or at the expense of the taxpayers. All but useless and unwanted and bad jobs should and can pay for themselves via satisfied customers. Those offering only useless, unwanted, bad or overpriced labors, services and goods do deserve the consumer and employer reactions, i.e. the boycotts they get, and must change to provide some goods, services and labor, which are acceptable for others so that they would bid for them in a free market, with their kinds of free market monies or clearing options. In a truly free market jobs for all willing and able laborers, service and goods suppliers are assured when laborers and other suppliers are free to pay for all their expenses, including supplies, taxes, salaries and wages, in private and money-like assignments upon the goods and services they provide, alone or, preferably, in association with others, and when all their suppliers, including the suppliers of wages and services, are free to accept and offer or negotiate the acceptance of these alternative means of payment or clearing. - Under fully free competition good monies would drive out flawed and bad monies. - JZ 21.12.92, 31.12.92, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Escalation of public relief has created a real option of unemployment to many who might otherwise find employment.” – Charles A. La Dow, THE FREEMAN, 11/74. - UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

UNEMPLOYMENT: Especially all attempts to provide employment should be exempted from all tax impositions. All taxes to become automatically voluntary only - among the voluntary members of protective communities, associations and competing governance systems that are autonomous on an exterritorial basis and are established by those who individually seceded from the present territorial States.  JZ 31.12.92. - & TAX EXEMPTION, VOLUNTARISM, SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION & SUBSCRIPTION SCHEMES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Experimental freedom or freedom of action for all volunteer groups, at their own expense and risk, on the basis of exterritorial autonomy, under their own personal laws, especially for actions and experiments to abolish all the wrongful and irrational legislation and institutions that cause and prolong unemployment. - JZ 31.12.92. – EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Extensive and frequent unemployment and inflations should have been expected by freedom lovers from a system of monetary and financial despotism that Marx and Engels demanded in their 1848 Communist Manifesto in order to destroy the bourgeois economy and introduce communism. Nevertheless, even all governments that pretend to be quite anti-communistic or opposed to State Socialism in their outlook and actions, did adopted this communist monetary platform: central banks with a note issue monopoly and legal tender power for its notes and also systems of compulsory and heavy taxation, i.e. corresponding expropriations. Central banking gave them more power, more liquidity and made them more independent of always unpopular tax tribute levies. They did not care about the consequences of this system for the whole economy: frequent and severe economic crises, mostly of them inflationary but sometimes also of the deflationary kind and often both combined in stagflations. They never bothered to learn about and apply or allow sound alternatives to this monetary and financial despotism ever since. Nor did they care about the massive unemployment and impoverishment that was the result of their monetary despotism. They did not even care that, as a result, their own governments were often replaced by dictatorships or even totalitarians regimes. They became the high priests of the popular monetary religion of the people. It seems never to bother their all too faithful and loyal subjects and victims that their monetary priests and gods never delivered upon their promises. Monetary and clearing self-help measures as well as the free choice of alternative and sound value standard are, usually, furthest from the minds of most of the victims of this “system”, the unemployed and all the creditors, including wage and salary recipients. They still expect the very high priests of this monetary religion, who cause and “manage” monetary and economic crises, with their “monetary policies” to be able and willing to effectively fight them and thus they do keep voting them into power. - Only panarchistic freedom to experiment among volunteers can get us out of this mess. Many of such experimenters will make mistakes but never on the colossal and territorial scale that territorial governments cause. Some of them will learn from their mistakes, would not repeat them at all and try, instead, ways and means that do work. Some might even have enlightened themselves sufficiently, in advance, to run successful monetary experiments right away. Their system would then rapidly spread, just like very effective freeware programs do. However, as long as territorial governments are allowed to exist, they are likely to suppress the best and continue to repeat the worst possible monetary and financial experiments. Even if thereby hundreds of millions of people are made unemployed, impoverished, subjected to dictators and driven into wars. – Just look at the monetary history of their monetary policies. - JZ, 19.4.98, 29.9.08, 19.4.14. – FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM EXPERIMENTS VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Exterritorial autonomy for all dissenting groups: Each exterritorially autonomous group of volunteers to be at liberty to provide for its own productive employment and remaining welfare, credit and insurance arrangements, its own monetary and financial system, and to be exempted from all present territorial constitutions, laws and jurisdictions and those of all other such voluntary and exterritorially autonomous communities, in all its productive and creative activities. Based on such exterritorial autonomy the resulting freedom of action and experimentation among volunteers would soon demonstrate the fallacies and errors and prejudices involved in most of the currently popular employment schemes and the efficiencies of monetary and financial freedoms and of all other economic liberties and rights - for all who make use of them, in providing jobs and sales for themselves. - JZ, 14.12.92, 31.12.92, 19.4.14. – PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: First, the supposedly freedom-loving liberal, democratic or republican governments uphold the communist system of central banking with its issue monopoly, legal tender power and thereby cause inflation and mass unemployment, deflation and stagflation. Then they use armed force to keep out refugees and illegal immigrants, or incarcerate them or deport them, as if they were criminals with victims, when they dare to try to compete for the all too few productive jobs remaining under monetary despotism and other economic interventions. Oh, how I admire the morality, economic knowledge, wisdom and consistency of such great “leaders”! Soon I am supposed to vote for them again. – Not that their political opponents and most other critics would be any better or that my usual informal and thus invalid vote could make a difference. – JZ, n.d. & 23.10.07. Still no one is free to opt out from under these man-made and legalized messes. - 19.4.09. - INFLATION, IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Firstly, since all wealth, i.e. goods and services, is created by men using their labor in conjunction with the free gifts of nature, i.e. land, the reason for not being employed can only be that labor does not have free access to land. Labor does not have access to land because of the high price of land created by speculation particularly in times of high inflation (currency debasement). – PROGRESS, Melbourne, Vic., 1/78. - As if e.g. every watchmaker, baker or computer programmer could be also employed, productively, in agriculture. The present 2 to 4 % of the population, working in this field, do already produce many agricultural products for export and also a wide-spread obesity in the population with the abundance of food they produce. Who could consume a still further increased amount of food? George-ists should ask themselves such questions. Their analysis of the problem and their solution for it is mostly wrong, at least for somewhat developed countries. It times of agricultural feudalism it would have been correct. Then serfs had no easy access to land under free market conditions. – How many hypotheses, theories and “explanations” of cause and cure for unemployment do exist? How many or how few of them are correct? Have all of them been sufficiently surveyed and discussed? - JZ, 19.8.08. – GEORGE-ISM, SINGLE TAX NOTIONS, LAND-MONOPOLY, SURVEY & EVALUATION OF ALL HYPOTHESES & THEORIS ON FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: For Australia the retail store stocks were in June 1998 estimated at over A $ 70 billion and with this amount indicated as larger than normal. These stocks are usually turned over several times a year, in some cases, like fresh bread or milk the turnover used to be daily (now, with sterilization and preservation means they do have a longer shelf-life), fruit and vegetables within a few days, conserves would keep months to years but on the store shelves they may remain usually for much shorter periods and new cars may remain in their sales yards for months. In the average probably A $ 70 billion were therefore turned over several times a year. And to these wares would also have to be added the value of services daily offered for sale. To the extent that there exists still unsatisfied demand for goods and services in the economy that could be satisfied by e.g. overtime or weekend work or second jobs of those already employed, and that there are unemployed and under-employed and they do, obviously, still have great and unsatisfied needs and wants for goods and services, a considerable part of these retail stocks available at any time could become monetized, into shop currencies, that could at least locally be used to pay for more jobs and that would then shortly circulate at par until they stream back into the stores to pay for the goods and services they represent. Then and there they would be cancelled or destroyed, like used tickets and be replaced by new issues as required, as long as these are accepted at par in short term loans, mainly for wages and salary payments of other employers, at least partly also for the own employees and suppliers and tradesmen. These shop-currencies could pay for additional labor and satisfy its unsatisfied needs and demands upon them being spent in the shops of the local shop-association bank of issue. More goods and services would become ready for sale and would tend to be sold easier and faster than before, when they could only be sold for the governmental monopoly money. The total of the ready-for-sale offers could at the same time also be increased, unless the shops were already over-stocked. Mobilized to the inherent limits of its potential (up to refusals and discounts by potential acceptors) enough of this alternative money could, perhaps, become issued and used to enable it to pay wages and salaries or for additional hundreds of thousands of even millions of immigrants, refugees and deserters per year. The limits of this method have not yet been fully explored. Legally and juridically, at least in Australia, such shop currency could only be issued by shops in the payment of consumer credits. These had to be repaid, in installments, in the government’s monopoly money. In this sphere, at least a few years ago, they were issued and used extensively and may be used still. - By removing the legal barriers, they could also have been used for wage and salary payments in many instances, at least for a percentage of the wages and salaries. (In West Berlin, in my time there, some wages and salaries were for a time paid partly in Westmark (D-MARK) and partly in Eastmark, both being official and mismanaged monopoly currencies.) Sound exchange media, using sound value standards, could become so plentiful and easy to produce and keep sound, by the competition between a variety of possible issuers and the option of potential acceptors to refuse or discount them, that they would rather  come to chase after any still available productive labor than continuing the present situation in which unemployed or under-utilized labor would chase, as they often do now, after the insufficiently supplied or unsound monopoly money of the government, often only offered only in jobs they dislike and accompanied by the high likelihood that this forced and exclusive currency would furthermore be inflated, deflated or stagflated, causing economic crises of the inflationary or deflationary kind and, sometimes, even produce a mixture of these phenomena, called stagflation, which can also only be caused by the monetary despotism of the wrongful, flawed and coercive monopoly money of the State or its central bank of issue. – JZ, 16.6.98, 29.9.08, 19.414..

UNEMPLOYMENT: Foreign investments and foreign ownership to become unrestricted, especially in the interests of the unemployed and underemployed. No foreign bank or credit institution, especially no foreign owned note-issuing bank or clearing center to remain outlawed or restricted. - JZ, 31.12.92. – FREE BANKING & FREE INVESMENTS, ALSO FOR FOREIGNERS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Free the monetary demand for labor. Don’t deflate or inflate, monopolize, regulate, coercively control, price or tax it away. – JZ, 9/75, 19.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: freedom at home would cause unemployment in the Civil Service.” - Sir Ernest Benn, in Deryck Abel, Ernest Benn, Counsel for Liberty, p.83. – That would be the only unemployment that would be desirable – in that particular sphere. Presumed “public servants” have to become unemployed as such before they can become real “public servants”, as producers and professionals in a free market. Even these employees would then not be unemployed for long but free to work in rightful and useful rather than in wrongful and harmful jobs. – They would also be free to educate or retrain themselves for better and quite rightful jobs at market rates of wages and salaries, than they had as servants of a territorial government. But they would lose the privilege of getting higher than market rates for their new and productive jobs. They would really have to work for their earnings, rather than get them at the expense of involuntary taxpayers with lesser wages and salaries. That might not suit some of them but would serve them right. If they fine enough voluntary statist victims, their job privileges could be continued among them. - JZ, 23.5.92, 13.8.08, 19.4.14. – BUREAUCRACY, CIVIL SERVICE, PUBLIC SERVANTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Freedom to work isn't free and cannot achieve full employment, lastingly and assuredly, when one may not contract to be paid in alternative exchange media, using also an alternative value standard but remains confined to the exclusive and forced paper currencies now imposed by all territorial governments and when one cannot work and trade untaxed and unregulated. - JZ 26.12.92, 19.4.14. - RIGHT TO WORK, RIGHT TO SUPPLY ONESELF WITH WORK UNDER FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Freely competing optional currencies (refusable and discountable by all but their issuers), issued on e.g. the basis of ready for sale and wanted consumer goods and services, and, mostly, using a sound value standard (also used in the pricing of these goods and services), are sure to achieve more sales for consumer goods and services and are also suitable to be used e.g. to pay wages and salaries with. Not being legal tender monies (with compulsory acceptance and a forced value in general local circulation (only the issuers would have to accept them at their nominal value), they could not only prevent money shortages (deflations) and inflations (over-issues of monopoly monies of the State, with legal tender power) but also “stagflations”, i.e. the combination of deflations and inflations, which also occur only under the legalized monopoly money of the State Treasury or the legalized monopoly of a country’s national central banking system. Many of the alternative and sound free market monies would be “shop currencies” with “shop foundation” They could be rapidly issued in short-term loans to employers, mainly for their wage and salary payments, but also for the running costs of associated local shops, acting as issuers. By their nature they would, usually, have only a short circulation period, especially if they are clearly given a limited acceptance period, printed on each note, say of 3 to 12 months. They would have the potential to get the free enterprise, free exchange, free pricing and free market processes and activities going again and this at close to their potential productive or exchange capacity if all other kinds of sound free market monies are also issued up to their potential by their issuers. E.g. the monies of insurance and transport companies, suppliers of gas, water and electricity. They could keep exchanges going undisturbed by further monetary crises. For then and at least in these spheres the goods and service side would be kept in a natural balance with this kind of free market currency, the volume of these sound exchange media. No more could be issued than would be freely accepted. An over-issue would not be in the business interest of the issuers either, as it is for States or their central banks, with their forced and exclusive currencies. To further free the economy, i.e. the capital market, the extensive financial despotism, including especially taxation, should also be replaced by full financial freedom, including voluntary taxation. Saving and productive capital investments would then also become maximized under these conditions, excepting only man-made catastrophes like wars, revolutions and civil wars, and natural catastrophes like earthquakes, floods and severe storms. But recovery from the latter events would also be much faster and more certain, especially when sound catastrophe arrangements are made, which would also utilize the monetary freedom options. – JZ, 22.2.13, 28.4.13. – Moreover, without man-made economic crises, largely caused by monetary and financial despotism, most dictatorships, tyrannies and totalitarian regimes would become ended and prevented in the future. Resistance and uprisings could be properly financed. Refugees and deserters from such regimes would be welcomed with open arms in other countries, increasing their prosperity. The alternative platforms of societies- and governments-in-exile would unify the opponents or all wrongful regimes and lead to their rapid overthrow. – JZ, 19.4.14. - DEPRESSIONS, CRISES, SALES DIFFICULTIES, BANKRUPTCIES, POVERTY, MONEY SHORTAGE, DEFLATION, RESISTANCE, REVOLUTIONS, MILITARY INSURRECTIONS, REFUGEES, DESERTERS, GOVERNMENTS- & SOCIETIES-IN EXILE, ALL ONLY FOR THEIR PRESENT & FUTURE VOLUNTEERS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM. PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM AS RIGHTFUL WAR- REVOLUTION- & PEACE AIMS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment cannot be achieved at all, lastingly and fast, with a government’s wrongfully by legally monopolized paper money with legal tender power, meaning compulsory acceptance and a forced value. – When it does occur at all then it does not last long, as a rule. - JZ, 9.6.03, 18.10.07. – We would have even a shortage of toothbrushes and shoes if there were monopolies for their production. – And their quality would be rather low, too and, possibly, also deteriorating. – JZ, 19.4.09. – How can full employment be achieved? Mainly by making the production of sound exchange media, including sound clearing certificates, other clearing options and the use of alternative and sound value standards as free and competitive as the production of other goods and services. The division of labor and the exchange of its output do require the abolition of all prohibitions and monopolies for the supply of exchange media as well as clearing certificates and clearing accounts. That should be obvious but isn’t to the legislators of monetary despotism and to the vast majority of their victims. It does not make sense to allow labor, services and goods to be competitively offered – but then sold only to the extent that they can be paid in monopoly money or through clearing under all too restricted clearing, which is also largely tied down to the supply of monopoly money, although by its very nature, it should, obviously, be quite unrestricted, just like barter. – JZ, 19.4.09, 28.3.11. – One might compare this with the competitive supply of cars, which are then forced to use the insufficiently supplied and too narrow roads of the government, which prevent a free flow of traffic. If the government were to supply everyone with a “free” car and the use of these cars would be compulsory for their owners, instead of other forms of mass transport, i.e. an “inflation” of the number of cars, then the all too limited road lanes might become largely filled with bumper to bumper car traffic, proceeding very slowly. Like all other analogies, these, too limp somewhat. However, seeing that money helps to transfer goods and services from one group of people to other groups of people, some early monies had been called transport certificates. – JZ, 19.4.14. - FULL EMPLOYMENT THROUGH MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MASS UNEMPLOYMENT, SALES DIFFICULTIES & BANKRUPTCIES UNDER MONETARY DESPOTISM, ANALOGIES WITH THE SUPPLIES OF CARS & ROADS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment depends upon division of labor and free exchange being undisturbed by any monopoly or coercive interference, especially with exchange media, value standards, clearing and credit avenues, mainly those of short-term turnover credits and clearing methods, required to achieve that production and sales can go on continuously in accordance with the real needs and wants of consumers, so that almost all the goods and services offered do also find their customers and that their potential customers are gainfully employed, paid at least with alternative and competitively issued sound currencies and thus enabled to purchase their individual requirements within the limitations of their earnings. One might consider goods- and service vouchers - competitively issued in money denominations by the providers of the goods and services - as “transport documents” to get the wanted goods and services to those who produce for others the other goods and services that the others want for themselves. Ultimately, in any monetary economy, goods, services and labor are exchanged for the goods, services and labor of others. Competitively issued sound exchange media do merely facilitate this process and clear the mutual debts. To arrange the same exchanges via barter transactions would be very difficult and time consuming. Thus these monetary or clearing exchanges should be as free as the barter exchanges are. We might consider them as merely suitable tools to make exchanges free and easy. No law or institution should coercively interfere with them. A free market and publicity will provide the institutions and media and methods require and sufficiently control them. Obviously, the unemployed and those, who have sales difficulties for their goods and services, need these additional exchange facilities most of all. – Alas, a perfect clearing systems to make the use of any physical exchange media – paper notes, and coins quite superfluous, has not yet been established. Check accounts and credit cards are still tied to cash but are, nevertheless, already steps in that direction. - JZ, 9.11.98. 27.89.09, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment does not cost money – it earns extra money instead – and it can only be achieved with sound money, competitively supplied in all spheres where it is needed, which means that the total quantity of sound exchange media will have to be increased. (Unless the same is achieved by an increase in clearing transactions. However, essentially, exchange media are also only clearing certificates or parts of a clearing processes. - JZ, 28.3.11.) As long as prices, wages and other contracts are expressed in sound value standards and simply more goods, services and labor are turned over, the extra circulation or the additional clearing settlements do not lead to inflationary price rises. On the contrary, then even some considerable price reductions can be expected. – JZ, 20.5.84, 3.10.08, 28.3.11. – More sales mean less fixed sales cost per unit, making a price reduction possible. – JZ, 20.4.09. - INFLATION, QUANTITY THEORY, NOT EVERY INCREASE IN THE QUANTITY OF EXCHANGE MEDIA IS INFLATIONARY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment is not impossible but merely outlawed – via legalized monetary and financial despotism. – JZ, 29.4.98. – Naturally, only the voluntary employment of willing and able workers is meant here. – Voluntary unemployment amounts merely to leisure for those, who can afford it. - JZ, 28.9.08, 28.3.11. – FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Full employment through a really free market, including a free market for means of exchange, clearing certificates and value standards. – JZ, n.d. & 15.8.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Fuller and full employment means merely that more ready-for-sale consumer goods and service are used, in form of suitable means of payment, clearing certificates and clearing account credits, issued by those, who offer these goods and services for sale, indirectly and directly, for the additional purchases of wanted goods and services.  These private goods warrants and service vouchers, in convenient money denominations and using a sound value standard, self-chosen or agreed-upon, would be only redeemed in the goods and services the issuer or an association of such providers has to offer. They would not be offered in long-term or medium term loans but only in short-term turnover-credits, especially to local employers, for the payment of their wage and salary bills and current production expenditures. They would thus stream back fast to the issuers. They would not be legal tender but rely on voluntary acceptance and be subject to discounting and refusals to accept them. However, whenever soundly issued, they would tend to keep their market value at least locally at par with their nominal value and would be readily accepted by most. Used mainly for the payment of local wages and salaries, they would tend to stream back fast to their issuers, especially if their circulation period is limited to between 2 and at most 12 months, with their expiry date clearly indicated upon them. The volume of the current issue should also be clearly indicated as well as the issue and reflux rate for the previous issue. In the absence of legal tender and a monopoly for them, they could not cause an inflation. And with them any deflation or stagflation could be rapidly overcome. The process is no more difficult or dangerous than the free issue of tickets for seats for wanted performance, whether they are bus- or railway tickets or seats in cinemas or theatres or for concert performances. Always as many of them can be issued as are needed to achieve the sale of wanted consumer goods and services – to people, who are, mostly, involved in the process of producing more wanted goods and service. With them medium- and long-term capital certificates could also be bought and repaid, provided only that these investments are productive investments, not investments in monopolies or for stockpiling goods or raw material, keeping them away from the market in the hope of a rise in prices for them. Lastly, in a free market, wanted goods and services (including labor) are always exchanged for other wanted goods and services. When such exchanges are quite free on the monetary side as well (No longer exposed to the risks and dangers of monetary despotism and monopolism!), then unemployment and sales difficulties will cease. Production will be balanced by a corresponding circulation of exchange media or increase of clearing options. There is inherent limit to the total volume of such exchanges and the number of productive jobs or wanted services so paid. – I keep trying to verbally describe this solution until I achieve a version that will be clearly understood by most. If you think you can do this better, please, do sent me your draft. – I do admit, that a perfect clearing system, which is also using a sound value standard, would make any kind of physical exchange media superfluous. But we haven’t achieved this kind of development of the clearing options as yet. Least of all with Bitcoins and similar attempts. – This kind of currency can be called a shop currency with shop foundation. – It has all the advantages of barter but without its difficulties and inconveniences. - JZ, 29.11.12, 22.3.14. –  - FULLER & FULL EMPLOYMENT, JOBS, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, FREELY COMPETING FREE MARKET MONIES, PRIVATELY ISSUED BY ALL KINDS OF SUITABLE ISSUERS VS. THE MONETARY DESPOTISM OF CENTRAL BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Government has no more business sponsoring idleness than compelling people to work. By the first it burdens taxpayers and encourages licentiousness; by the second it imposes slavery.” – Clarence B. Carson, THE FREEMAN, 8/76. - As someone has once said, ignoring all other factors: “Governments can get as much unemployment or poverty as they are willing to pay for.” – I remember a meeting of some Freiburg/Br. anarchists, all of them officially unemployed. A certain anarchist job, they agreed, had to be done - by at least one of them. As it turned out, all of them at least said that they were too busy, earning some money in some black market jobs, to have the time to do this anarchist job! Was this just an excuse for them not to engage in some unpaid labor of love? – If they spoke the truth, then it would have been good for them, but bad for the taxpayers, forced t fund their unemployment benefits, while they were really employed on the black market. – I was over-burdened with photocopying libertarian texts for micro-filming. And their kind of anarchism was, mostly, not my kind of anarchism. - JZ, 14.8.08. - DOLE, SOCIAL SERVICES, UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS, UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE, IDLENESS, POVERTY.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Government make-work programs impoverish the economy by draining off labor that could be used to lower the costs of wanted goods and services.” – Diogenes of Panarchia, THE CONNECTION 116, p.35.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Government measures are the primary cause of unnecessary unemployment – particularly minimum wage laws and measures granting special immunities for trade unions. Eliminate these, and the unemployment rage, particularly among blacks, would drop sharply.” – Milton Friedman, An Economist Protests, p.XV. – I do not agree with the implied concept that there is something like “necessary unemployment” for people willing and able to work for market wages, paid in competitively issued exchange media and self-chosen value standards. – JZ, 3.10.08, 28.3.11. – Even he neglected the most important factors producing involuntary unemployment, namely: monetary and financial despotism. – Since uncounted books, articles, essays, lectures and public discussions haven’t sufficiently clarified this subject either, not even among libertarians, it may be high time to finally compile a comprehensive digital argument map on the subject. - JZ, 20.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Government spending does not reduce unemployment.” – Terry Arthur, 95% Is Crap, p.16. - Government spending on unemployed merely transfers unemployment from some sectors of the economy and some groups and individual to others, either through taxation or inflation, which is also a form of taxation. It thus reduces productivity and the standard of living for all except those who bureaucratically administers this scheme, as inefficiently as they usually do. The bureaucrats involved should also be counted among the unemployed, since they are not productively employed. Involuntary unemployment cannot be reduced or abolished in this way. If the government does employ formerly unemployed or subsidizes their employment then these people will be less productively employed than other people would have been if they had not been deprived by the government via taxation or inflation of the funds for doing this. It is again a question of what is seen and what is not seen, as Bastiat would have said. – The same applies to the so-called unemployment insurance. The insurance amounts are taken away and to that extent reduce employment opportunities and create additional unemployment. If they are kept as ready cash then the circulation of exchange media is correspondingly reduced and this will tend to increase unemployment. If they are productively invested then these funds cannot be suddenly asked back, to pay masses of people who have become unemployed, for this would also create additional unemployment. Unemployment is really not an insurable risk since the government can at any time create or increase it to almost any extent in any country and sometimes has done so even to up to 80% unemployment. The only good insurance against unemployment consists in its prevention. Subsidizing unemployed does naturally also increase the number of those who claim unemployment benefits and reduces the willingness to work among those, who could, through working, earn not much more than they could get in unemployment benefits for not working. – As usual, even the democratic governments have created a mess in this sphere as well. Totalitarian government have “reduced unemployment” largely via conscription, forced labor, slave labor and even through mass extermination of innocent people. – Governments, with their forced and exclusive currencies do mass-produce unemployment in three main ways: deflation, inflation and stagflation. – I do not deny that they “achieve” this "aim" at least partly also in numerous other ways, e.g. through compulsory licensing, quotas, wage controls, minimum wages. But the main effective factor is their monetary despotism. - JZ, 24.9.98, 28.3.11, 20.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Governments and legislators, get out of the way. You cannot produce anything, least of all additional productive jobs, profitable sales and productive services. Let us produce jobs and sales, by freeing our exchanges from your laws, regulations, institutions and jurisdiction, especially from your monetary despotism. - JZ, 21.12.92, 30.12.92. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Governments can create unemployment but they cannot abolish it - except by getting out of the way. - JZ, 21.12.92. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Governments can't create jobs. They can only shift over jobs from some groups to others - while destroying many jobs in the process and making others unproductive. - JZ 14.12.92. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Gresham's law reversed: When good monies are not free to drive out bad monies then the bad monies force not only good monies but sellers of quality goods, labor and services out of the market. Only those exchanges will take place which can be arranged via the forced and exclusive currency of the State and the all too limited clearing and turnover credit options that remain under such a monopoly currency. - JZ 31.12.92, 28.3.11. – But when good money (optional money without legal tender, and a sound reflux arrangement, meaning convertibility not into gold or silver but into wanted consumer goods and services, with the money’s value standard and the goods and services prices, perhaps and by choice, expressed in gold or silver weight units) can be freely issued and accepted or discounted and refused, then the good money tends to drive the bad money out of circulation, just like good products and good services tend to drive the bad ones off the market. – JZ, 20.4.09, 28.3.11. - & GRESHAM’S LAW

UNEMPLOYMENT: He didn’t riot. He got on his bike and looked for work.” – Norman Tebbit, MP, speech to the Conservative Party conference, Blackpool, Daily Telegraph, 16.10. 1981. He was then employment secretary in Thatcher’s government. Unemployment stood at 3 million. Neither his father, to whom N. T. referred, nor N. T. himself, nor most of the then registered 3 million unemployed bothered to think about what is really required and what must be abolished to achieve full employment. He did not even propose full experimental freedom for all volunteers trying to realize this objective among themselves. – JZ, 21.8.07, 23.9.07. – Even a Hitler once gained many votes by promising to make experiments in this sphere until he would have found the solution. However, the only experiments he tried were forced labor, conscription, the use of old age insurance funds to finance his rearmament, also inflation of the unsound government monopoly money, concentration camps for his opponents and blaming Jews as his scapegoats for all remaining problems, finally starting WW II and the great Holocaust of Jews, gypsies and others. – In short, he offered, largely, only the greatest absurdity in this sphere, namely mass murder as a solution to the problem of unemployment. – JZ, 20.4.14. & RIOTS, HITLER’S EXPERIMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Henry George and others have repeatedly demonstrated and emphasized that work is not an end but a means of satisfying material wants, and that until all such wants are satisfied there can be no real shortage of work. In fact the intelligence of people causes them to strive to reduce work by exchanging their products and services and by inventing and using labor saving devices. …” – “Viewpoint” in GOOD GOVERNMENT, 2/80. – WORK, EMPLOYMENT, FULL EMPLOYMENT, JOBS, MACHINES, AUTOMATION, DIVISION OF LABOR & FREE EXCHANGE, LABOR SAVING EFFORTS, PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES

UNEMPLOYMENT: History Repeats Itself, or Cutting Unemployment by Killing Working Men - Read also e.g. Ulrich von Beckerath: Must Full Employment Cost Money? - - Alas, most unemployed are among the least interested people when it comes to explore and think about the real causes and cures for unemployment." - JZ, 19.6.11, on Facebook. - CAUSE & CURE

UNEMPLOYMENT: How long would it take to achieve full employment? Australian politicians now hope merely for a lower degree of unemployment than 11% within a few years. I guess one should not expect anything better while central banking remains. I assert that full employment via monetary freedom would be possible within a week - if it still would have to be discussed and would be fully discussed in the mass media. However, it could be realized within hours if this option were already known and appreciated. - JZ, 21.12.92, 28.3.11.  - Compare the self-help successes of businessmen during the currency famine of 1893, described by John DeWitt Warner. – See: - TRANSITION PERIOD TO FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: How much in sound and short-term credits for employment purposes could monetary freedom almost immediately mobilize, or, in other words, by how much could the “liquidity” situation be improved without any risk of inflation, to finance more employment and sales and to end the internal and international trade depression? By as much as there exist ready for sale and also needed or wanted consumer goods and services, as far as the internal trade is concerned. The limit would be reached in practice when shop currencies have reached their saturation point and would thus no longer be accepted at par and would begin to be refused or accepted only at a discount. - As for international trade: Add up all the goods and services that are ready for sale internationally, to people do who need or want them but are not supplied with sufficient purchasing power to acquire them. - The potential issue and reflux volume for shop currencies can be estimated, somewhat, merely through walking through any large shopping center. Perhaps good enough statistics do exist on this, produced by the associations of retail traders. - In the international trade, our exports could be promoted and our import needs satisfied to the extent that we would be free to pay for our imports with suitable certificates redeemable in our export goods and services. By thus appearing first as buyers overseas, we could do much to break down all the existing international trade barriers. Here, too, we could issue as much in international purchasing power as the international exchange rate for such exchange media would allow us to acquire. At its free market rate we would tend to maximize our international trade plus our advantages from it. If we overvalued our international clearing certificates, redeemable in our exports, we would find few acceptors for them. If we undervalued them, we would give part of our export values away. If we valued our exports in nominal grams of gold value units and also our export goods and services in such a value standard, then we could issue such clearing certificates as payments for our exports as long as they are accepted at par with their nominal value or close enough to it. – For some details on this read especially the writings of Prof. Edgard Milhaud and Ulrich von Beckerath. - JZ, n.d.

UNEMPLOYMENT: How unfree need prices and wage rates be, how regulated labor and business, how high and penal and exploitative the taxes, how numerous the monopolies (worst of all the central bank's monopoly) and how high and numerous the subsidies, in order to create and perpetuate involuntary mass unemployment? - JZ 21.12.92. – On this we have accumulated all too much experience and facts, for all too long, and still most of the “experts” have not drawn the right conclusions from this situation. Nor are they prepared to permit dissenters to engage in free monetary, clearing and value standard experiments among themselves. All that would be rightful and sensible in this sphere is simply outlawed and suppressed! – JZ, 20.4.09. – PROHIBITIONS, MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, RESTRICTIONISM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, COMPETING FREE MARKET CURRENCIES, AN END TO COMPULSORY TAXATION OR TRIBUTE LEVIES, THEIR REPLACEMENT BY VOLUNTARY SUBSRIPTIONS TO WANTED SERVICES & GENERAL ECONOMIC FREEDOM, AT LEAST FOR ALL THOSE, WHO WANT IT AMONG THEMSELVES: PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, INDIVIDUAL & GROUP SECESSIONISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: I am in favor of unemployment for all territorial governments, all their ministers and public servants. But I have no objection against them doing something productive and constructive instead. – JZ, 4.7.75. – Or of “serving” only communities of volunteers, at the expense and risk of these volunteers. Only the territorial monopoly claims of statists should no longer be recognized. – JZ, 30.9.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: I do not understand why people are puzzled by the phenomenon of simultaneous higher unemployment benefit and lower employment. Economic principles work: if you increase the demand for anything, the supply will grow to meet it. In your country and mine we have made it ever more attractive to be unemployed. We have increased the demand for unemployment, and the supply of unemployed has risen to meet that demand.” - Milton Friedman, From Galbraith to Economic Freedom, p.49. - At the same time we failed to increase the monetary demand for productive labor, at market wage rates, by means of additional, optional, competitive and market-rated sound currencies. - JZ, 28.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING VS. CENTRAL BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: I would like to see a comprehensive anthology that would systematically deal with all the sense and nonsense that has so far been uttered on the subject of unemployment and contributed to the ignorance and confusion on this subject in most heads. If well and clearly written it could become a bestseller. Perhaps it could be produced gradually and collaboratively through a website that would discuss all the ideas, opinions and facts in this sphere. As a starting point for such a discussion I recommend Ulrich von Beckerath’s second monetary freedom book: “Must Full Employment Cost Money?” – which can be found on – The electronic “argument mapping” methods developed by Paul Monk et al and described online should also be systematically applied in this discussion. – That no government was so far able to effectively cope with mass unemployment should be obvious by now. The failure to do so can once again bring a totalitarian regime like that of the Nazis to power. - JZ, 23.9.98, 26.9.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: If automation were really causing unemployment then what could or should happen? - Philip E. Jacobsen, in THE CONNECTION 133, p.78, raised the following question: If only a small percentage of the work force could support the whole population, why should they? - Ulrich von Beckerath, in his monetary freedom books, online at raised the old legend of “Aladin’s Lamp” as an instructive example. Why, indeed, should Aladin or the owners of automated factories, bother to produce for the whole world, rather than merely for themselves? What do the others have to offer them in return? They could all act as armies of worshippers of or personal servants of Aladin and the automated producers but Aladin and these producers might get bored with them and dismiss them. What then? We should remember that people are biological robots or productive machines, at least potentially, who do own themselves and could work for themselves. Thus these unemployed millions or even billions could then work for themselves or for each other, in division of labor, in the conventional ways, without the help of Aladin’s lamp or of the automated production equipment, perhaps even without tools or machines or only primitive ones. They could then act as if Aladin’s lamp and the automated production equipment of the others did not really exist. Which would mean, that they would be over-employed, with primitive labors – until they have supplied themselves with their own and better tools, machines and also with at least some automated production equipment. Unemployment would certainly not be caused and maintained among them by Aladin’s lamp, by the machines or automated factories of others but by their own lack of initiative to engage in their self-help options, especially their monetary and financial ones for facilitating exchanges among themselves, as if they were, e.g., a foreign country's whole population. – Alas, with their current mentality they would tend to put Aladin and the automated producers under so heavy taxation, that the unemployed could then all go on the dole. – And they would feel somehow satisfied and complacent about this robbery, since they believe in welfare “rights” and in taxation of the willing and able. - JZ, 15.8.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: If firing were again made as easy as hiring then it would again become much easier to get hired. – JZ, 20.5.99. – Who would want to employ somebody whom he cannot easily and fast dismiss when he is no longer needed? Or if it turns out that he is not a good enough worker? To that extent unemployment is also artificially promoted by well-intentioned but foolish labor-protection laws. – JZ, 25.9.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: If politicians knew how to provide employment, do you think they would try to do without the votes of e.g. a million unemployed and of their dependents in Australia? - JZ 21.12.92. – While they do not know how to end and prevent involuntary unemployment, by their anti-economic and despotic territorial laws they do prevent other people from solving this and other problems themselves, by free and rightful self-help actions, based on sound monetary freedom theories or practices carefully applied and developed in free experiments among volunteers. - JZ, 28.3.11. - POLITICIANS, VOTING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CURRENCY POLICIES, MONETARY & BANKING LEGISLATION, SELF-HELP EXPERIMENTS OF UNEMPLOYED & STRUGGLING BUSINESSES TO ACHIEVE FULL EMPLOYMENT & FREE MARKET SALES

UNEMPLOYMENT: If private people and their associations were allowed to issue sound, i.e. non-coercive paper money types, which are suitable to pay wages with and acceptable in the stores and which do maintain themselves in free competition with other alternative currencies, then unemployment would soon disappear and inflation would become impossible. - The task consists in sufficiently increasing the money circulation without depreciating the additionally issued exchange media or driving the general price level up. The circulation should be increased just sufficiently to so increase the goods and service exchanges that all involuntary unemployment is done away with, all productive potential is used and all sales difficulties for wanted goods are abolished. The sale of labor and goods should then take place neither at emergency sales prices nor at inflated prices but at free market prices. MONETARY FREEDOM SELF-HELP ACTIONS - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: If technology and machines eliminate jobs, would somebody please explain to me why there are more jobs around today than there were before the Industrial Revolution?” – Bob Ryan, Subiaco, W.A., THE AUSTRALIAN, 1979/80. - AUTOMATION, MACHINES, TECHNOLOGY, Q.

UNEMPLOYMENT: If unemployment were merely the result of unwillingness to work would you then presume to state that high degrees of unemployment have merely become simply “fashionable” for a while and then get out of fashion again?- JZ, 18.1.85. – Are there really that many people with sufficient other sources of income so that they do not want to work and do not have to work to make a living? In my time in Berlin up to 300,000 of a work force of 900,000 were unemployed and among these 300,000 unemployed were 20,000 professionals. Whoever would have told them to their face that they would be unwilling to work might have been beaten up by those who would have felt insulted by that suggestion. – JZ, 20.4.09. 

UNEMPLOYMENT: If you think the system is working, ask somebody who isn’t.” – Quoted by John T. Harlee in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER. – A bumpersticker that was offered by the Harleian Miscellany Club in 1984.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In a free market there would always be a shortage of labor. We live in a world of scarcity and there is always work to be done.” – Ron Paul. – True, but the reason for this, that he states, is insufficient. In a really free market the supply of sound exchange media and of sound value standards would also be competitive, i.e. the monetary demand for labor, expressed in sound exchange media, would correspond to the turn-over capital present in form of ready for sale goods and services, which constitutes the main working capital of any country. Under full freedom this ready for sale potential could be monetarily mobilized by the owners of it issuing their own kind of shop-foundation currency, covered by and redeemed in what they do have to offer, so that the depression and deflation tendency would become reversed, for such sound exchange media could then be freely and sufficiently, but not excessively supplied to chase productive labor potential, driving its prices, wages and salaries up to their market values, rather than unemployed or under-employed people chasing exchange media which are neither sound nor in sufficient supply because their issue and their value standard are monopolized and thus mismanaged, independent of the requirements of a free market. - So far only the supply of labor is quite free, not the monetary demand for it! If the supply of sound exchange media (or clearing and non-cash payment options) is insufficient, because it is not free and sound, then there would still be much work to be done and, nevertheless, all too much involuntary unemployment and under-employment would still occur. Employers would not be free to act as employers. Entrepreneurs would not be free enough to act as entrepreneurs. Their wanted consumer products and services would not be easy enough to sell. Thus they could not hire and might have to fire at last some employees. Ready for sale goods and services would remain largely unsold and productive capital assets would remain partly idle. The hoped-for, expected and predicted automatic and sufficient adaptation of all prices and wages to a changed supply of exchange media, even to a supply that has become monopolized, would not always and everywhere occur rapidly enough. - The resulting bankrupted employers and businessmen would also be a kind of unemployed people. - Exchange media are just that, media to enable and facilitate exchange. Only quite free clearing could replace them and, to some extent, it already does. - Consider an analogy from the capital market: Just imagine that there would be only a single organization in a country, or even in the world, that would be authorized to issue shares, bonds, mortgages or capital certificates. Could we imagine that this single organization would be informed and wise enough to issue just the right total of capital certificates required to finance all capital requirements in a country or in the world? - Or imagine that only a single organization in a country (Like the H.O. = Handels-Organization = Trade Organization in Communist East Germany) would be allowed to offer any goods or services for sale. Could we then expect their supply to be satisfactory, especially when all production is monopolized as well, in the hands of the State? - - Please, try, very patiently, to express such thought more clearly and concisely still, if you can! So much depends on this, directly or indirectly, that we do, finally, get these relationships quite right in our heads and in our exchanges. "Society is exchange" - said Bastiat. – Without free exchange we cannot have a free society. - JZ, 13.8.08. - See especially: , , , and

UNEMPLOYMENT: In a quite unrestricted and thus really free market for goods, services and labor, based upon free division of labor and specialization and full freedom to exchange its products, services and labor for the products, services and labor of others, each would have the choice between hundreds of thousands of different productive jobs, the right or opportunity to work in any of them as productively as he can be and thus earn freely issued and accepted standardized claims in convenient money denominations (actually being clearing certificates or clearing accounts as well), upon the goods, labors and services of others, a kind of ticket money or shop currency or purchasing vouchers or clearing certificates, which are all competitively supplied and self-regulated in a free market for local currencies, so that they are neither over-issued nor under-issued but simply correspond to all the goods, services and labor offered ready for sale for them. Involuntary unemployment could not exist under this condition (apart from natural catastrophes, wars, civil wars or revolutionary conditions.). The current demand for labor thus expressed would even exceed the value of all the labor that people, between them, could immediately offer in exchange, on the same day, within then next week or month, in form of their own productive labor, in all somewhat developed countries, where a large stock of ready for sale goods and service options exists and their owners or providers do want to exchange them in suitable ways, for mutual benefit, utilizing in the process all the available and willing labor and all productive other capital that are offered at market prices. It is absurd to assume that really free and also informed exchanges are not profitable for their participants or that exchanges are really free while people offering useful and wanted goods, services or labor cannot freely exchange them for those of others. – To the extent that people are indebted, e.g. through installment credits, and house-building credits, their own obligation to pay the regular installments for them could be issued by them in form of their own debt certificates, amounting to the next repayment and interest installment due soon. These, their own IOUs, the debtors could use in a perfect clearing system as their own means of payment or clearing, which they would have to accept, when due, in wage and salary payments due to them. Their creditors would get that part of their wages and salaries of the debtors (paid in whatever means of payment) that was due to them, as creditors, as the next installment repayment. The debtors would then receive back, the IOUs they had issued for their debt installment payments, in their wage- or salary-envelope. These IOU would then have helped to provide them – and others, with additional employment opportunities, through their limited additional circulation. Insofar they could assure and anticipate their own employment and assure their own ability to pay their debt installment, paying with part of the value of the labor still to be performed by them. – The more indebted they would be, there greater would be the monetary demand for their goods and services. Under a perfect clearing system, with the sufficient publicity required for it, their indebtedness could not go beyond their ability to work to pay it off, apart from insurable risks. – Only insufficiently informed creditors would grant them more in credits than they would be able to pay off with the earnings from their work. - At present some of the larger consumer goods, e.g. furniture, are even offered on credit, interest-free, for up to 3 years, always in the hope or expectation that they buyers would be enabled to earn enough of the resent monopoly money issued by central banks to pay their debts in installments. - JZ, n.d. & 4.10.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In a world, which has an infinite amount of work to be done, involuntary unemployment is inconceivable – provided the market is free. Unemployment is always the result of price (wage) and other coercive controls. Automation, … has nothing whatever to do with it. Our mechanical slaves – labor-saving devices of all kinds – stem from the recognition and pursuit if higher wants than mere survival; they are the means toward such ends.” – Leonard E. Read, Deeper Than You Think, p.58. - The free prices and wages of a free market require also a competitive supply of sound exchange media and clearing options. - In other passages Read did also stand up, in very general terms, for a competitive money supply. - JZ, 29.3.11, 20.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In Germany the fallacy used to be wide-spread that two earners in a couple, husband and wife, do deprive other people of their right and opportunity to a job. (That these two earners, with their earnings, when they spend them, do also express a monetary demand for the products of two other producers, in any free market exchange, which is based upon the division of labor, was conveniently overlooked as well in this opinion. – JZ, 20.4.14.) One of the many false premises in this assertion is that jobs are available only in a limited quantity and should thus be fairly ‘shared’, with one job for a couple to be the limit! If that assumption were true then over history, every tenfold increase in population should have increased unemployment correspondingly. Instead, the number of employed people has increased enormously, also the variety of their jobs and of the tools, machines and automatic equipment at their disposal. – All the errors and spleens on unemployment have, probably, not yet been systematically collected and optimally refuted. - JZ, 30.9.08, 29.3.11. The following are some of my older notes on the subject: Unemployed are or should be aware that for each of them there are many people who would gladly employ them in one way or the other - if only they would not have to pay them for their labors. They could keep them at work, sweating for 8 hours or more a day. There is no shortage of jobs that people want done. But few of these people can pay full or any wages for these labors. Thus the tacit assumption that there is not sufficient work to be done, that work opportunities are only available in a fixed quantity and that this quantity ought to be fairly rationed, that double earning ought to be outlawed while there are couples of whom both are unemployed, is wrong. Not insufficient work is there but insufficient sales of labor exist or insufficient means of payment to pay labor with. That is quite another matter. - The needs and wants for goods and services are, essentially, quite unlimited. Any husband, whose wife likes spending his income, should at least have learned this practical lesson. Also each unemployed needs and wants numerous goods and services - but has not got the purchasing power to buy them. X suppliers would only too gladly sell them these goods and services - if only they would be paid for them. The potential for producing more of these goods and services is there - but not sufficient demand supplied with purchasing power. - Almost everyone could fill out a long shopping list for goods and services he would like to buy, if only he could afford them. For most such lists would run up to thousands, if not tens of thousands of dollars per annum, to more than they have saved or expect to earn in the near future. To produce these goods and services requires labor. But that labor will also come forward only when the goods and services it would supply could, through the exchange media earned in the process, become exchanged for the goods provided and services offered by others. Both sides want things. Both sides are willing to work for them. But both sides find it difficult to get paid for the things their labor offers so that they can buy the goods and services that other offer and that they want or need. The wishes for more things are practically unlimited, but they can, on both sides, at best only satisfied in correspondence with their immediate and future paid work, that would allow them to pay for the wanted or needed things immediately or in installments. The natural condition should, therefore, be rather overwork for all people whose wants are not yet satisfied, not lack of work. One does not have to invent new goods and services in order to keep the present workers fully employed towards the satisfaction or their wishes for goods and services. Almost no one feels that he has quite enough of those presently offered. If he had, he would have no reason to complain but simply would enjoy shorter working hours and more leisure time. The latter would mostly cost him something, too, first to be earned through his labor or later to be paid if he gets it on credit. - Workers in the US earn about double as much as workers in Germany do. They do not feel over-supplied with goods and services. Their wants have simply increased. That means that more must be produced for them to satisfy these wants. Nevertheless, presently (ca. 1960) ca. 2 million of them are unemployed. - In Asia and Africa the average standard of living is much lower than in Europe. In other words, their needs for goods and services are much higher than ours in Europe or of the people in the US. - Certainly, there is no shortage of jobs that needs doing in these countries. Nevertheless, millions of their people are unemployed. Consequently, unemployment is not due to lack of jobs that need to be done. - One should also take into consideration that most American consumers are in considerable debt. This means that their current earnings were insufficient to pay immediately for the goods and services they wanted. Thus they acquired them on credit. To repay their debt, they will have to work for a considerable time and much of their earnings in the future will have to be used to pay their debts. In other words, they need to produce goods and offer services to clear their debts, since all debts can lastly only be paid in goods and services. Here, too, is a large work opportunity, for these creditors want to be paid. - The difficulty lies not in finding work that needs doing or workers able and willing to do it but to arrange for the payment of work that needs to be done, one is willing to do and that others wish to be done or that ought to be done. - The problem lies not in insufficient needs or wishes for the products or services of work but in insufficient monetary demand, for them, i.e. in insufficient needs and wants that are sufficiently supplied with purchasing power. That purchasing power can, under freedom, normally only be earned through productive work. Only needs and wants that are supplied with purchasing power can act as immediately effective monetary demand on the market. - If everybody could pay for his needs and wants with sound money then all unemployed would soon be employed, at market rate wages. - Everybody's supply with means of payment ought to be restricted only by his ability and willingness in the past, present and near future to give equivalent goods and services in return - corresponding to his role in the division of labor process. Then his spending would provide income or work for others and would, at the same time, mean work for himself. People wanting to spend more would have to work more or would have to work more productively. Neither case would lead to unemployment. Only the leisure time of very productive people, who limited their wants, might be larger. - What is limited in our system is effective monetary demand, i.e. needs and wants supplied with purchasing power. The hungry person is not hungry because there is not enough food but because he has not the money to pay for it. He has no money to pay for it because there is insufficient money to pay him for the labor he would be able and willing to give in return. - Translation of some German notes by JZ, most likely from before 1959, on double earners, slightly changed 11/85 & 30.9.08, 29.3.11, 20.4.14. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files –  UNEMPLOYMENT THROUGH DOUBLE EARNERS? - All these statements by myself are standing invitations to others to word them much better and shorter. - JZ, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In Middlesbrough the unemployed huddle in frowzy beds, bread and marg and milkless tea in their bellies. - George Orwell, Keep the Apidistra Flying, p.634 in the Octopus/Heineman edition of 1980. And very few of them ever think seriously about the causes of and cures for unemployment, just like very few ever seriously think about e.g. the abolition of taxation, wars and of territorial governments. – JZ, 21.9.13, 6.10.13. – THINKING ABOUT THE OWN SITUATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: In spite of all assurances of governments that 98% to 99% employment of the workforce would already constitute full employment, I assert that one single and involuntary unemployed would already be too much. Ask him! - JZ - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: In the give and take – the resiliency of the free market – everyone who wishes to work can do so. There need be no involuntary unemployment other than the time lost in changing jobs. Production will rise to a given population’s potential; and wages, salaries, earnings will rise accordingly.” – Leonard E. Read, Then Truth Will Out, p.104. – Alas, the supply of exchange media and clearing options as well as an increase in productive investments does not automatically increase with the increased offer of wanted or needed consumer goods and services, at least not under the present system of monetary and financial despotism, under which its opposites are outlawed. – JZ,20.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: In the Southern Highlands of NSW there existed, at least for some years, one local charity shop, if not several, started by a Roman Catholic priest, with the intention to help get unemployed youths off the streets. - If only one could get the religious people off their addiction to charity as a panacea, and to examine, instead, the legal causes of involuntary unemployment, then something worthwhile might be achieved. Imagine the Pope or the R. C. Church officially and scientifically examining cause and cure for unemployment, including the monetary freedom options. With the realization of the latter and, naturally, of all the other economic liberties as well, requiring e.g. the abolition of minimum wages, of the compulsory licensing system, freedom in the credit and clearing sphere, unemployment among young people, too, could be abolished within hours to days at most. – Moreover, then there would be jobs for millions of refugees and immigrants too, including deserters from the armed forces of foreign dictatorships. But who is seriously interested in such options and possibilities? – JZ, 31.17.03, 29.3.11. - ESPECIALLY AMONG YOUTH, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM OR CHARITY EFFORTS?

UNEMPLOYMENT: In the Spring 05 review of Laissez Faire Books of John Stossel’s, “Myths, Lies, and Nasty Behavior”: “Outsourcing Kills American Jobs: America lost 361 million jobs between 1993 and 2002.” – “Sounds terrible – until you know that, during these same years, America gained 380 million new jobs. Free trade, including outsourcing, brings the creative destruction that makes that possible.” – Such generalizations simply ignore the inflationary as well as the deflationary and stag-flationary effects of monetary despotism and assume that it could work as well as monetary freedom would. – Like many sick people they are simply in denial – because they are still alive. – Man was conditioned to put up with slavery for thousands of years and with serfdom for hundreds of years, so we should not be surprised that he is able and willing to put up, unquestioningly, with the effects of monetary despotism under a variety of delusions for all too many decades. – That, certainly, saves them much thinking. And yet it would need only the panarchistic freedom required for all peaceful dissenters to demonstrate - to anyone interested - with the successes among their free experiments (all only undertaken at their own risk and expense), how fast and easily involuntary mass unemployment, inflation and stagflations, recessions and depressions can be overcome by voluntary self-help steps, including especially full monetary and financial freedom measures. – JZ, 19.4.09, 29.3.11. - OUTSOURCING JOBS, EXPORTING JOBS, FREE TRADE, PROTECTIONISM, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM,

UNEMPLOYMENT: In which economic, social and political sphere is there no harmful effect of involuntary unemployment of those able and willing to work? And yet the ideas on its cause and cure do still leave so much to be desired. Especially the influences of monetary and financial despotism upon it do remain all too widely unrecognized or ignored, in favor of other “explanations”. It is still one of the major problems, leading to wars, revolutions, civil wars, dictatorships, even totalitarianism, inflations, the suppression of basic rights and liberties, e.g. that of free migration, even restrictions of the right to asylum from wrongful prosecution. It also leads to, racism and intolerant nationalism, the trade union mentality, class warfare and exploitation notions, State Socialism, Welfare States, Warfare States, coercive re-distributionism, tax slavery, envy, and a strong bias against free markets, free trade, free exchange and capitalism as if they were already fully realized and had caused this problem. For a long time it had even lead to the exclusion of women from many jobs.  All the numerous popular errors, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions, in this sphere as well, have not yet been systematically assembled and refuted, as far as I know. Almost the same could be said about inflation. – JZ, 10.11.12. - Q. – ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS OF POPULAR ERRORS, PREJUDICES, WRONG ASSUMPTIONS & CONCLUSIONS, WHICH ARE OBSTACLES TO ENLIGHTENMENT, PROGRESS, PROSPERITY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Interest in the cause of unemployment: Is there even one among dozens of millions of unemployed who is willing to make the "supreme" sacrifice of some of his plentiful spare time, to read a truthful book on cause and cure of unemployment, like Ulrich von Beckerath's "Must Full Employment Cost Money?" (Reproduced in PEACE PLANS 10.) JZ 30.12.92. – Now online at - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – An anthology covering all the false as well as the correct views on unemployment, its causes and cures, seems to be still missing – together with sufficient interest  to produce it, although it has at least the potential to become a best-seller. – JZ, 20.4.14. - INTEREST IN THE OWN AFFAIRS, CAUSAL THINKING ON PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS, PUBLIC OPINION, PREJUDICES, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS, “ARGUMENT MAPPING” ON UNEMMPLOMENT, IDEAS ARCHIVE

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment could be as fast abolished as could inflation and deflation as well as stagflation could be abolished – though full monetary freedom and free choice of value standards and free clearing, especially if this were combined with the introduction of full monetary freedom, including e.g. voluntary taxation and quite free and competitive stock exchanges. Through the repeal of the laws of monetary and financial despotism or a monetary and financial revolution this could be achieved within hours or days, provided only that public opinion is already sufficiently enlightened in advance about these changes or that there are enough people who have acquired the necessary knowledge to immediately establish and successfully run monetary and financial freedom institutions among themselves, for the benefit of their voluntary members, organized in personal law communities of volunteers, after seceding from territorial States. At leas for the monetary freedom aspect of this revolution no new capital investments are required or expensive bank building or computer systems. Cheap printing facilities are available and as an office, initially, even a garage might do. Since no gold treasures are involved or legal tender money useful in a whole country but merely local currencies with a limited circulation area and volume, not even safes might be required for the first small banks of issue of this kind. – They would simply facilitate the free exchange of existing goods and services and achieve a higher usage rate of the already existing capital equipment and structures. – The financial freedom aspect would require e.g. freedom to contract value-preserving clauses, payments of debts in other means of exchange than the government’s monopoly money and freedom from taxation upon any productive work or voluntary exchange, at least among all those, who have seceded from territorial States with their monetary and financial despotism. The enlightenment required would at least need a good enough handbook and sufficient “argument mapping” on all the aspects of it, a bibliography, abstracts and review collection, combined index, refutations file, an A & Q, compilation, a list of all the correct and the incorrect definitions involved. All these and other helpful references and a complete digital library on the subject could be compiled and offered on a large and cheap DVD disc or an external HDD, if they cannot be placed and kept online. It might be started with a comprehensive links list on the subject or as an aspect of a libertarian Ideas Archive or a special digital encyclopedia on the subject, online or on a disc. And all such projects might become sufficiently supported through a common libertarian projects list online. - JZ, 28.1.98, 28.9.08, 20.4.14. - INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment exists, as a rule, only because we have not allowed a fully free market to operate, i.e., have restricted freedom of contract, freedom of association, freedom of action, freedom of expression and information, freedom to exchange, freedom to clear, free enterprise in all spheres, free banking, freedom to issue one’s own IOU’s and token money or shop currency, freedom to choose one’s value standard, freedom to pay one’s debts with assignments to one’s own ready-for-sale goods and services, freedom to provide short term loans for regular payments to employees, (in modern forms of the classical Real Bills Doctrine discount business, which did anticipate by the competitive issue of banknotes, the final sale of consumer goods already produced and sold to wholesalers), full consumer sovereignty and free enterprise competition, extended to various currencies, clearing certificates and value standards used in pricing goods, services, wages, salaries, rents, exchange media, clearing certificates, accounts and capital certificates. Alas, notions of the sovereign and exclusive coinage privilege of absolute kings, emperors and princes do still spook in all too many heads, now in form of the still all too fashionable wrongful and anti-economic central banking dogmas, prejudices, wrong assumptions and conclusions We still have to become monetarily emancipated, first mentally, in theory and concepts and then in practical and free exchange actions. – JZ, 21.8.00, 7.10.08, 29.3.11, 20.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment in peace time is due mainly to monetary despotism, i.e., government intervention with the exchange media, clearing avenues and value standards which prevent every possible and desired exchanges of one's labor and goods, as well as that of the labor, goods and services of others, from taking place quite freely and undisturbed. - JZ, 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11. – However, other forms of wrongful legislation, like those establishing financial despotism with wrongful regulations, compulsory tribute levies, outlawry of value preserving clauses, compulsory licensing and registration, territorial legalism and regulations, an imposed bureaucracy, rent-, price- and wage-controls, compulsory education, child-labor laws, trade union privileges, monopolistic and imposed jurisdictions, do also play a large role. They cannot be effectively and fast enough removed by law repeal or one by one, under majority despotism, based upon under-informed public opinion, dominated by popular errors and prejudices but only through secessionism and personal law options for volunteers, doing their own things among themselves, at their own expense and risk, while leaving all other to do theirs, for or to themselves. – LAW REPEALS, ONE BY ONE OR SECESSIONISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW OPTIONS FOR LIKE-MINDED VOLUNTEERS?

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment in peace time is not due to over-population or free migration or masses of refugees and asylum seekers - for under such conditions people would obviously have to work longer and harder for less – if the number of possible jobs and earnings opportunities were really a limited quantity, as this kind of fallacy simply assumes. In reality, more people create more and more and also more productive work opportunities for each other. Even with the aid of productive machines, robots and automated factories they are still far from having reduced e.g. working hours to an hour a day or working weeks to a day’s work per week. Instead of adopting such false assumptions or conclusions, do look for the real causes that interfere with free exchanges between people. You should be familiar with at least one of them, namely taxation and with the second one, namely the only exchange medium that you are allowed to use and the third one, the only value standard for monetary exchanges that you are permitted to use. Ponder them and their effects, also the hundreds to thousands of other interventions with free market relationships. - JZ, 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11. – ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment is not due to lack of productive capital because before and after a depression, recession, deflation, stagflation or fast inflation, there is, as a rule, not significantly more or less real productive capital in existence than during it. Under such conditions the existing capital is simply not freely offered or fully utilized. Nor is mass unemployment then due to too high market-rated wages. Under full freedom to use capital productively and to assure the sale of its products by means of free banking or full monetary freedom, the wages could be even higher, in sound purchasing power, than they are under such crisis conditions, which are possible only under monetary despotism. Nor is a capitalist conspiracy involved, because the millions of unemployed "produced" in such crises are, obviously, not "exploited" by potential employers, because they are not employed by them at all. If any conspiracy is involved it is rather one, of the statists or State Socialists, who demanded and "achieved" the establishment and maintenance of the institutions of monetary despotism, that made such conditions possible and created bankruptcies among employers, losses in their businesses, reductions in the value of their securities, reductions of the turnover in their enterprises and also a reduction of the people whom, as employers, they are supposed to exploit. The unemployed and underemployed are not the only losers in such crises. In deflations all debtors tend to lose and in inflations all creditors tend to lose. All-over in deflations creditors tend to lose as well, e.g. many are not repaid at all, and in inflations, in balance, all debtors do also tend to lose because no further credits will be granted to them on the basis of an inflated and legal tender paper currency. – Instead of looking for culprits, using only personal thinking, we should then look at the real causes, with causal thinking. Everything else is only the modern equivalent of blaming all evils on demons or on witchcraft or conspiracies. – JZ, 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11. – TOWARDS AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS. – REQUIRED IS THE INPUT OF THOUSANDS TO MILLIONS OF OTHERS.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Involuntary mass unemployment is not due to machines and automation because they only mean increased productivity, thus higher wages and also a much greater variety of jobs becoming available. Apart from the more or less obvious economic, political and military interventions with free contracts and free market and work relationships, interferences, which do make many people temporary unemployed, as far as productive activities are concerned, e.g. most bureaucrats, who are employed in counter-productive or in monopolistic activities at the expense of taxpayers and consumers, apart also of natural catastrophes, like epidemics, floods, severe storms, and earthquakes (*), it is mainly due to monetary and financial despotism. These factors are, usually, overlooked.  (*) Even these, while destroying, temporarily, some jobs and capital, do require, as soon as possible, even more labor and capital (pre-done labor) to make up for such damages and losses. – All the nonsense that exists on this and related subjects in most heads has, unfortunately, not yet been encyclopedically collected and refuted, although this could now be done, fast and cheaply, via digital options now existing, if only a few thousand people, linked via the Internet, would bother to collaborate on this. - Instead, largely only more and more errors and spleens, in this sphere, too, are so far upheld and spread through the Internet. - JZ, 13.11.85, 4.10.08, 29.3.11. – The hundreds of millions of unemployed and under-employed poor in the world should be in the forefront of such an effort. Alas, the vast majority of them are the least interested ones in exploring the real causes and cures. They rather adopt one or the other popular error, prejudice or fallacy on the subject and are satisfied with them. How can one induce those really interested to earnestly tackle this job between them? I do not know. My appeals have so far mainly only encountered deaf ears, blind eyes or blocked minds on this subject. A lone individual can certainly not cope with the avalanches of flawed ideas and opinions on the subject. – Sufficient interest in the own affairs, including such important matters, is required but seems to be absent still or not sufficiently connected and organized. – JZ, 20.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: IOUs: A man's I.O.U.s, issued by him for all his spending, and readily accepted by his suppliers under a perfect clearing system, would inevitably stream back to him in payment for any wages or other debts due to him. He could issue them to the extent that he is able to supply goods, labor or services wanted by others in the issue area or by people prepared to import them from this locality. In a system where every productive person would be free to spend to the limit of his productive potential with his own IOUs, and to the extent that they would be readily accepted and cleared, everyone could be fully employed via the mutual settlement of such debts, even if not a single gold or silver coin or governmental paper money note existed in the country or in the world. Any person free to pay his own way with his own IOUs and clearing certificates (those of his voluntary associates), both issued as basically sound money substitutes, with a sound value standard, also used in the pricing of the ready for sale and wanted goods and services, could come to be considered as a sounder money means of exchange than any present government is able or willing to provide. Their issuers would inevitably and by their own purchases with these means of exchange, bring jobs and sales to themselves and their associates. However, that is a self-help measure, which is, presently, also outlawed. Such laws are among those,which ought to be repealed or massively ignored, even by those supposed to apply them. - JZ 31.12.92, 29.3.11, 20.4.14. – IOU’s, FREE CLEARING & FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Ironically, unemployment is often the first sign of economic growth. When a worker’s job is displaced by a machine or technological advance, society as a whole is just as rich because it still receives the output of the displaced workers’ labor (now performed by the machine). Moreover, our society becomes much richer when the temporarily displaced individual finds a new job, and we receive the benefits of both his or her old and new job. – Paul Zane Pilzer, Unlimited Wealth, updated edition, Crown Publishers, New York, 1994, p.231. – Plain logic, which is widely ignored. However, overlooked he is that the thus temporarily replaced employees do not find it easy to get new jobs under the conditions of monetary and financial despotism other anti-economic, legalized and wrongful governmental interventions. They would get them only once these interventions are repealed, successfully ignored or bypassed through effective individual and group secessionism, leading among others to personal law communities of volunteers, which are not so under-informed and foolish to impose monetary and financial despotism upon themselves but free and inclined to adopt their opposites for all their own affairs, in all their productive and exchange activities. Imagine the attractiveness of their production and exchange activities no longer being burdened by compulsory tax levies. Try also  to imagine the attractiveness of personal law communities of volunteers which, mainly through monetary freedom, would have abolished inflations, deflations and stagflations in their economic affairs, not only in their internal exchanges but also in their external or international trading. They would constitute an unusual new kind of international trading nations or communities, without the wrongful and foolish restrictions of the protectionists and would be able their sound exchange and clearing media, redeemable in their wanted export goods, as welcomed foreign exchange, buying from the other nations or exterritorially autonomous personal law communities. The Hansa was a historical precedent in some respects. Alas, it also established and continued some monopolies. As far as I know, it was not a territorial establishment. – I just looked with Google for it, searching for Hansa history, 13th to 17th century trade group, as a trading organization – and got about 10.6 million search results. The very first one follows: Hanseatic League – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – … the organization was not a city-state, nor can it be called a confederation of … 3.1 Ports with Hansa trading posts. 3.2 Other cities with a Hansa community… - I suppose that among this mass of search results there are some worthwhile historical and economic studies of it. A search merely for Hansa supplies mainly millions of results that are merely using this old term as a name for many other things. – Prof. Edgard Milhaud, Switzerland, wrote several works on international clearing certificates as means to restore Free Trade, in the 1930’s. Ulrich von Beckerath developed these ideas further, e.g. in three books, which are also offered online at - If you should know of better books on the subject, please, to point them out to me. - JZ, 20.4.14. - MACHINES, AUTOMATION, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, FREE TRADE, MONETARY FREEDOM, CLEARING FREEDOM.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Issue principle of freedom of note issue: Everyone should be free to offer his readiness to supply wanted labor, services and goods to willing acceptors - in certified and freely transferable form, in money denominations, using a freely agreed upon standard of value. To the extent that one succeeds in putting these into temporary circulation, one will soon succeed, upon their reflux, in achieving corresponding sales of one's labor, services and goods. - JZ 30.12.92. – ISSUE PRINCIPLE & PRACTICE, CLEARING, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Issue principle: Beat recessions, depressions, inflations and stagflations with your own sound money, issued by yourself, or clearing certificates or clearing account credits, based on your own goods and services, and those of your associates, in your own payment community, ready to be supplied upon the presentation of such free market monies with “shop foundation”, “short-term debt foundation” or “clearing foundation”. - JZ 29.12.92, 20.4.14. – ISSUE & CLEARING PRINCIPLE & PRACTICE, FREE MARKET MONIES, SHOP FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, DEBT FOUNDATION. THESE & RELATED TERMS ARE ALSO EXPLAINED IN AN A TO Z COMPILATION ON FREE BANKING:

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is a widely held doctrine that wages fixed above the market level are the one and only cause of mass unemployment. While such interventions do often increase an existing unemployment, they are certainly not the only factor that causes unemployment. There are, for instance, many trade unions that have monopolized many jobs and thus achieved higher wages for themselves than the market rate of wages for their kinds of labor. But this in itself does not mean that others are unemployed but merely that others earn correspondingly less, at the rates remaining of what is left of a free market, and that they have to pay more for certain goods or services of trade union monopolists. Politicians and bureaucrats, public servants or civil servants, in their vast numbers, do, usually, receive salaries above the free market levels. Nevertheless, we often do not get as many unemployed as we get such people on the public payroll. Moreover the very existence of unemployment and fear of unemployment tends to depress the wages and salaries demanded by the employed – apart from the direct and indirect negative effects that any deflation has on such prices and on the sale of the products and services of those who are still working, producing and trading. The competition of unemployed for the remaining few job openings (under monetary and financial despotism) does also force their wages and salaries down. So this doctrine does certainly not contain the full truth and nothing but the truth. There are many other aspects and the following certainly do not offer a complete list: a) Unemployment in certain jobs, e.g. in agriculture and tourism, increases and decreases cyclically, e.g. seasonally, without wages and salaries being cyclically or seasonally increased above the market level. - b) The doctrine ignores the influence of the degree of protectionism or free trade that is practised in various sectors of the economy. It is wrongly assumed that protectionism protects jobs and keeps wage levels high and that Free Trade endangers jobs and reduces wage and salary levels. - c.) Whatever influences emigration and immigration have on the unemployment level (if any at all!) is also ignored by this assertion. - d.) So is the influence of high taxes that at least to some extent destroys capital that would, otherwise, be used to employ people productively. - e) Compulsory licensing does also keep some people out of some jobs. - f) The monopolization of exchange media and of the value standard and restrictions imposed upon effective clearing methods do also limit exchange options for labor, service and goods providers and the opportunities for potential employers to employ more people. Until employers can be sure of the sale of what they have to offer, they cannot afford to hire more people, not even at low wage and salary levels. -  I do hold that the inflations, deflations, credit restrictions and stagflations caused by monetary despotism are the greatest factor making for involuntary unemployment. However, all contributing factors existing or believed to exist should be thoroughly examined rather than contending oneself merely with the above dogma. - g) Another and very influential market is the restriction of full financial freedom from a regulated, restricted, governmentally “managed” and all too often mismanaged capital market, leading to huge mal-investments, great losses and losses of economic development and job opportunities. – h) Convicts and soldiers are also kept out of productive employment and so are children and minors under compulsory schooling and anti-child labor laws. i) The same applies to those retired against their will because they have reached a certain age. Many of them are still able and willing to work – but not allowed to and are not counted among the unemployed. - JZ, 11.9.97, 29.9.08, 20.4.09, 29.3.11. - CAUSE & CURE OF UNEMPLOYMENT, WAGES, MINIMUM WAGES, WAGE CONTROLS, UNIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is absurd that those who produce nothing, but who positively hinder the production of others, should retain their highly paid jobs while genuine productive workers are thrown on the scrap heap of unemployment.” – From the Workers Party leaflet: An Introduction to the Workers Party, 1975. – RULERS, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENTS, STATISM, BUREAUCRACY, PUBLIC SERVANTS, LAWS, REGULATIONS, CONTROLS, PROHIBITIONS, “PROTECTIONISM”

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not inherently impossible for the unemployed to produce their own livelihood in a system based on free enterprise, competition, division of labor and free exchange. They could themselves open up almost unlimited employment opportunities for themselves. They should merely see to it that they can be paid with other and sounder means of exchange than the one and only one provided by a monopolistic government. Instead of insisting that they be paid in this uniform monopoly money, which is almost never quite sound and almost never in sufficient supply (*), they should declare that they would be willing to accept other and competitively supplied exchange media that are sound and can be used in all the shops in which they usually buy their goods and services. These would best be issued by these shops and associations of such shops. Alternatively, the unemployed could even come to pay themselves with their own standardized claims, in money denominations, upon their own labor force, readiness and willingness to work productively, in form of typified clearing certificates, which they would accept at par, in payment for wages and salaries, when so employed. They would, so to speak, be able to thus spend their wages even before they are employed earned and paid – in the process of getting themselves employment. These certificates, accepted probably only at a discount, would get into the hands of their future employers and thus provide employment opportunities for them. See e.g. Ulrich von Beckerath, Berlin Program, p.19. - A single issuer of such IOUs would probably have difficulties but if such people suitably combined - and there are, in most countries, thousands to millions of them - their certificates would be widely acceptable for the need for means of wage payments is large and regular and it would be profitable and also easy for employers to pay their employees in such alternative means of exchange. The wage and salary earners could and would also, mostly, be satisfied with any exchange media that do have a sufficient local shop foundation and are issued by an association of local shops. - Any private payment sphere, in which there are many means of payment needed to clear all its mutual debts against each other, can also utilize exchange media issued by its participants including even those of the still unemployed or underemployed, who could, thereby, integrate themselves in the production and exchange process. To the extent that their exchange media would be accepted, they would then have provided themselves with work. For their IOUs, in monetized form, would be returned to them in form of wage or salary payments. They have no other ultimate value and redemption option. Just like tickets have no other commercial value than their acceptance for performances. – JZ, n.d. & 15.8.08, 29.3.11. – (*) That applies also to exclusive gold- or silver currencies, however soundly minted and circulating, simply because they are EXCLUSIVE currencies. – JZ, 21.4.14. – EXCHANGE MEDIA OF UNEMPLOYED, BASED UPON THEIR ABILITY AND READINESS TO PROVIDE WANTED WORK.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not inherently impossible for the unemployed to produce their livelihood in a system based on division of labor and free exchange. (It is merely outlawed. - JZ) - Monetary and financial freedom would open up practically unlimited employment opportunities for them. They need only refuse the previously prescribed means of exchange or end their insistence upon them - to the extent that they do hinder the achievement of the aim of full employment or cannot or will not be always supplied in sufficient quantities by e.g. a central bank or by the tax anticipation certificates of the Treasury, with a “sound” tax foundation, i.e. a corresponding reflux (if something like compulsory taxation can be called “sound”, “rightful” and “rational”, which is certainly not true for territorial monopoly States but could be true for competing government systems of volunteers, in all their varieties of statists) - and if they do insist, e.g. upon paying and being paid, instead, with their own assignments on the own labor in convenient and standardized certificates or e.g. in sound shop currencies issued by local shop associations. – MONETARY FREEDOM - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 28.3.11, 21.4.14

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not lack of job- or enterprise opportunities, of capital, employers, union organization, resources, potential customers or of foreign exchange that are the main causes of mass unemployment but, rather, lack of suitable exchange media to pay wages and salaries with and to achieve the sale of the goods produced and of the services offered. To overcome this shortage is not impossible but merely outlawed. The sound exchange media and clearing processes that are amiss should be based exactly on the goods and services that, at present, can’t be sold to people who do want or need them but who do not possess enough of such purchasing power and are not given the chance to earn more of it, because their potential employers are not sufficiently supplied with them, either, because in a deflationary condition, which will frequently occur under monopolized money issues or any form of exclusive currency, even one made of rare metals, they do have difficulties to sell the goods and services they offer and cannot productively employ as many employers as they otherwise would, when there is no sales problem for the goods and services they offer for sale.. A vicious circle is involved that can only be broken by the supply of additional and also quite sound exchange media, using a stable value standard. - The most suitable issuers for such purchasing power and wage-payment means are the local shops and shop associations that do offer the daily wanted consumer goods and services for sale. Their local shop currency could easily become a local currency that is locally widely accepted to the limit of is issue capacity, which would show up immediately by a discount of such notes against their value standard in general circulation. Then only the issuers would still have to accept them at par, the reflux of the discounted notes would be fast and the par value of the notes remaining, temporarily, in circulation, until they, too streamed back for purchases, would be restored. Then they could and would, again and again, be replaced by new issues. Sound banknotes and clearing certificates of this kind could be supplied in sufficient quantities to avoid deflations and, seeing that they could be refused or discounted in general circulation, as market-rated and optional, instead of legal tender money, they could not cause an inflation, especially not if all prices, rents, wages etc. are expressed in sound value standards. – JZ, 24.3.87, 15.8.08, 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: It is not possible to produce a healthy economy or full employment by legislation.” - John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip van Australia, p.253. – Unless a new law would repeal all existing legal restrictions in that sphere. A new law that would repeal all laws interfering with a free economy and its full employment would certainly be a great help. – JZ, 4.10.08. - However, since such enlightenment will not suddenly happen in the whole population of a country, the dissenters should be free to engage in their own preferred experiments, at their own risk and expense, all trying to achieve that aim. This might require a monetary and financial revolution or the freedom for individuals and dissenters to secede. At least some would then succeed and this rather fast, because they had already explored their monetary and financial freedom options sufficiently before they were liberated or gained their freedom in this respect. From their successes their methods would tend to spread fast. - JZ, 29.3.11. – INDIVIDUAL & GROUP SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW SOCIETIES & COMMUNITIES, EXTERRITORIALLY AUTONOMOUS, ABOLITION OF TERRITORIALISM, FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: It would make some sense to tax unemployment but none at all to subsidize it. – JZ, 9.7.77. – The alleviation of its symptoms does not provide a cure. Nor does it induce sufficient thinking about a cure. – JZ, 4.10.08. – Formerly, in English colonial possessions, the administration often imposed a small head tax on the natives, to be paid in cash, which they could only earn, as a rule, when they made themselves available for labor paid in cash wages by the colonists. Otherwise many of them would have gladly continued merely with their barter and subsistence economic activities. - JZ, n.d. - I wonder how fast economic development could and would occur if full monetary and financial freedom were introduced in a severely underdeveloped country and were fully utilized by its population. - Then new kinds of world records might be set in this respect. - JZ, 29.3.11. - UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE, DOLE, TAXATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM, DEVELOPMENT UNDER FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Job offers are now conditional upon the employer being able to acquire sufficient of the forced and exclusive national paper currency to pay for the jobs he wants done and upon consumers in general being sufficiently supplied with such a currency to guarantee the employer sufficient sales. To the extent that both of them are insufficiently supplied with exchange media they cannot provide jobs or consume and thus provide jobs directly or indirectly. What can one expect or should one predict when the supply of exchange media is monopolized? - JZ 31.12.92. - MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, CENTRAL BANKING VS. FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Leonard E. Read often demanded: “Release all creative energies!” In the monetary sphere this means e.g., to allow people to sell their goods, services and labor by offering them in form of their own money notes or clearing certificates, in typified and standardized form, in convenient money denominations, transferable like the official money is, but with no one forced to accept them at all or to value them according to their nominal value – except the issuers themselves. Under this condition this kind of alternative money will usually only circulate, if at all, locally and at its nominal value, in free competition with e.g. gold- and silver coins. This kind of money has the strong tendency to be neither over-supplied or under-supplied. It can use stable-value reckoning without the issuer possessing corresponding amounts of rare metal coins or promising to provide them in redemption. Only goods, services, labor and debt payment receipts need to be delivered for it. Their value standard and that of the goods, services and labor will be expressed in a mutually acceptable one and this is almost bound to be better than that of most governments in modern history. Governments did not provide their currency with legal tender power because they are better but because they are worse currencies than people could provide themselves with and thus they cannot stand free competition. – JZ, 30.4.83, 3.10.08, 29.3.11. – GRESHAM’S LAW IN WATT’S CORRECT INTERPRETATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let “hard” and “soft” and all kinds of other money freely compete with each other for all labor, services and goods and allow all potential acceptors to either accept them at par with their nominal value standard or discount them against it or refuse them altogether. Then, quite naturally and inevitably, the sound monies will drive out the unsound ones, because their potential acceptors will prefer them and reject or discount the unsound ones. – JZ, 11.9.98. – In consequence, sound money will seek unemployed or under-employed labor to employ them productively, paid with such alternative currencies. The employed and the presently still unemployed should be free to accept such alternative free market monies or to reject them. In the latter case they will, in many cases, remain unemployed or underemployed because central banks have not always achieved full employment and if so then only temporarily. – JZ, 27.9.08, 29.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREEDOM OF NOTE ISSUE, FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let freely monetized consumer goods and services seek out all still unemployed or underemployed labor. These goods and services constitute the soundest cover and redemption “funds” for any currency.– Clearing certificates or account credits do not need any conventional or new type of cover or redemption but merely a sound clearing option. Their debt-payment capacity is enough, – JZ, 17.1.00. 21.4.14. - COVER & REDEMPTION OF CURRENCIES, CLEARING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let labor offer its services in form of all kinds of warrants and vouchers, standardized and typified and in denominations like money and so well organized and developed that they become useful like ready cash - and the sales problem for labor will be over. - The cure for all effects of monetary shortages is a competitive supply of money, of non-coercive private means of exchange that use any value standard people find acceptable, based on the right to issue exchange media and to choose standards of value. - Allow unlimited clearing of all claims. - Let good money be privately produced and allow it to drive out the bad. - It does not make sense to speak of "free pricing" when prices may be paid only with a monopolized exchange medium (or payment methods based on this medium) and using a fiat value standard instead of one that was freely chosen by both sides. - There exists so far no fully free pricing, free enterprise, free competition, free market, freedom of supply and demand - with regard to exchange media and value standards and without them. - - Money, in order to become just a commodity or a service or clearing options and all able and willing to offer wanted goods and services should to become free to offer them monetarily or through clearing, so that all goods and services to all can be freely produced and sold and bought through them, just like for all of them there should be freedom of communication and transport. Transport tickets was not a bad old term for monies, since they helped greatly to move goods and services from one person to others. - Free the market in every respect, e.g. let the monetary or clearing "demand" and “supply” as well, i.e. the purchasing power become free of central bank monopolies and any other restrictions imposed by any theoreticians who demand exclusiveness for their supposedly ideal currency for the whole population of any territory or even world-wide. All remaining restrictions should become personal law restrictions, confined to their voluntary supporters or victims, under full exterritorial autonomy for them. Then they would do least wrong and harm. – JZ, file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files, n.d., 29.3.11, 21.4.14. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE MARKETS, FREE PRICING, FREE EXCHANGE, MONEY, CLEARING, VALUE STANDARDS, GRESHAM’S LAW, LEGAL TENDER, FULL EMPLOYMENT, FREE BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let privately or cooperatively produced alternative free market monies and clearing options be freely issued and used for all payments, if found acceptable for this purpose by their participants. Let them also be issued in short term turn-over credits, for wage and salary payments, especially to those so far unemployed or under-employed. (Just like shares and bonds, in their sphere of the turnover of capital assets, can be freely issued and traded by those, who have capital values to offer and who do want them. Saved-up free market monies or account credits should also be usable to buy and sell medium and long-term capital assets. There should be no territorially imposed governmental restrictions in that sphere as well.) Let anyone accept or refuse to accept any means of exchange, just like he is free to buy or refuse to buy shares and bonds offered to him. As far as means of exchange and account credits are concerned, only their issuers would always have to accept them at their face value in all payments due to them, just like they would have to accept their own IOUs. Then, in the absence of any government interventions, prohibitions and controls, only the sound enough and soundest ones will survive, in a reversion of the popular version of Gresham’s law (Bad money drives out good money.): Good money will then drive out bad money. That would happen with much greater certainty than it happens with shares and bonds. For to check the goodness of alternative currencies requires only that one brings them to the nearest store, associated with their issuing center to see whether they are then and there readily accepted at their nominal value. For capital assets it is much more difficult for their individual owner to check out their value, apart from the reports of the stock exchanges and those found in the published statements of the companies and the reports of journalist and financial experts on such firms. This freedom would mean the provision of at least one if not several sound local currencies, all competing with other currencies for the widest local market share and all covered by and redeemable in ready for sale local consumer goods and services, just like tickets for performances. They cannot be issued at par beyond the needs and wants for such services, for then the first refusals and discounts would set in and rapidly lead to more refusals and higher discounts - if the attempt were made to issue more such notes. Minimum safeguard for this system: Markets that are free in all other ways as well. Sufficient publicity on all their issue, circulation and reflux details. Agreement on sound or sound enough value standards. Issues only upon ready for sale and wanted consumer goods and services and only in short-term loans, promoting current turnovers, e.g. by using them to pay wages and salaries with and current other expenses, to the extent that they are acceptable for this. While the crime of compulsory taxation is still continued, legally and juridically sanctioned, in spite of its wrongfulness and, seeing how much in purchasing power governments do now regularly extort in form of taxes, they should also be acceptable in payment of taxes, even if only with a discount, as determined by a free market for them against a sound value standard. As monetary history has demonstrated, one cannot always rely on governments providing enough tax anticipation certificates, i.e. money with tax foundation, to make the payment of taxes with such money as easy as possible, when the issue depends of the inefficiency of its bureaucracy and its monetary policy and likewise its slowness and inefficiency in spending its tax revenues, so that shortages in the supply of its tax-foundation money will occur, as they have in the past. Governments are also not yet accustomed to deal in various currencies. However, private money exchangers will, probably, help them in that job. – JZ, 18.4.98, 28.9.08, 21.4.14. - INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT BY THOSE ABLE & WILLING TO WORK, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM OR CENTRL BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let the owners of goods and services, which are in daily demand, provide their own exchange media or clearing certificates or account credits and the supply of their goods and services and the demand for them will always be automatically in balance. No sales difficulties, no unemployment, as a result of this independent issue of “ticket-money”. The financing of medium- and long-term investments with such goods- and service-vouchers is a bit more involved but also quite possible, as e.g. Ulrich von Beckerath has described in detail in his three monetary freedom books. Corresponding securities will have to be bought with saved "ticket" money and will finally have to be repaid, including interest, also with this kind of “shop foundation” money. – That would be no problem, if one really thinks through these freedom options. – More money, a better kind of money, in sound forms, is not impossible at present but merely outlawed. – JZ, 14.8.08, 29.3.11, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let the sound monies of full monetary freedom promote free exchanges, more sales and chase job seekers, instead of forcing all job seekers to chase after the wage and salary paying jobs remaining under monetary despotism, which can legally be paid only in an exclusive and forced currency, the monopoly money with legal tender power of the central banks. The latter is the kind of money, which always leads to monetary crises, mainly inflations, deflations stagflations and credit restrictions, combined with wrongfully levied tribute levies for bailouts, handouts, subsidies, also to price-, wage- and rent controls, with their wrongs and harmful consequences. Combined with full financial freedom, monetary freedom would rapidly lead to full employment. However, let all those, who doubt this retain all the existing restrictions among themselves, their kind of volunteers, as long as all those, who do appreciate these rights and liberties and their opportunities, are set finally free to practise them among themselves, at their own risk and expense. These dissenters should not demand anything more from the remaining territorial statists but they should also not demand anything less. – Marx and Engels demanded central banking and legal tender power for their kind of monopoly money, aware of the anti-economic consequences, because it would help them to gain and maintain power for the State Socialist utopia, the dictatorship not of but over the proletariat and all other people. For Marx had declared that “… observers, who studied the phenomena of money circulation exclusively on the examples of the circulation of legal tender paper money, had to overlook the inherent laws of monetary circulation. – Zur Kritik der politischen Oekonomie, (On Criticism of Political Economy), p.129 of the Dietz, Berlin, 1951 edition. – This is one of the few sound observations he made. Perhaps someone should attempt to put these few together and then add a list of all those of his notions which have been refuted, including links to their refutations. – Such a survey is either long overdue or someone has made it already and I just do not know about it. – It should certainly be added to all new additions of his works, which by now have mainly only a historical significance for many to most of the political, economic and social disasters he and Engels had caused with their State socialist ideology over the last century. - JZ, 15.9.12. - MONETARY FREEDOM, CENTRAL BANKING, FREE BANKING, MARX, ENGELS, COMMUNISM, STATE SOCIALISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let us free all sound monetary demand for labor, services and good and involuntary unemployment will disappear. The monetary demand should no longer be confined to the monopoly money, which is also a forced currency of the government’s central bank but, instead, the suppliers of consumer goods and services and also of productive labor should be free to monetize  what they have to offer into optional and market-rated free market monies, to the extent that a free market finds competitive monies and clearing options acceptable and sound enough. The issuers of alternative currencies will find them at least locally somewhat acceptable, provided only that they do immediately or soon enough redeem these, their own IOUs, clearing certificates, shop currency with shop foundation or "bank notes", at their full nominal value, with whatever they have to offer in daily wanted consumer goods and services and in labor (to produce more such goods and services and also lasting productive capital). Thereby and through free market rating of this additional money and through refusals to accept it, no more of it can and will be issued than is required to turn over the offered goods, services and labor – but also as much as is wanted, needed and thus readily accepted at par with its nominal value. The over-issue of such money, for which its issuers must be prepared to offer immediately the promised value in goods, services and labor, would be much more difficult (close to impossible) than the over-issue of stocks, bonds, shares or other securities, for anyone could easily test the purchasing power of such money by presenting it to its issuer or any member of the issuing association, e.g. a local shopping center or shop association. The easier sale of consumer goods thus achieved will also stimulate further production, which requires further labor. In the main, the issues will be done through short term-loans to pay wages and salaries with. While jobs payable in the government’s monopoly money might remain scarce, jobs paid in this alternative and sound money should become sufficient in number to employ every involuntarily unemployed, seeing the stockpiles or ready for sale goods and the consumer service capacity that exists in all somewhat developed countries in normal times. (Times of wars, civil wars, violent revolutions and natural catastrophes excepted.). Only those insisting on being paid in the government’s monopoly money may have to remain unemployed. As soon as possible these alternative local currencies should also adopt a sounder value standard than that of the government’s paper money and the issuers should price-out their goods and services in their own and self-chosen value standard, e.g. in weight units of gold or silver. The enormous values sitting ready for sale in the shops and warehouses should be considered as being largely potential monetary demand for additional labor, to the extent that the money market, including the employees, as creditors of their employers, finds such money good enough to be acceptable at par with its value standard, i.e., to the extent that they can immediately or soon (when needed) be used to pay their way with it, at par, to the issuer, e.g. an association of local shops, offering the range of goods and services, which they need or want. All such additional money would essentially be merely exchange medias or clearing certificates to promote the exchange or turnover of ready for sale goods, services and labor, in a division of labor and free exchange process. Such a monetary and clearing emancipation is as important as any other emancipation. At least the well-stocked shopping centers (in the somewhat developed countries) – and the warehouses behind them, from which they can be fast restocked, are constituting a sound backing, cover or redemption option that is large enough to cope with any additional labor offered by e.g. of housewives, students, children, refugees and defectors, by the millions, and this within hours to days at most, without depriving anybody of his job. At most all machines will have to be used to their capacity and shift work will have to be introduced. The easier sales for this kind of money, the increased production through an increase in productive jobs and the greater division of labor that thus becomes possible, will even tend to lead to a reduction in the prices of consumer goods and this in spite of and even because of the increase in the quantity of sound exchange media, to a degree that is just enough to make any desired exchange possible. Such exchange media, not being legal tender but market rated, cannot lead to an increase in prices that are expressed in sound value standards. On the contrary: with easier sales, less advertising costs, a larger production and turnover and more division of labor a fall is to be expected of the prices of many consumer goods, while wages and salaries or their purchasing power becomes increased. Only the issuers will have to accept these free market monies at par, i.e. at their nominal value. To prevent their hoarding, especially once they use a sounder value standard than that of the government’s paper money, and to preserve their function as turnover-credit money or clearing certificates or account credits, they might be given a limited lifespan only. Naturally, they could also be used to purchase capital certificates and to redeem them. – JZ, 18.10.98, 26.9.08, 29.3.11, 22.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let us have “unemployment among politicians … who would object to that?” – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 2/73. – JOKES, POLITICIANS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Let us track down, explore, and discuss all the ideas on cause and cure of involuntary unemployment until the soundest among them become widely enough recognized and also applied in practice. The same should be done e.g. for inflation, deflation, stagflation, economic crises, war and the anti-industrial warfare of trade unions, free trade and protectionism, free migration, victim disarmament, yerritorialism, panarchism, polyarchism, personal law, individual secessionism, abortion, crisis theories, rightful revolutions, tyrannicide, aging, life-extension proposals, in short, for all the remaining major controversies. Alas we have so far not yet a general Ideas Archive and not even a libertarian one, or a comprehensive digital freedom library, one with a complete index, comprehensive libertarian bibliography, encyclopedia, abstracts and review collection, as well as a comprehensive encyclopedia of refutation of popular errors, myths and prejudices. It is still missing, although by now it could fit into an affordable and merely book-sized external HDD which could come to sit on the desk of every freedom-, peace- and justice lover. Inevitably and as a result too much ignorance and also errors and prejudices still prevail even among many of the radical libertarians. – JZ, 29.7.96, 6.10.08, 29.3.11, 22.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Local currencies: Private local currency issues based on locally ready-for-sale goods and services, would express a corresponding demand for local labor and services and goods, to the extent that they can be spent, i.e. are voluntarily accepted by people, as ready customers for their issuers' wanted goods and services, which these currencies would represent, in most cases, and into which they would be readily redeemed in. - JZ, 31.12.92, 29.3.11, 22.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Machines and automation are still widely blamed for the existence of unemployment, ignoring the fact that while there are in many countries more than 100 machine-horse-powers per employees and the volume of automated production is ever growing, at the same time, the total number of employees has been greatly increased, with the increase of population. The increased population has also meant an increased need for the products of labor. And the very output of automated production constitutes also a demand for customers able and willing to pay for these products. To be able to do so, they have to be productively employed themselves, using numerous diverse tools to build advanced machines or merely maintaining and servicing automated machinery. Lastly, and indirectly, services are exchanged for services. If there are no obstructions against such exchanges, then ever increasing quantities of services can be exchanged between the workers of ever increasing populations, at least until the optimum size of populations is achieved, world-wide. We are approaching this situation, have, perhaps, exceeded it already in some developed countries, with now falling populations and in others, the underdeveloped ones, the population growth is becoming slower. But in all too many ways the free exchange of one's goods and services for goods and services of others, is still blocked. These blockages have created involuntary unemployment, sometimes on a massive scale. The nature of these blockages ought to be closely examined. Only then can they be removed. I assert that the worst blockages consist in monetary and financial despotism. Can you prove me wrong? – JZ, 14.8.08, 29.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, TOOLS, MACHINES, AUTOMATIC MACHINERY & ROBOTS AS HELPERS RATHER THAN AS ENEMIES. THE AMOUNT OF WORK TO BE DONE & OF THINGS WANTED OR NEEDED ARE UNLIMITED

UNEMPLOYMENT: Many myths exist concerning this subject, and one, which needs to be discarded, is that which says large-scale immigration causes unemployment. … Many factors contribute to unemployment, but perhaps the most important of these is government action, which, directly or indirectly, forces wage rates above their free market level. The most prominent example is probably the minimum wage, which forces may unskilled workers out of a job because their services are not worth the wage that employers would have to pay for them. (*) Laws, which grant labor unions a virtual monopoly on the sale of labor service, allowing them to restrict the supply of workers and gain special bargaining privilege in dealing with businesses, have the same general effect, although usually at a higher wage level. The workers who survive the slide into unemployment benefit from these policies, through higher wage rates, only at the expense of those who are forced into lower-paying jobs or out of work completely.” – Donald H. Carpenter, NEW GUARD, 7/78. - (*) Thus they cannot even be given the chance to acquire the skills needed, while working for a lower wage. – JZ, 3.10.08. - UNIONS & MINIMUM WAGES, IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS, FREE MIGRATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Marches and demonstrations: The unemployed have demonstrated and marched on behalf of numerous causes. But have they ever really stood up for their own basic individual rights, even if only by marching and demonstrating, e.g. for monetary freedom and against monetary despotism? Did they ever wear placards demanding the abolition of legal tender paper money and of the issue monopoly of the central bank? Did they ever claimed their right to issue notes and to choose reliable standards of value and to refuse to accept or to discount the monopoly paper money of the State or its central bank? I do not favor marching and demonstrating as means towards self-liberation. But the unusualness of marches and demonstrations against monetary despotism and for monetary freedom would provide them possibly with some extra publicity. The world has seen too few monetary revolutions. They are among the few which can be quite positive and bloodless. But for such a revolution it is more important to put one's brain rather than one's legs  into gear. JZ 30.12.92. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files, - 28.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary despotism: Forced and exclusive currencies can, like any other monopolies, never fully, permanently and satisfactorily mediate all possible and desired exchanges of goods, labor and services, no matter how and how much they are verbally, juridically, legally or constitutionally excused and defended. Monetary despotism cannot rightfully and effectively substitute for monetary freedom, no despotic act can, for any liberty or right. - JZ 31.12.92, 29.3.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary freedom means that those, who do have consumer-goods, consumer-services and productive labor for sale, need not wait until they find a buyer for them, bringing them exchange media or clearing certificates produced by a third party (often only the government or its central bank), usually in the form of an exclusive and forced currency, which is, for these sellers also something like a “foreign exchange”, but, instead, they can issue themselves a sound kind of alternative free market money, in form of standardized and typified claims against what they have to offer, which is accepted by them whenever anybody buys something from them. This means, that they can liquidity their currently for sale “assets”: ready for sale goods, labor and services, to the extent that these are wanted by others, at market prices and thus make certain of their sales. It even means that they can get the exchange values for their own kind of money even before they have delivered what they have to offer in goods and services, upon the return of their own alternative money, in payments due to them, in the final redemption of these, their own IOU’s. – In short, then they can satisfy their own needs and wants – to the extent that they are willing and able to offer wanted and needed values in free exchange, mediated through their own exchange media. – Naturally, these should be sound, using an agreed-upon value standard and should be legal tender only towards themselves. For all others they are refusable and subject to free market rating. However, precisely this condition will see to it that at least in local circulation their par value with their nominal value, expressed in whatever value standard is agreed upon, will be maintained. – JZ, 17.5.83, 3.10.08, 29.3.11. – In other districts or countries they will be foreign exchange and have a lower market value but precisely this will tend to bring them fast back to the locality of their issue, where the issuer must still accept them at their nominal value. – JZ, 22.4.14. - MONETARY FREEDOM, LOCAL CURRENCY IN FOREIGN EXCHANGES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary freedom means the realization of some basic rights: 1.) The right to support oneself through one's work and property. - 2.) The right to produce, trade and exchange freely and to use all modern tools and techniques for this purpose. - 3.) The right to help oneself - without wronging anyone. - 4.) The right to supply oneself with work and take all organizational, financial and monetary steps required for this purpose. - 5.) The right to do anything creatively with one's property and labor. - 6.) The right to freely make all kinds of contracts on one's labor, property, and exchanges. -  All these and other rights require, for their full realization, the practice of monetary rights and liberties which would make all unnatural i.e.. legally imposed sales difficulties for goods and labor disappear - while preventing or stopping inflations, deflations and stagflations. - What is considered useful will always be open to doubt but what is right can be settled with reasonable ease. - Behind all monetary and other economic individual rights lies the basic one to undertake, at the own cost and risk any measure and experiment one likes, alone or with associates, even those considered unsuitable by others, even when these others are considered as experts. - And this right is based on the right of self-ownership or individual sovereignty or the right to one's life. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - THE CURE FOR MASS UNEMPLOYMENT: MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Monetary freedom: No exchange media and value standards or clearing and payment systems to be prohibited for anyone or forced upon anyone. Individuals and groups to be free to adopt, issue and use or establish their own and to refuse or discount those of others. With competitive exchange media and value standards and clearing systems any possible and desired economic exchange of labor, goods and services can be easily arranged. - JZ, 31.12.92. – MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Money shortage and unemployment: Exchange of already available goods and services (like those of the unemployed), ready for sale, should be possible and facilitated by money, as a medium of exchange. This medium is, obviously, in short supply in times of unemployment, too short in its supply to mediate all possible and desired exchanges of this type. This shortage could be overcome by the competitive supply of exchange media. But such a supply is outlawed. We have, territorially and legally enforced, a monopolistic supply of exchange media which, inevitably, fluctuates between deflation and inflation, because the monopolistic exchange media are a forced currency, have forced value and forced acceptance (legal tender), i.e. they are not subject to free enterprise production and trade, a free market rate and optional refusal. Their supply is not measured against sound value standards and thus not limited by a discount against such standards and not expanded, freely and almost automatically, until the first small discount appears. - JZ 20.11.85, 28.3.11, 22.4.14. – Originally: JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKIONH WITH A MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY & LEGAL TENDER POWER 

UNEMPLOYMENT: Money, especially monopoly money tends to flow especially in established channels. E.g. presidents, ministers, soldiers, other public servants and welfare recipients are more likely to be paid soon and regularly than are e.g. some suppliers of goods to the government. Bureaucracy is also sometimes so inefficient that it does not pay its soldiers, public servants and welfare recipients in time. This money sits then, sometimes, for too long in government accounts and can thereby cause a sharper than the usual money shortage or deflation in the general economy. Other and new channels are not easily and fast established for it. Thus we get streams of official currency in some channels relatively well flowing while the general population is insufficiently or unsoundly supplied with a forced and exclusive official currency. In their  channels the flow of exchange media is reduced, insufficient and more irregular, or even dried up, so that there people might be unemployed, under-employed or have great sales difficulties. When the war economy gets going, then the channels for the war industry become flushed, even if only with inflated monopoly money, while those for peaceful production might some extent dry up or at least become diminished. This whole aspect of monopoly money circulation may not have been sufficiently explored and described as yet. Under full monetary freedom each sphere of the economy could, quite naturally, supply itself with however many or few exchange media or clearing options it needs and thus the saturation point for exchange media will tend to be everywhere and all the time reached under this condition. – JZ, 29.11.83, 3.10.08, 28.3.11, 22.4.14. - CIRCULATION CHANNELS, MONOPOLY MONEY, COMPETITIVE ISSUES OF MONEY WHEREVER & WHENEVER NEEDED

UNEMPLOYMENT: More than 200 million people are unemployed in China today, hundreds of thousands of them farmers who migrated to urban areas in hopes of finding jobs.” - John Naisbitt, Global Paradox, 1994, p.291. – What would happen to the present political regime in China if one could reach as many or almost as many unemployed with a program on how they themselves could abolish their unemployment, largely by certain monetary freedom steps, and this within hours or days? Sufficient goods-, labor- and service vouchers, in convenient monetary denominations, could be printed within hours and this would be nothing more than a revival and further development of some ancient Chinese monetary practices. They could be printed like tickets to sports-events and cinema performances and would stream back to their issuers to be redeemed in their labor, services and goods within hours, days or weeks at most. Naturally, cooperatively issued money tokens and clearing certificates of this kind would be more readily accepted and more widely useful and thus they would occur, very soon. Not only in form of the old tradition of Chinese “street money” but e.g. of shop foundation money of shop association banks of towns, cities or whole districts. Under banking freedom special discount banks for the promotion of employment and the sales of services and goods would discount individual IOU notes with their own kinds of banknotes, which would provide at least one local currency. The productive and exchange potential of all Chinese able and willing to work would be released and rewarded in a market-like way and also rapidly increased, because savings and capital accumulation would then also occur, more rapidly and to a large extent under sound value standard reckoning. – (At present, according to a recent newspaper report, still half of the Chinese live off a daily income equivalent only to US $ 2! – JZ, 19.4.09.) One of the two major governmental restraint upon free development would be removed. (The other is compulsory taxation combined with the financial despotism of public debts, which deal in claims against future tax slaves.) Sales of wanted goods and services then becoming easy, the sweatshops arising under deflationary conditions would then soon disappear as well. – JZ, 16.9.07. (When sound exchange media are competitively supplied then no one would be forced any longer to sell his or her labor for emergency sales prices. - JZ, 28.3.11.) – Naturally, it would be ideal if the regime declared: From now on we reject and will not longer practise the monetary despotism that Max an Engels proposed in the Communist Manifesto, with the intention of creating economic problems, which would allow communists to come to power in the resulting chaos. But producers and sellers can, probably, be much easier persuaded to issue and accept their kind of ticket money. – If they did it on a massive scale they could ignore the present legal prohibitions and engage in a peaceful and productive monetary revolution. China’s misnamed “cultural revolution” could have easily achieved that – if that kind of enlightenment had been its aim. - JZ, 11.10.07. - MASS UNEMPLOYMENT IN CHINA, REVIVAL & EXTENSION OF THE ANCIENT CHINESE MONETARY FREEDOM TRADITION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Much of unemployment in developed countries is, probably, due to housing shortages in these countries. These are based e.g. on fair rent legislation, building restrictions, inflation risk, taxation, zoning legislation, excessive fees for property transfers, union monopolies, custom duties on imported prefabricated housing, the employer-employee relationship, location restrictions on the use of mobile homes and similar and related wrongful restrictions. Consequently, when due to technological changes job opportunities in some districts decline, while they are expanding in other districts, workers do often find it hard to impossible to find as comfortable and cheap accommodation in the areas where job opportunities expand. Monetary freedom could then help only by removing the inflation risk, increasing productivity and capital accumulation generally and by removing fears among unionized workers that they would become unemployed. Under full employment for all, workers would not be inclined to bar entry to their jobs. – JZ, 4/68 & - 11/85. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - Freedom to include value preserving clauses in all housing credits, especially mortgages, has already several times in history lead to a great building boom – provided there were not too many other obstacles. Freedom from taxes and regulations in the building industry would also greatly help. Any kind of temporary emergency housing or accommodation for additional workers should be permitted, just like it is e.g. in wartime for soldiers and civilians. Thus this obstacle to full employment could also be overcome. – JZ, 1.10.09, 29.3.11. - & HOUSING SHORTAGE, TENTS, MOBILE HOMES, EMERGENCY HOUSING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Not as a genuine suggestion but merely as a thought experiment to indicate some of the unused potential, I suggest the following: The unemployed themselves could work for each other, mutually producing, in a system based upon division of labor, almost all their requirements and exchanging them between themselves. Even among a group of only 1000 unemployed, not to speak of the millions, dozens or even hundreds of millions, that all too often exist, they could do so, just like most of the ancient villages were largely self-supporting. They could, theoretically, produce most of the essential goods and exchange required by them. Let us assume that they could contract for the lease of otherwise not or not fully used production equipment to make them more productive than ancient villagers were, equipped only with primitive tools. They do already have the required skills and knowledge between them. But without some kind of money to facilitate the necessary exchanges between them, this, too, would not be possible. The one who produces combs cannot easily barter for a suit with someone who has a suit to offer but wants a chandelier for it. In a free monetary economy, both could get rid of their surplus - for some kind of money or clearing certificate or digitized account, reckoning in a sound value standard and also pricing their goods out with it - and would thus be able to buy whatever they need. Without means of exchange, seeing the present degree division of labor, 99% of the most skilled workers would remain unemployed. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – Consider the historical instance of the pioneers from Europe settling in North America. There were no jobs waiting for them, no factories, no businesses, not even houses. The Red Indians could only have employed them as slaves. The natives had difficulties enough to live themselves from hunting, fishing, food gathering and some agriculture. So the new immigrants were all unemployed. But they were also soon fully employed, even over-employed, just working for themselves and each other. They tried communism first and failed in this. Many died thus from starvation and sickness. Then they tried to advance with private property rights and free enterprise and self-responsibility, each working for himself and each family working for itself – and freely exchanging their products and services and from that time on their economic difficulties were over – until their legislators made life difficult for them, once again. – JZ, 20.4.09, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Once all the ready for sale goods and services and labor in a country can be monetized in competing private currency issues, expressing a cash or clearing demand for all existing goods, services and labor, and once sellers of goods, services and labor are free to accept, discount or refuse such payment offers, while remaining obliged only to accept the own notes and IOUs and clearing certificates at par at any time, then and only then will any sales difficulties and involuntary unemployment soon disappear. Then any desired and possible market exchanges could and would be brought about by free market monies, the means of exchange or clearing of a truly free market. - JZ 31.12.92, 24.4.14. - FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: One million unemployed, for instance, could anticipate and, largely, assure their re-employment and already spend part of their future earnings now – simply by issuing clearing certificates on which they would declare that they would accept them in payment of wages and salaries due to them. Naturally, apart from the usual legal obstacles, they would have to find acceptors of such clearing certificates, especially in shopping centers or in clearing banks. There would also be some discounts involved in the issues of such certificates. Obviously, the larger the discount would be, the more incentive would a buyer of such certificates (at a considerable discount) have - to use them as wage or salary payments towards the issuer. A potential employer for the issuer might buy up his certificates at a discount and then could employ the issuer at a wage or salary rate that, from the point of the employer, would be a correspondingly reduced rate. – How many such issues would be possible and how many future paydays could be anticipated and assured in this way? That remains to be seen. Instead of individual unemployed issuing such certificates, they could form an association that would issue only one such exchange medium, which all its members would accept. The individual unemployed would then get these clearing certificates as a loan from their own issue center and they would find such a common exchange medium would be more widely acceptable. – JZ, 18.7.99. – Assume that the average wage would be $ 500. Then these 1 million unemployed could issue, between them, $ 500 million of their clearing certificates in anticipation of their first weekly wage payment. Even if the shops accepted them only at 10 % or 20 % discount, they would still buy between them $400 million or $450 million in the shops. The shopkeepers could pay with them their wholesalers and these the employers and the employers could use them then to hire and pay these unemployed. If the process is successful, they could repeat these issues as they perceive them to be necessary and practicable. Naturally, as issuers they would have to compete with other issuers, like e.g. the shopping centers issuing their own kind of shop currencies. – Which kind of potential issuers of such notes or clearing certificates would be the optimal ones could only be determined by free competition, after a few such experiments. While it is unlikely that they could thus anticipate their future income for a whole year, it is not impossible that they might successfully do so for a few weeks or even a few months. – Refusals to accept such notes and certificates and too large discounts would set a natural limit to them. The issuers would not want them issued at too large a discount nor would the potential intermediate acceptors find them acceptable enough when they stand at a large discount. Only for the new employers of these unemployed would large discounts be a real incentive to hire them and pay them with their own notes. - Certainly, such self-help measures should not be outlawed. – The participants do have a moral right to ignore all contrary laws. – JZ, 25.9.08, 29.3.11, 23.4.14. - PROVIDING EMPLOYMENT FOR ONESELF THROUGH MONETARY FREEDOM STEPS, SELF-HELP OF UNEMPLOYED

UNEMPLOYMENT: Only quite free exchangers and producers can provide for themselves full and permanent employment opportunities, although only if they are prepared to change their jobs to the extent that this would be required through economic, scientific and technological developments, changing consumer preferences and are willing to work productively, for market wages, salaries or earnings and to freely exchange their goods and services and to undertake all the organizational, monetary and financial steps required for this purpose. Obviously, the politicians and bureaucrats cannot or will not do this job for them, but, as before, rather attempt to prevent them from realizing this aim. – However, if millions are enlightened in this respect and determined to peacefully realize all their free exchange rights between them, I doubt that democratic politicians would be able to suppress such a movement. They would lose millions of votes thereby, not only in the very next election. - JZ, 9.11.97, 28.9.08, 29.3.11, 22.4.14. - FULL EMPLOYMENT & MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Only under conditions of unemployment and poverty do many people get into jobs they dislike and stay in them for all too long. – JZ, 17.2.98. – This is one of the great personal costs of the prevailing system of monetary despotism and its harmful effects upon the degree and kind of employment and unemployment. Fancy some people having to spend years, decades or even their whole working lives in jobs they dislike, just to support themselves and their families! – JZ, 28.9.08. (This has also happened to me! – JZ, 22.4.14.) Nevertheless, most of these unfortunates never consider how much better their jobs, their situation and their living standard could be under full monetary freedom and financial freedom instead of having to try to make a living under monetary and financial despotism. – JZ, 20.4.09, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Paid labor is an exchange between labor and assignments to labor services and products. The labor of each in a division of labor and free exchange economy does provide labor, services and goods for the others, via an exchange medium and various organizations (employers, wholesalers, retailers and issuing institutions for exchange media.). Without exchange media or other clearing facilities most present exchanges would not take place. Without some form of money or clearing most exchanges would come to a stop and most of us would be exposed to the risk of famine. When some are still supplied with some exchange media and others are not, then we have what is generally called unemployment and a depression, i.e. sales difficulties for goods, services and labor. - In other words, employment and unemployment are questions of the money supply, which should not be unsound, insufficient and monopolized but sound, sufficient and competitive. Almost no one wants to work for nothing or can afford to do so. All unemployed could get employment as unpaid slaves. Almost everyone could employ several such slaves for his convenience. But to employ them productively and competitively - that requires mass production and division of labor, consequently also mass sales. Then it becomes a question of money, of sales and purchases with money. When the potential customers are also unemployed or insufficiently supplied with purchasing power, then many of the potential producers will be unemployed. - There would be no unemployment if everybody could pay with assignments upon his own labor. Under a perfect clearing system he could do so. - Only additional and sound exchange media are needed to achieve and maintain full employment, to the extent that people are able and willing to work. Everything else that is required for production is already there, ready to be used but largely unused. That people should not price their goods and services out of their potential market is self-evident. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: People without work. (Volk ohne Arbeit.) - Hans Habe, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Band 1, Reportagen und Gespraeche, Knaur, 1976, S. 40. People are not short of work but short of paid work. And they are short of the common sense required to see that under a monopoly for the issue of money not enough sound money might be issued to make any possible and desired exchange of labor and services for the products of the labor of others and of their services possible. (*) Unemployment exists only because free exchange, including monetary freedom and free clearing, is interfered with. – JZ, 15.9.07. – (*) Naturally, under an issue monopoly and legal tender power for it, too much of a quite unsound money can also be issued and cause an inflation. Moreover, in the absence of voluntarism freedom of  contract, freedom of association, free competition and free pricing in this sphere, a mixture of inflation and deflation in form of stagflation is also common, as well as all free frequent periods of deflationary undersupply for currency as well as inflationary oversupplies of the exclusive currency can and do occur and last all too long. – JZ, 22.4.14. - MONETARY DESPOTISM VS. MONETARY FREEDOM, DEFLATION, INFLATION, STAGFLATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Permanent mass unemployment destroys the moral foundations of the social order. The young people, who, having finished their training for work, are forced to remain idle, are the ferment out of which the most radical political movements are formed. In their ranks the soldiers of the coming revolutions are recruited. This indeed is the tragedy of our situation. It is not Capitalism which is responsible for the evils of permanent mass unemployment, but the policy which paralyzes its working. - Ludwig von Mises, Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. - Ludwig von Mises Institute – Facebook, 11.9.12. - & RIGHT & LEFT REVOLUTIONS, FLAWED TO FALSE “RADICAL” IDEOLOGIES, WHICH IGNORE THE REAL ROOTS OF PROBLEMS & CRISES (E.G. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM INSTEAD OF MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM) & BLAME, INSTEAD, A VARIETY OF IMAGINED CULPRITS: CAPITALISTS, BOURGEOIS, CORPORATIONS, “EXPLOITERS”, “USURISTS”, WHOLE ETHNIC OR RELIGIOUS GROUPS LIKE JEWS (ANTISEMITISM), ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS & WHOLE SYSTEMS, CALLED CAPITALISM OR FREE MARKETS & FREE ENTERPRISE ONES, EVEN WHEN, WHERE & WHILE FREE ENTERPRISE & LAISSEZ -FAIRE CAPITALISM, FREE TRADE & FREE MARKETS ARE ALL TOO MUCH RESTRICTED & IN MOST IMPORTANT SPHERES OUTLAWED. CENTRAL BANKS & EXCLUSIVE & FORCED CURRENCIES ARE CERTAINLY NOT PART & PARCEL OF CAPITALISM, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE TRADE & FREE MARKETS. – JZ, 22.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Politicians can at best only supply themselves and their favorites with jobs – at the expense of everyone else. But they cannot provide any additional job opportunities – except by getting quite out of the way, with all their laws, programs, platforms and measures or by applying them, from now on, only to their remaining volunteers and at their expense and risk. It is the same as with the old age security they offer: They manage to look out, very well, after their own, at the expense of the tax-payers – but as for all the rest of us … - JZ, 18.7.04, 22.10.07. – Alas, their victims are usually just as ignorant and prejudiced in this sphere as their misleaders are. – They wrongly assume that an exclusive and forced currency, one that really stays sound, can and will always be supplied in the required quantities whenever and wherever it is needed, i.e., that it will be neither under-supplied nor over-supplied and this by the greatest anti-economic monopolist in the economy, in any country, its central bank. (*) – The contrary experience of all too many decades has not yet cured them of this myth. The “achieved” uniformity in the means of exchange and as far as the value standard is concerned, but at what price? They avoid thinking about and thoroughly discussing the subject, just like their children and pets do. Thus this wrongful and irrational abuse goes on and on, victimizing almost everybody more or less. – JZ, 19.4.09. – (*) I concede but most people ignore, that the territorial monopoly is still larger and it also included monetary and financial despotism. – JZ, 22.4.14.) - FULL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS BY POLITICIANS, JOB PROGRAMS, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY & FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, TERRITORIALISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Prices and wages to be free: All prices, wages and salaries to be subject to free negotiations, not only as to their size and duration and conditions but also with regard to the means of payment and the standard of value to be used. Monetary freedom instead of monetary despotism. Only then should we expect full employment to prevail, because all monetary, clearing and value standard restrictions upon free exchanges of labor, goods and services would be removed. - JZ 31.12.92, 22.4.14. – WAGE & PRICE CONTROLS E.G. THROUGH MONETARY DESPOTISM?

UNEMPLOYMENT: Private local exchange media issues, based on goods and services of the issuer, must stream back to the issuer, like cinema, bus, railway or sports stadium tickets, to purchase the goods and services of the issuer. To the extent that they can be issued and are accepted and used in payments to their issuers, for the goods and services they do offer, they do supply the issuers with corresponding sales of their goods and services and labor. - JZ 31.12.92, 29.3.11. – & TICKET MONEY, MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Production pays for employment. Free enterprise, by maximizing production, maximizes both employment and wages. There is no other way.” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip van Australia, p.253. – Only if the “production” of sound exchange media (or clearing certificates or other clearing options) is also free, i.e. when free banking or monetary freedom are seen and realized as essential parts of free enterprise and free exchange and when the issue of medium & the establishment of all kinds of clearing options and the issue of short-term, medium-term and long-term capital securities is also quite free, i.e., unregulated by the government and left to a quite free market for capital certificates, for exchange media and also for value standards that people find acceptable in their spheres. – JZ, 5.6.82, 4.10.08, 29.3.11, 22.4.14. - PRODUCTION, PRODUCTIVITY, SALES, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Ready for sale goods, services and productive labor are ideal covers or redemption funds for private and competitive free market money issues. Such issuers, by thus paying their way, would inevitably sell their goods, services and labor to the same extent. - JZ 21.12.92. - READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, READY FOR SALE GOODS, SERVICES & LABOR

UNEMPLOYMENT: Record 89,304,000 Americans ‘Not in Labor Force”? – 296,000 Fewer Employed Since January, CNS News, – Facebook hint by Adrian Moore - The real unemployment data.9.3.13. - In at least one case a government had managed to drive up unemployment to 80%. Historically, an unemployment rare of 20%, or even more, has often resulted in a revolution. – A statistic on this seems to be still missing or I have simply never seen it. – JZ, 22.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: recurrent periods of depression and unemployment … a consequence of the age-old government monopoly of the issue of money.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, IEA, Hobart Paper Special 70, p.14. – All inflations and stagflations, i.e., most economic crises, are also caused by it. – JZ, 19.4.09. - MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, CENTRAL BANKING, LEGAL TENDER, “MANAGED” OR, RATHER “MISMANAGED” & IMPOSED VALUE STANDARDS, INFLATION, DEFLATION, STAGFLATION, CRISES, RECESSIONS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Release the potential monetary demand for productive labor that consists in the immense stocks of ready-for-sale goods and in the readiness to provide wanted consumer services in the shopping centers, super-markets, chain stores and department stores, by allowing these suppliers to monetize these assets in form of their own shop currencies or clearing certificates or account credits with shop foundation, to the extent that they do find ready acceptors in their own employees, suppliers, services providers and that they are found acceptable by employers and employees to pay wages and salaries with and thus grant to them short-term loans for this purpose. (I.e. discounting with them the claims which the producers have against wholesalers, which used to be expressed in sound bills of exchange, issued by wholesalers to pay producers, i.e. for goods already produced and sold to the wholesalers. – JZ, 22.4.14.) They should also be free and have the right to price their goods, services and shop currency and other free market monies in self-chosen and sounder value standards than those offered in governmental paper currencies. When these potential issuers and all others as well, are finally free to bid with their own alternative currencies for all able and willing workers, then involuntary unemployment would very soon disappear in most countries, which are well stocked with ready for sale consumer goods and numerous facilities to provide wanted consumer services, like transport facilities and electricity, gas and water supplies or accommodation for rent and education facilities for hire – JZ, 16.8.00, 7.10.08, 29.3.11. - FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR ABLE & WILLING WORKERS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Sack politicians and bureaucrats rather than let them sack us, indirectly, by their laws, regulations, institutions and “policies”. – JZ, 25.8.98, 6.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Sacrifices required? Full employment need not cost the taxpayers or investors or charitable donors anything. It can and should pay for itself, immediately, when we right away and profitably mobilize the existing and ready-for- sale consumer goods and services by allowing their owners to use them as redemption funds for their own private exchange media issues. - JZ 21.12.92. – Work is self-supporting and need not be subsidized – under fully free exchange. – However, monopoly money does not always turn up there where it is wanted and needed most and this at the right time and in the required quantities and qualities. In times of mass unemployment the monopoly money of central banks does, obviously, fail in its role as an exchange medium for the unemployed and for those who would have liked to be able to employ them productively and for those, who would have loved to supply them, in exchange for what they earned through their labor (in form of any kind of sound enough local currency), with the goods and services the unemployed do need or want and could rapidly get only under full monetary and financial freedom, now outlawed. – The raw materials are there, the factories and machines are there, the transport facilities exist, the willing workers are there, the suppliers of goods and services are there, only enough and sound enough exchange media are missing! It does not require a miracle or any sacrifices but just some common sense and the absence of legal coercion and legal prohibitions, to bring all these factors together, in a free market, i.e. one which also embraces full monetary freedom, full clearing freedom, free choice of value standards and full financial freedom. – Even Franklin Elano Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler were aware of this possibility but, in practice both resorted simply to another inflation. With only the tools of monetary despotism one cannot fully or satisfactorily solve this problem but merely prolong it. - JZ, 20.4.09, 29.3.11. – See especially: Ulrich von Beckerath: Must Full Employment Cost Money? at - MONETARY FREEDOM, FULL EMPLOYMENT WITHOUT SACRIFICES, SUBSIDIES, GOVERNMENT MONEY, EXTRA COSTS & BURDENS & PYRAMID SCHEMES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Seeing how often love stories and human fates have been told in novels, poems and songs, it is not too much of an imposition to try to express optimally the cause and cure for unemployment and inflation repeatedly – hundreds or even thousands of times, until, finally, the best form of expression for these phenomena has been found and is generally accepted. – JZ, 21.9.95. – Keep also in mind how preachers repeat e.g. the Christian messages from their pulpits every Sunday and also at many other occasions in-between and in how many writings on top of the Bible they try to advance their beliefs. If we can be patient and tolerant towards them, we should learn to become patient towards the repetitiveness in the advocacy of certain reform ideas or enlightenment attempts. - Repetitiveness of some of these quotes, notes and comments for liberty entries. – An attempt to excuse it. – JZ, 26.9.08. – Instead of complaining: Please, do express the problem and its solution better than it was done so far! – JZ, 20.4.09. - INFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANAKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Self-help by the unemployed through their own IOUs and their free clearing: The unemployed should at least be enabled to exchange or clear the services and goods they are able and willing to produce for each other, i.e. to keep each other employed. Since neither the needs and wants of those now employed nor their working capacity are fully utilized, the presently unemployed should also be enabled to exchange with the presently somewhat employed, i.e. to become completely integrated in the process of production and exchange. The task consists, essentially, only in exchanging more goods and services, which people would gladly produce and exchange for each other. Instead of e.g. $ 500 million worth of goods being produced and exchanged, $ 600 million worth of them would then be produced and exchanged. There is nothing inherently impossible in this. Underutilized production centers and machines, unsold raw materials and under-utilized transport facilities and sales centers are there. The genuinely unemployed are willing to work more. The presently employed are willing to work longer hours or in additional jobs. It must be possible to arrange for this additional production and these additional exchanges a) by eliminating all legal and customary obstacles to them, especially - b) by providing sufficient sound exchange media, turnover credits and clearing facilities to assure that all these desired and technically possible additional goods and services are not only produced and offered but also easily exchanged. – The ready for sale product of the able and willing to work unemployed is their labor. Their potential market: Potential employers. How can the unemployed induce these employers to employ them? The unemployed issue their own IOUs, buy with them and consume their equivalent in the shops, which use them to restock their shelves from the wholesalers and these use them to pay the employers for restocking them and the employers use them to pay additional workers, the unemployed who had issued these IOUs, with these IOUs and thereby the circle would be closed. The workers would have anticipated their wages and consumed them and thereby induced others to employ them to produce what they had consumed. The initial consumption might not be complete or the issue or reflux process could be done in stages and it could be endlessly repeated until other and better exchange media become available to the participants. The ready-for sale shop-foundation which the unemployed would offer in this case, would be their own ready labor power, just like tradesmen and professionals might offer their service readiness and ability in this form to provide for their needs and provide jobs for themselves. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. 29.3.11

UNEMPLOYMENT: Self-help by the unemployed through their own IOUs and their free clearing: If we assume that unemployed and underemployed issued typified "orders" for their requirements, in money denominations, on which they declared that they are willing to accept them in payment for market wages and salaries paid to them and that these "readiness to exchange certificates" get into a free and fully developed clearing system, then there is no reason to assume that these certificates will not a) be right away acceptable to sellers of goods and services which the unemployed and underemployed need or want and - b) be brought, by clearing, to those who can productively use the services of the unemployed or underemployed - to produce the equivalent of the goods and services which they have consumed and to be paid in their IOU-orders. - If that process were repeated over and over again, the unemployed and underemployed would, thereby, have supplied themselves with work. They would not have deprived anyone of his present work opportunities. - A, B and C order $ 500 each, using their own IOUs for these orders, on which they declare that they are willing to redeem them at any time with their own labor services at rates determined by the market. - D, E. and F sell them a total of $ 1,500 worth of their goods and services in exchange for the IOUs of A, B, and C. - D, E. and F then use these $ 1500 worth of IOUs to pay for the services they need and the goods they need to restock their shelves. - G, H. and I, suppliers and wholesalers to D, E and F, accept the IOU orders (and readiness to work certificates) to pay their suppliers and manufacturers J, K and L, in order to restock their warehouses. - J, K and L, use these certificates to pay A, B. and C. for their labors, required to provide another $ 1500 worth of goods and services. Thereby this circle is closed. - There is no justification or good reason why it should ever be broken or why anybody, not involved in this free exchange, should at any stage be authorized to say: You may not exchange your goods and services in such a way but only in ways which I permit or prescribe! Full freedom to exchange and to take all steps required to promote exchange, would see to it that every unemployed willing and able to work would be employed. - Admittedly, the prejudices now misguiding us in this sphere are so strong that most people have never considered this free exchange option or are afraid of it and prejudiced against it and some would rather rob other people's money than issue their own. They can imagine robbing a bank but not opening up one of their own. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: Since all exchanges are essentially and lastly clearing transactions, however indirect and since there is no inherent limit on the quantity of goods and services and labor that could be exchanged by clearing, all difficulties in selling goods, services and labor (that are wanted and competitively priced) can be traced down to restrictions upon direct and indirect clearing and will disappear with these restrictions. - JZ 24.11.85. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - & CLEARING

UNEMPLOYMENT: Since free people, under free exchange and division of labor do work for each other, however independently otherwise and anonymously, there would never be any involuntary unemployment for them, since the needs and wants of the others for any economically supplied goods, services and labor are also practically unlimited and always larger than the ability to provide equivalent work or service values immediately. Larger consumer goods can thus often be paid off only in installments over months to years while the largest, like houses, require often decades of part of one’s returns from one’s work productivity to pay in full for them. Thus each should thus be very busy with his or her productive work or services – unless quite free exchange is somehow prevented or artificially reduced and this against the wishes of those able and willing to sell their goods, services and labor and those who want to buy them - if they were enabled to do so, indirectly, namely to buy them with their own goods, services and labor that they have ready for this purpose. Alas, they, too, are largely prevented from turning them into effective purchasing power for themselves. - It is obvious that a perfectly working clearing system, using a sound value standard, with everyone participating in it, would be able to settle all the mutual claims existing or arising under free exchange conditions. But it is also obvious that we do not have such a perfect system as yet. We are still largely dependent upon “exchange media”. These exchange media, in all countries in the world, are produced by centralized, monopolistic and collectivistic third parties, namely the central bank of each State, which are themselves not directly involved with the production and exchange process – but legally permitted to meddle with the exchanges of all productive people in a country - through their note issue and currency policy and measures, allowing no other exchange media in the country but their own and no other value standard reckoning except their own. Thus, and also obviously, they do manage to greatly mismanage both, largely merely in the interest of their governments rather than of all their territorial subjects, their countrymen and victims of governmentalism in every sphere, especially in the monetary and financial spheres. Instead of constantly supplying us with just sufficient quantities of sound exchange media - to make all desired exchanges possible - they constantly produce either too many or not enough of them, thus causing inflations deflations or even both together, in stagflations. Their value standard keeps changing in value, usually they do become more and more depreciated. Only for short periods do they remain the same. They have no inbuilt safeguards for stability, no sound value standards, no sound and market like limitations for the supply of exchange media and clearing services. Only for short periods does their supply of exchange media more or less accidentally correspond to the requirements of an otherwise free market. – There are no market guides, no price signals, no competitive alternatives for their forced and exclusive currencies. Thus they are, quite inevitably, mismanaged. What else should we expect from a monopoly institution and a coercive meddler, like a central bank for note issues, from monetary despotism? Only full monetary freedom, meaning the competitive supply or market rated, optional and competitive free market money exchange media, which, as such, are optional, i.e. refusable and discountable and widely acceptable only locally, as long as they retain their par value with their nominal value standard and are also under the competition and free choice of value standards for all kinds of exchange media, goods, services, labor and other contracts, i.e. under the opposites to the present monetary despotism can we expect the inherent phenomena of it and its consequences to finally disappear. To achieve that would require a monetary reform or a monetary revolution. That could happen quite suddenly, if it is well prepared in enough minds. Such a reform is, as a rule, not to be expected from government actions, not even in democratic States. – Territorial governments usually do not engage in any kind of revolution against themselves and their own powers. Further tinkering with central banking will not get us out of its inherent difficulties and problems. The politicians will at most continue to play the ancient political party and power games, with their superficial changes and all changes of government over the last century have retained the system of monetary despotism, as if it were the only possible one, a quite rightful one and even an ideal one, and this quite contrary to facts and genuine economic science. – JZ, 28.4.00, 6.10.08, 29.3.11, 22.4.14. – MONETARY FREEDOM & CLEARING FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE BANKING VS. MONOPOLISTIC CENTRAL BANKS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Singo and Howard on Unemployment - - As long as all wages and salaries are to be paid in a monopoly money with legal tender power there will always be some and often much unemployment. Compared with that factor, minimum wage laws and other wage controls and factors are relatively trivial. – JZ, 14.5.11, on Facebook. – MINIMUM WAGES OR MONETARY DESPOTISM AS MAIN CAUSE? FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE MARKET MONIES, COMPETITIVELY ISSUED & VOLUNTARILY ACCEPTED AT PAR OR DISCOUNTED OR REFUSED

UNEMPLOYMENT: So many legal and financial burdens are put upon employers that I hardly know why anyone would still wants to become an employer. The result of all this interference is anyhow some degree of unemployment. – JZ, 5.9.92. – EMPLOYERS, TAXATION, RED TAPE, REGULATIONS, BUREAUCRACY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Some of the factors that are supposed to cause unemployment but do not or that are supposed to be exclusive causes of unemployment but are not: 1.) Capitalism; 2.) Conspiracies, by A - Z.; 3.) Interest on capital and credit; 4.) Unwillingness to work. (Denial of the existence of involuntary unemployment.); 5.) Unions. (Although they do contribute, they do not cause all of it.); 6.) Unemployment insurance and social services. (Contributing but not single or main causes.); 7.) Overpopulation; 8.) Overproduction; 9.) Capital shortage; 10.) Lack of central planning or other socialist interventionism. (Largely identical with charge No.1.); 11.) Land monopoly. (Contributing but not major or only cause.); 12.) Too high wages. (Compare Unions.); 13.) Free Trade; 14.) Unrestricted immigration. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old file. – All such popular errors, prejudices, misunderstandings etc. should become collected and published together with their best refutations. So far not enough people were interested in doing that, although via the Internet that could be done relatively fast and easily through enough participants. – JZ, 22.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Some of the factors that do make for prolonged and involuntary unemployment among able workers. Most of these factors are due to government interventions: 1.) Fixing wages too high, via government or coercive unionism. (Minimum wage laws and laws fixing excessive fringe benefits.) With taxes and regulations they act as penalties upon employing anyone. - 2.) Fixing wages too low to provide a sufficient incentive to work for people with some other means of support. - 3.) Subsidizing unemployment highly enough to make it an attractive option. - 4.) Compulsory licensing requirements. - 5.) Revolutions and civil wars. - 6.) Punitive and redistributive or excessive taxation for services and disservices. It prevents and stops some enterprises and reduces the business activities of most. - 7.) Extensive private robbery, piracy and banditry (which, in extreme cases, can induce people to produce only with primitive means for their own subsistence). - 8.) Housing subsidies and rent controls, which tie people to certain locations, even when locally there is not sufficient employment and elsewhere there is. - 9.) Unionism, compulsory and monopolistic, leading to excess costs, strikes and occupations of factories. - 10.) Protectionism that makes firms unable to compete. Export and import restrictions, like tariffs, foreign exchange controls, quotas, international trade licensing. – 11.) Unwillingness among employees and employers to learn new skills and techniques or to offer new products. Then these people are actually not able and willing to work for a free market but, to some extent, voluntarily and yet unintentionally unemployed. – (One might as well say that then these people would rather engage in unprofitable hobbies, long accustomed to, than engage in work that others are willing to pay them for. – JZ, 30.9.08.) - 12.) Price controls, e.g. maximum prices that would render production unprofitable or minimum prices that would make products hard to impossible to sell. – 13.) An exclusive reliance upon monoculture or one or the other kind of product or service only, in spite of market fluctuations. - 14.) In general terms, any coercive intervention with peaceful production and exchange. - 15.) Shortage of development capital - due e.g. to prohibitions or restrictions on foreign investments, inflation, deflation, taxation and nationalization, indirectly due to monetary and financial despotism). - 16.) Monopolies. (E.g. for taxies, air lines, utilities, transport.) – 17.) Regulation to over-regulation of business. (Compare licensing.) - 18.) Compulsory education. - 19.) Laws against child labor. - 20.) Emigration and immigration restrictions and Alien Acts and other acts preventing minority autonomy and with it economic self-help actions and experiments of minorities. - 21.) Land monopoly. - 22.) Forced labor, including conscription (see also 18) and imprisonment. - The latter, under present conditions, renders both, prisoners and warders, largely unemployed – in a productive sense - out of fears that they might render innocent outside people unemployed if the convicts were allowed to compete for jobs on the market. - 23.) Stock exchange restrictions and restrictions on the issue and transfer of securities. - 24.) Coercive and centralized planning. (State socialism.) - 25.) Unemployment insurance and welfare hand-outs to the able. The funds wasted by them could rather be used to provide employment. The accumulation of reserves for them could create unemployment and so could the sudden calling up of their investments and the regular burden they impose through taxes. - 26.) Interest rate regulations and policies that prevent interest rates from acting as natural regulators. - 27.) Restrictions upon foreign investments, tax penalties and confiscation or nationalization threats for them. - 28.) Nationalization threats. Even if it were legal to engage in certain business enterprises, people would hesitate to do so as long as they are threatened by nationalization with an insufficient indemnification or even without any. - 29.) Health legislation which, makes initial outlays for new enterprises too large, by preventing pioneering conditions which constitute a natural development stage. - 30.) Zoning and building restrictions. - 31.) Environmental protection laws, imposing sometimes unnecessary or even ridiculous restrictions. - 32.) In some countries, restrictions upon employment agencies. The governmental exclusive or non-exclusive employment agencies may cost more jobs than they mediate merely by being bureaucratically run and financed. - 34.) Compulsory wage arbitration and the employer-employee relationship upon which it is based. Both introduce too much rigidity in the wage and salary structure, preventing rapid enough adaptation to changed conditions. - 35.) Forced loans and forced investments in government insecurities. (Trustee Acts.) - 36.) Compulsory "reserve deposits" with the central bank. - 37.) Stop and go policies. - 38.) Natural catastrophes like droughts, floods, earthquakes. (Under sensible insurance arrangements and monetary freedom such conditions would soon lead to over-work.) - 39.) Technological changes: They can only lead, under free market conditions, to very temporary unemployment that requires merely retraining and, possibly, relocation. - While not denying the validity of these and other factors, it is, nevertheless, asserted here that monetary and financial despotism is the most important factor making for and preserving mass unemployment. It has to be abolished and replaced by monetary freedom. After its realization the importance of most of the other factors would soon be greatly reduced, since this basic reform would affect and improve almost every economic relationship. – JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - I wonder how many entries a complete list of this kind would have to contain! – JZ, 30.9.08, 29.3.11.

UNEMPLOYMENT: SOME WRONG ASSUMPTIONS: a) that we have a free market economy now, b) that in it the number of jobs is limited or cannot be increased except at huge costs, c) that either sacrifices are required or that the limited number of existing jobs would have to be "fairly" shared out, d) that jobs must be protected from competition by immigrants, by young and old people and by un-licenced and therefore, supposedly, unqualified people, and also from competition by members of various minority groups, e) that unionists and present job holders have a prior right to hold and keep their jobs, even at wages above the market level, even while others are willing to do the same jobs (for all consumers) for less, f) that inflation, armament orders and a "pump priming" money manipulation could provide sufficient and productive jobs in the long run, g) Assumption that only central planning, control, or complete State socialism could supply sufficient jobs. (All they can supply is an unlimited number of slave labor jobs.), h) that capitalists have an interest in preserving a reserve army of unemployed, i.e. in not exploiting some laborers and in letting some of their productive labor capital rest idle, although they would have a chance to employ and, supposedly, exploit them, i) Assumption that there must inevitably be a large degree of "seasonal" and "structural" unemployment - instead of merely a fluctuation from some jobs to other jobs, j) that the government's deflationary and inflationary policies, wage and price controls, subsidies and trade restrictions and licensing requirements would not increase unemployment, k) that machines and automation and computerization would necessarily cause unemployment instead of merely an increased standard of living and more leisure and changes to easier jobs, l) that policies pursued in other countries could create any lasting unemployment here, m) that we are suffering either from overproduction and overpopulation - no matter how contradictory the two are, n) that at least some unemployment is beneficial, by establishing a reserve work force and that unemployment, in consequence, could become too small for the good of the economy. (Let there be unemployment for such experts!), o) that the state of unemployment must be subsidized by hand-outs called unemployment benefits, on the premise that an insurance against unemployment would be possible and that large reserves for such pay-outs and even current levies for them would not also cause unemployment, p) that unemployment has nothing to do with monetary despotism, although it involves the very exchange media required to pay wages with and to sell its products for, q) that the unemployed may not resort to self-help to supply themselves with jobs without depriving anybody of any job and, especially, that they do not have the right to undertake e.g. monetary and financial self-help measures for this purpose, r) that the authorities will and can provide any legitimate demand for sound exchange media and that any demand remaining unsatisfied at present is simply an illegitimate one, s) that the government's manipulation of its paper standard of value and its outlawry of competing sound value standards does not have any bad effects on the investment and employment situation, t) that interferences with the free market interest rates would have no harmful but only beneficial effects, u) that interferences with market prices, wages and salaries would be beneficial, v) that taxation, no matter how high, would have no harmful effects, w.) that regulations, no matter how extensive and numerous, would all be beneficial. - In a comprehensive listing possibly hundreds of such errors ought to be listed - and refuted. – JZ, n.d. & 19.4.09. – Who will help to make this list of popular errors on this subject complete and to confront each of them with its best refutation? –  From mass unemployment and extreme inflation to tyranny for a country and war is but a step, as was well demonstrated by Hitler, who made his first putsch towards the end of the Great Inflation in Germany, 1933 and his second and this time successful one, in the middle of the Great Depression, 1933. – Will we learn enough from such examples to avoid the otherwise inevitable accidental or even intentional nuclear war? So far we have been very lucky, more lucky than we deserve, seeing the all too limited interest in such problems and in their solutions. - JZ, 23.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Stupid, greedy “workers” conspire to extort more pay for less work. They are surprised when their victims try to automate them the hell out. Politicians obstruct productive employment a million ways, then scapegoat others for the inevitable (*) unemployment.” – Pyrrho, THE CONNECTION 129, 28.7.85, p.55. – (*) resulting – would be a more suitable word here. – JZ.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Take the worst of them all, the unemployment problem. Three parties with three policies, all founded on State action and all of which the public is at last beginning to doubt. - The Spirit of Economy will remind you that there are six hundred thousand persons in this country described in the last census as ‘employers’. It would seem to anybody except a new-world monger as if employers had some slight connection with employment. - But what sort of effort can be reasonably ask these 600,000 employers to make when one great political party is founded on their extinction, and all parties look upon them merely as taxation fodder and use the whole force of the State to rob them of the fruits of their labour?” – Sir Ernest Benn, SPEECH, 27.1.31, in Deryck Abel, Ernest Benn, Counsel for Liberty, p.155/56. - Alas, most employers just like the vast majority of employed and unemployed employees have shown not the least interest in thoroughly exploring cause and cure of unemployment and in undertaking the private initiative and self-help steps, even if that would have required illegal actions, to rapidly do away with involuntary mass unemployment, including sales difficulties and bankruptcies of employers. They do not even question monetary despotism. Far less are they thinking of monetary disobedience or even a monetary revolution. – JZ, 3.10.08. - PARTIES, TAXATION, EMPLOYERS in U.K., EMPLOYEES, DISINTEREST IN THE PROBLEM & ITS SOLUTION, EMPLOYERS, STATE SOCIALISM, STATE INTERVENTIONISM, TAXATION, ENEMIES OF PROFIT, INTEREST, RENT, DIVIDENDS, CAPITALISM, FREE ENERPRISE, THE “SANCTION OF THE VICTIMS” IS INVOLVED IN BOTH OF THEIR CLASSES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Tax foundation money: While compulsory taxes still exist, governments and their agents, the central banks, should be allowed to issue nothing but sound tax foundation money, i.e. money which only the government would have to accept at par with its nominal value at any time in all tax and other payments legally due to them and which would be using a sound value standard, not a fictitious, monopolistic and forced paper “value standard” that of a forced or fiat currency, with compulsory acceptance and a force value. All others should become free to refuse or discount such means of exchange. Thus the public financial sphere could and would be sufficiently provided with exchange media while the rest of the market would not be coercively flooded with a depreciated and forced currency which would drive out any sound alternative currencies. All voluntary tax and contribution and insurance and mutual aid schemes and systems are to be at liberty to issue their own contribution money and to be obliged to accept it at any time at par with its nominal value, in all payments due to them, while all others remain free to refuse or discount it. To avoid deflationary effects, no large payment sphere should be without its own note issue and clearing facilities. – Naturally, under full financial freedom and free choice of governance systems, societies and communities for all, compulsory taxation and its tax-foundation currency would be ended, too, the sooner the better. - JZ, 31.12.92, 23.4.14. - & TAX FOUNDATION MONEY & CONTRIBUTION OR SUBSCRIPTION-BASED CURRENCIES, WITH FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, NONTE OF THEM TO BE LEGAL TENDER IN GENERAL CIRCULATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: That the abolition and prevention of mass unemployment is not impossible, is demonstrated by its temporary nature, even when it lasts several years. It does not exist before and after. - Which of the many factors named by so-called experts really does create some degree of unemployment, if any, and which of their proposed measures could stop or prevent it? - I find the ignorance on this question among the ruling politicians and among the main opposition parties quite terrifying. Also their disinterest in it. Likewise, the ignorance, prejudices and disinterest among the unemployed, those fearful of unemployment and those sympathizing with the unemployed. - I cannot possibly deal with all the myths and wrong assumptions here but will try to shortly reply to some of them: Mass unemployment does not mean that there exists a massive surplus of labor. - The needs of the unemployed can be satisfied only by labor services and labor products. Likewise, the still unsatisfied needs of those employed to the limits of their capacity and their willingness to work. - To provide for these needs opens up a source for employment for the unemployed and under-employed, that is as unlimited as these needs and wants are - regarding the total amount of labor required to satisfy them. But at any time no more of these needs and wants could be satisfied than there are able and willing laborers available to satisfy them. - All that is needed is proper organization and that includes proper financing, especially of the short-term turnover credits that are required for this. - I do not propose that the unemployed should work only for their own requirements, i.e. produce and exchange only among themselves. (That can serve only as a thought example to demonstrate that their labor is still needed, at least by themselves.) - They should not only participate in division of labor, free production and free exchange among themselves but be integrated in the general processes of this type - without depriving anyone of his job opportunities. - There is no shortage of jobs to be done. Imagine that they would not have to be paid for. Most people could then employ, at least part-time, several other people. But the market system has to be involved to make these jobs profitable, not only for the ones these people work for, free of charge but also for these workers. In other words, not only does marketing and pricing have to be free but exchange media or clearing options have to be provided as well to make it possible to pay these workers. And in order to be able to pay them, their products must be profitably sold. Ideally, the exchange media and clearing options provided should achieve these sales. Goods warrants and service vouchers as well as clearing certificates or account credits in monetary denominations or free market monies would fill this requirement and they would have to be redeemed only in wanted labor, services and goods. - Like with your house and gardening work, so in the general economy. The jobs to be done and those wanted to be done do far exceed your own time and energy to do them immediately. Human wants, beyond the daily survival needs, are insatiable. - Jobs are unlimited - or limited only by our working ability. I only point this out to hint at the existence of an obstacle. The question is really: How can it happen to be difficult to produce and exchange services and goods when you are free to produce and offer them and others are free to buy them? - Are we quite free to exchange them? – Hypothetically, we could all exchange them via bartering or perfect clearing. However, bartering is rather laborious and time consuming when it is merely bilateral and not multilateral, easy, fast and almost frictionless. Clearing is not yet sufficiently perfected, either and the supply of exchange media is still monopolized by the State, with its central bank and its monetary policy, not determined by freely competing free market forces. -Inherently, the needs and wants of an unemployed could provide more jobs than he could soon pay for himself, by freely exchanging his own labor for them. Over-work is rather the natural and common threat for the self-employed person. It could also become the only “threat” for the so far unemployed or under-employed as well as the presently still employed – under full monetary freedom. - Just think, for instance, how easily you could, e.g. through hire purchase, exceed your own normal labor income and how many people are only enabled to pay for their debts out of their over-time earnings or through second jobs. - Naturally, the unemployed could, through division of labor, free enterprise and free exchange, produce their own livelihood between them. But they could and should also be integrated in the general market. This integration would happen if they or their employers could directly or indirectly pay for their requirements with standardized assignments (in money denominations, using sound value standards) upon their own labor and products. They are at present not allowed to do so. All too many rightful and sensible private employment measures are prohibited via the legalized monetary and financial despotism and other kinds of wrongful, irrational and uneconomic but legalized and juridically sanctions monopolism of territorial States and their central banks and their still all too numerous statists supporters and voters, although they, too, are victims of this system, usually quite unaware of it but full of popular errors, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions, so they are looking merely for scapegoats: capitalists, profiteers, speculators, conspirators, Jews, illegal immigrants, “scabs” etc. Rightful and liberating elf-help measures in this sphere are outlawed and not even widely enough contemplated. Solutions are, here too, not impossible but merely illegal and not yet widely enough understood or overlooked or opposed by popular opinions which are not yet effectively enough refuted. – The worst aspect is, possibly, not only ignorance and prejudices but insufficient interest in the real causes and solutions. Not thinking about them or adopting merely popular notions about them is so much easier. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – ABOLITION OF UNEMPLOYMENT, FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, THE FED. - 29.3.11, 29.3.11, 23.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The cause of waves of unemployment is not ‘capitalism’ but governments denying enterprise the right to produce good money.” – F. A. Hayek, “Denationalization of Money”. The government’s bad money, with its monopoly and legal tender power is legally allowed to drive out good money. – JZ, 4.10.08. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, GRESHAM’S LAW

UNEMPLOYMENT: The characteristic feature of an economy of free enterprise is that it provides work for everybody who wants it and an increasing supply of goods and services.” – Ballvé, Economics, p.61.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The competition for jobs is getting tougher because more and more difficulties are laid in the way of those who do or could provide jobs. The market for labor is artificially restricted in numerous ways, e.g. monetarily, financially, price-wise, and through compulsory licensing and other monopolistic and protectionist restrictions. – Not even a complete list of them, with sufficient descriptions and criticism seems to exist. It is almost as if e.g. all snake poisons and their counter-medicines had not yet been explored or all diseases and their cures. – At the same time there exists an enormous literature in favor of quack “cures”, like taxation, government spending, protectionism, price and wage controls, central banking, territorial monopolies. But not, as yet, even a single and quite complete and recognized declaration of all individual rights and liberties. Also no archive of all solutions so far proposed. - JZ, 26.4.81, 4.10.08. - EMPLOYERS, INVESTORS, RETAILERS, BANKERS AND CLEARING HOUSES, PRIVATE PAYMENT COMMUNITIES, TAXATION, REGULATIONS, LAWS, CONTROLS, NEW DRAFT, ENLIGHTENMENT, IDEAS ARCHIVE, REFUTATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA, DIGITAL FREEDOM LIBRARY

UNEMPLOYMENT: The economic forces generated by the business sector of society do not cause unemployment; mass unemployment results from the political distortion of economic forces.” – Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 10/75.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The effective monetary demand for labor has to be a combination of the need for labor to produce wanted goods and services and of the ability to pay for that labor, as well as the ability and willingness of the potential customers of the products and services of labor to pay for them. Monetary history has shown that the statist monetary systems, with their coercion, monopolies, centralization, interventionists and prohibitory laws were not always able to fulfill theses two requirements, to put it very moderately. While it has maximized the ability of governments to pay, at least in inflated and depreciated monopoly money of its own, thereby cheating all creditors, including all wage and salary recipients, or through the legalized robbery of tax tribute levies, it has not maximized the ability of their unfortunate territorial subjects to earn free market monies and pay their way with it. On the contrary, it has often left millions of people unemployed, factories partly idle, created sales difficulties for goods and services and numerous bankruptcies, with its monopolistic, coercive and either inflationary, deflationary or stag-flationary “monetary policies”. Since in either case they lost the confidence of millions of voters, they have thereby endangered their own existence and often and quite unintentionally promoted revolutionary or terrorist movements and sometimes made possible the take-over of territorial governments by totalitarian regimes or dictatorships - which then have, all too often, involved whole countries and their populations in civil wars or international wars. Alas, from all their wrongs and mistakes in this sphere, too, territorial governments have still not learnt sufficiently to avoid them from now on. We should not expect them to do so in the near future. Thus monetary enlightenment and self-help measures, going even towards peaceful monetary and financial revolutions should take place from the bottom up. However: Since monetary theory and practice is involved and they are not as popular as are e.g. sports, cars and fashions, games, music and novels, we should not expect whole populations to study them, all becoming suddenly sufficiently interested in such subjects and all also become fast and sufficiently enlightened on their monetary freedom and financial freedom options, all the particular individual rights and liberties involved. But what could be achieved, while causing only minimum resistance, is full experimental freedom e.g. for all kinds of money reformers, all doing their own things only for or to themselves. Even if this were advertised only a freedom for fools to do their own things to themselves and thereby providing their fellow citizens more opportunities for laughter and ridicule. Then all the flawed monetary reform systems would soon be shown-up as such - by their failures, harming only their own voluntary members, with a kind a self-inflicted - but unintended penalty - for their voluntary participation in insufficiently thought-through and thus still all too flawed experiments. (Even natural scientists do often have to engage in many unsuccessful experiments before they do succeed with one. Why should this be different in the social sciences? In the long run only the successful experiments will count. But to succeed, we have first to learn from our failures. Unless we are ingenious or well enough informed to do the right thing upon our first try. That does not happen very often.) - The relatively few successful ones would then stand out and could be rapidly joined or copied by those able and willing to learn enough from them. Thus monetary freedom and panarchistic propaganda and actions could and should be combined to achieve success for both of them. - If at the same time there were also compiled and published an ideal declaration of all individual rights and liberties, including the monetary and panarchistic ones, this would certainly do no harm and could do some good in spreading the required enlightenment. – Revolutionary ideas have often spread quite suddenly, whether they were rightful or wrongful ones and frontiers have not been strong barriers against them either. – What would be the inherent limits for the rapid and competitive issue of sound alternative currencies, optional and market rated (i.e., refusable and discountable – by all but the issuers)? Essentially the ability of the suppliers of wanted consumer goods and services to redeem their own notes immediately or soon with the goods and services they have to offer. To become aware of the size of this potential just walk through any large shopping center and contemplate their daily turnover and also consider the speed of their turnover during the next week or weeks, which would represent the presently effective monetary demand for what they have to offer. If they were free to monetize themselves more of their ready for sale goods and services, than they can presently sell for the State's monopoly money, they do, as a rule, have the stocks, sales persons and capacity as well as the interest to do so. Thus they could and should issue their own shop currency, at least through a local associations of shop owners, department stores, supermarkets and shopping centers. To the extent that people have needs and wants beyond those they can already satisfy now with the government's monopoly money, which they are able to earn now, and that they are able and willing to work productively in new jobs, when they were unemployed, or harder, better or longer when already employed, to earn this additional purchasing power, sound shop currencies could be issued, to pay additional workers and the existing ones, with such currencies - provided they are willing to accept them. Thus they could increase their turnover and new production, via short-term payroll loans to employers, until all of the current production and sales potentials are fully reached. - Naturally, more than is needed or wanted should not be produced and could not be sold. More and artificial employment in make-work schemes would be useless. What might be achieved, finally, in this free development, is higher productivity, higher wages, lower prices and lower working hours per week required to achieve the same standard of living or even an increased standard of living (for those preferring the old working hours instead of more leisure time). - Moreover, under full employment, everybody would get a chance to work in the sphere of greatest interest to him and in which his knowledge and talents are of greatest use to him and to others. – Alas, if you ponder a particular quote, slogan or formula long enough, then it tends to turn into a short article. – By all means try to express such ideas more concisely than I can and send me the results of your thoughts or put them yourself online! - JZ, 20.2.97, 28.9.08, 29.3.11, 23.4.14. - FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR ALL ABLE & WILLING TO WORK, MONETARY FREEDOM, ENOUGH SOUND PURCHASING POWER THAT CAN BE EARNED & SPENT SO SATISFY MOST CURRENT NEEDS & WANTS, AS WELL, AS, GRADUALLY, OVER EXTENDED PERIODS, ON TERMS, TO PAY FOR LARGE WANTED OR NEEDED EXPENDITURES,  EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, TOLERANCE FOR ALL KINDS OF REFORMS & EXPERIMENTS TOLERANTLY APPLIED AMONG VOLUNTEERS ONLY.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The employer's situation. - When an employer has none or insufficient means of payment, i.e., insufficient sales of his products or services, then he has to dismiss workers as his only means to rapidly save cash. The socialists and unionists enforced a ruling according to which workers can demand, under all circumstances, cash (formerly the “coin of the realm”, now a country-wide exclusive and forced central bank currency) in settlement of their wage claims. Socialists and unionists have not seriously dealt with the money problem and do not know that workers could also be satisfied in other ways and that by using other wage and salary payment means the wages and salaries could be increased and that employees could thus become safeguarded against unemployment and employers against sales difficulties and bankruptcies. - The special legislation passed in order to protect workers against exploitation (e.g. the anti-truck laws) has served to depress their wages and to make them unemployed. There are many such laws with similar effects. If one wanted to realize what the legislators had in mind, one ought not to obey such laws. - Afterwards they could be formally repealed. The workers have not caused this condition. But they have not cared for other and better wage payment means than are usual and enforced now and have failed to ponder the consequences of restricting the choice of means of payment by law to an exclusive and forced currency or to assignments to it. Their first step towards their monetary emancipation might have been to establish an employee's consumer coop to replace the truck shop of the employer and its scrip with shop foundation money of their own consumer coop. Then, by associating with other shops for the issue of their own local shop currency, suitable to pay their wages and salaries with, they might have become, finally, the bankers of their employers. They might even have bought them out and run the firms in one or the other form of self-management. Present political parties have, to my knowledge, no platform point on this. - "Freedom to issue notes that oblige only oneself and one’s associates" and "Without Legal Tender No Inflation!” should be among their slogans but they aren’t. - Old German JZ notes on Unemployment, translated 11/85, revised 20.1.08, 19.4.09, 29.3.11, 23.4.14. - EMPLOYERS & EMPLOYEES, TRUCK SHOPS, CONSUMER COOPS OF EMPLOYEES AS BANKERS OF EMPLOYERS, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. LEGALIZED MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY

UNEMPLOYMENT: The fight for the daily bread becomes harder and harder.” - Hans Habe, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Band 1, Reportagen und Gespraeche, Knaur, 1976, S.40. - What they really fight for is paid labor under conditions where the only permitted means to pay wages with is the monopoly money of the State. Under freedom to competitively issue sound money notes on any sufficient foundation, e.g. shop-foundation, and free choice of value standards, sound money will be as plentiful as other mass produced goods and services. – Under sound currencies and sound other credit conditions there will also be no shortage of savings, investments and credit for capital investments needed to productively employ more people. – JZ, 12.1.07, 15.9.07. – It is thus not a fight for bread but one for sufficient and sound exchange media, earned through productive labor, to buy bread with. How much bread remains presently unsold? When exchange media are monopolized and bread production price controlled then often both will be in all too short supply. – JZ, 19.4.09, 29.3.11. - POVERTY, DEPRESSION, DEFLATION, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, EXCCLUSIVE NATIONAL CURRENCIES, “MONETARY POLICIES” OF GOVERNMENTS UNDER EXTREME IGNORANCE & PREJUDICES, FALSE ASSUMPTIONS & CONCLUSIONS, ALL NOT YET EFFECTIVELY REFUTED

UNEMPLOYMENT: The following does not deny that trade barriers, unionism, licensing requirements, overpricing, minimum wage laws and inflation, lack of motivation, housing shortages and presumed unemployment "insurance" arrangements, taxation, government debts (financial despotismand in this and other forms) and xyz other wrongful and anti-economic governmental restrictions and prohibitions can and do cause unemployment to some extent as well. However, it is asserted here that the main and the generally overlooked factor is the lack of monetary freedom. This factor (monetary despotism) does not only bring about unemployment, as Hayek stated in his 2 essays on the subject (Choice in Currency and Denationalization of Money) as a result of inflation, which is an inherent consequence of a monopolistic money system, but also through its inherent money and credit restrictionism and monopolism. - Monetary freedom would, indeed, prevent an economy from being saddled with inflation and its wrongs, harms and consequences, from the imposition of any government currency or private currency that is issued to excess, but it would also provide cheap and sound money, in decentralized, free and competitive issues, until all legitimate needs of the economy for exchange media and clearing means are fully satisfied. It would assure that the saturation point would be reached while preventing that it would be exceeded at all or to any large extent and for a long time and if so then only at the expense and risk of the issuer, who might, thereby, risk all that he owns. However, sufficient rapid publicity of any discount of any exchange media would rapidly reduce further issues and return the depreciated notes or clearing certificates, shop currencies or account credits to the issuer, who would be the only one who would have to accept them at par with their nominal value. A rush for his goods might empty many of his shelves, but, as a rule, they could be restocked from warehouses overnight. - Private and competitive exchange media could be issued until all sales difficulties for goods and services and labor would have disappeared, all signs of involuntary unemployment and depressions would have gone, i.e. until the market would be really free and functioning again. Equilibrium would be established, i.e., everybody could then clear, at market prices, all the goods and services that he has to offer (including labor) for the goods and services that he wants. -  A really free market would have to include and be based on a free market for exchange media and value standards and clearing facilities, a free market for money. It would bring about permanent boom conditions. - Monetary freedom would allow us to mobilize, without increasing the price level (by more than the abolition of emergency sales prices requires), all the ready for sale consumer goods and consumer services. - It is true that many of the monetary freedom and free banking steps so far proposed by some, would, if realized, have led to inflation, for instance the proposals of Spooner, Proudhon, Tucker and others, which would have mobilized even medium and long term securities and capital assets as "securities" for note issues. However, such issues could not have been realized without legal tender power for them. In the absence of legal tender, such private issues would have become somewhat depreciated, before being generally refused, but they could not have inflated a price level and wage level that is marked out in stable value units. - Centralized note issue does not get the notes where and when they are needed, to a sufficient extent. It does not consider as worthy of credit all those people whose credit is only locally established and known. Branch banks, subject to regulations from a center, cannot completely make up for this inability. - Central banking is inherently as flawed as centralize baking and milk production for a whole large country. (*) - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - (*) Excessive use of pesticides, preservatives and sterilization can make goods longer lasting and their production and distribution more centralized - but does also destroy some of their food value and tends to gradually poison the consumers, by now also with some artificial genetic modifications. - & MONETARY FREEDOM VS. THE MONETARY DESPOTISM OF CENTRAL BANKING - JZ, 29.3.11, 23.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The full employment of the willing and able unemployed is mainly a task for these unemployed themselves. It is not only their right but also their duty to engage in it and to ignore or abolish in the process all laws and regulations that would obstruct them in the release of all their productive and creative energies. –To realize their right to work means that they have the right to undertake all the organizational, monetary and financial steps required for this, without infringing the rights of others to their work, property and incomes. The future still holds unlimited work opportunities for us, even with the help of the most advanced technology. We will simply work not merely with a box of or a whole garage full of special tools, but with xyz iron slaves as well, at whatever jobs mankind or we ourselves still want to get done – and these jobs seem to me to be practically unlimited, not only on Earth and in this solar system, but in the whole universe, of which we partly occupied so far only a relatively very tiny speck of matter. – JZ, 10. 2. 97, 10.7.97, 23.4.09. – RIGHT TO SUPPLY ONESELF WITH PRODUCTIVE WORK, SELF-HELP, WORK & JOBS ARE UNLIMITED IN QUANTITY & KINDS – UNDER FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The importance of unemployment: Unemployment makes for war, even nuclear war, it promotes war, it makes for revolutions and renders them more terrible, it makes for inflation and prolongs it, it makes for dictatorships and helps to maintain them, it makes for communism and keeps it in power. It is one of the great fears of modern man. It is not a cure for any ill, not even for inflation. It is almost exclusively a man-made disaster, one which can only be overcome by rational actions. - "Without a job, a potential producer becomes a drag on his fellow citizens. Without a job, a man ceases to be free, self-sufficient individual and soon sinks to dependency on private charity or government handouts." - Dean Smith, Conservatism, p.147. - I would add: Unless he knows his monetary rights and realizes them by self-help measures. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files

UNEMPLOYMENT: The isolated producer “equates” his supply to his demand, but the social organism equates supplies to supplies – “effective demands” to “effective demands”. So supplies will keep pace with “effective demand” just as an effect keeps pace with its cause; or, rather, just as a thing must keep pace with itself. For it is our supplies, which purchase our supplies. Our real income is our output – hence we (*) always have sufficient income to purchase our output.” – Henry George Pearce, “Value, Normal and Morbid”, Sydney, Robert Dey, Son & Co, 1946, p.67/68. – Yes, provided we are quite free to exchange and know how to do so effectively, e.g. via quite free clearing, sound value standards and competitively supplied exchange media. Alas, these preconditions are not yet fulfilled, so Say’s Law does not yet apply. – Here he did not express this clearly enough or merely assumed the existence of a laissez-faire condition, as Say may have done, likewise. - Dr. H. G. Pearce, a unique follower of Henry George, was the only Australian advocate of monetary freedom that I ever heard or read of and met quite a few times for discussions. - JZ, 13.8.08. – Alas, he died before he returned everything that I had lent to him, including a rare manuscript by Hyacinthe Dubreuil. If I remember it correctly, it was a manuscript on federalism, in English, and seeing his ideas on self-management, it might contain some ideas on panarchism, polyarchism and personal law. They ended up in the libraries of his sons in Canberra and I never got them back from them, either. - Books still have their fate. – When searching for him and his sons with Google, I got 2 to 9 million references, all mixed up with other persons named Pearce. - (*) Mankind, under freedom, has always sufficient income to purchase its output. – JZ, n.d. & 23.4.14. – OUTPUT AS INCOME & PURCHASING POWER FOR ONE’S REQUIREMENTS, FREE EXCHANGE, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE CLEARING

UNEMPLOYMENT: The monetary causes of unemployment during rapid inflations are mainly due to the following three factors: 1.) Prices run ahead of the note-printing presses and thus cause a relative deflation in the middle or a rapid inflation. – 2.) Wage rates do the same and for the same reason. They are, actually, prices, too. (However, to the extent that they are not free market prices they may and often do limp behind the inflation rate. – JZ, 23.4.14.) – 3.) Credits needed to continue production are no longer provided on the bases of a forced and exclusive paper currency that is rapidly inflated. Even the highest interest rates can then no longer make up for the inflation rate. – 4.) At the same time, gold clauses and other value preservation clauses are usually outlawed, while the forced and exclusive as well as rapidly inflated currency remains. Then production is correspondingly run down and workers are dismissed. This is only partly offset by the fact that during an inflation goods are easier to sell, because they do not deteriorate, in most cases, as fast as the money does, provided only enough of the inflated currency is issued to keep up with the rising prices. Compare 1 & 2. – JZ, 28.9.03, 31.10.07. - THROUGH RAPID INFLATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: The monetary demand for labor, skills, services and goods offered for sale and the payment of all other debts and the use of productive capacities is still largely tied to the possession of exchange media, including non-cash payment options and clearing options. Moreover, the non-cash payment options and the clearing options are presently still largely tied to a sufficient supply of cash currency, e.g. in the payment of wages and in cashing cheques or in cash withdrawals from bank accounts or cash teller machines, for many smaller purchases etc. Furthermore, this cash supply is quite monopolized by central banks, with their exclusive and forced currency. Due to this monopolization cash is often under-supplied or, in combination with legal tender for it, over-supplied. In both cases unemployment and other sales difficulties tend to result. Even when an inflation is ended, unintended deflationary effects can result, as happened in 1924 in Germany, where about one third of the newly issued stable currency was temporarily kept out of circulation in public offices, too slow in putting it into circulation again - with further high unemployment as a result, following the high unemployment at the last stage of the galloping inflation. With regard to unemployment the exchange media provided by central banking do, apparently, not suffice to make them serve as exchange media for the unemployed and the goods and services they need or want and are ready to exchange their labor and stills for. All kinds of other factors are then usually blamed instead of the money-issue monopoly, i.e. the fact that the supply of exchange media is not competitive, with the best monies driving out the bad and inferior exchange media, as would happen in the absence of legal tender and a monopoly for money issues. – My friend, Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, used to say that whoever managed to state, convincingly and on a single page, the close connection between monetary freedom and full employment could, thereby, bring about the greatest social revolution ever. – So I keep trying, however unsuccessfully. Why don’t you? – Remember that mass unemployment can also lead to wars, violent revolutions, civil wars, totalitarian regimes and terrorism, not only poverty and great losses, also for businessmen and rich people. - JZ, 28.9.03, 31.10.07, 17.4.14. - UNEMPLOYMENT & OTHER SALES DIFFICULTIES, MONETARY DESPOTISM & MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: The monetary demand for labor and other services should not be confined to the monopoly money of any central bank. While it is so confined, deflations, stagflations and inflations, with their involuntary mass unemployment do become not only possible but likely. – JZ, 9.9.09, 7.3.12. - LABOUR, MONETARY DEMAND FOR LABOUR & MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY OF CENTRAL BANKING

UNEMPLOYMENT: The only unemployed should be politicians and public servants – in the interval before they have to take up a productive job. – JZ, 4.1.75. – As executives, legislators and public servants of a territorial government they should become permanently unemployed, together with all such governments and States. However, they should be free to try to establish or join any statist community of voluntary victims for public services. Then these statists would only harm themselves, by voluntarily submitting to statism, in whatever form they choose for themselves. – These voluntary victims of the religion of statism should be as free to organize it and to submit to it as they are in their choice and submission to other religions. - JZ, 4.10.08, 23.4.14. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, BUREAUCRACY, STATISM, POLITICIANS, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS, LEGISLATORS, PUBLIC SERVANTS, ANY FORM OF STATISM ONLY FOR THEIR KIND OF STATISTS, E.G. DEMOCRATS, REPUBLICANS, MONARCHISTS, WELFARE STATISTS ETC., EXCEPT THE STATISM WHICH CLAIMS A TERRITORIAL MONOPOLY, RELIGIOUS LIBERTY ALSO FOR THE STATISTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: The point is that in a free market no men or machines are unemployed for any length of time – it doesn’t make sense to have them idle. (*) They are idle in the first place because of distortions caused by government intervention in the market (an example particularly relevant to ”regional’ unemployment is the restriction on mobility due to the ‘locking in’ of council home tenants – what could be called ‘the new serfdom’) and they will only come permanently into play when the distortions are removed.” - Terry Arthur, 95% Is Crap, p.208. - (*) Even machines have idle times, at least for maintenance purposes and humans for sleep, leisure, rest days and holidays. – But these are wanted and needed idle times. – JZ, 4.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The Prime Minister thinks that a little bit of unemployment is not so bad, after all. Yes, but whose? I wouldn’t mind if he were permanently unemployed! – JZ, 9.6.74. – Add all other territorial administrators, politicians, legislators and public servants as well as public workers of public work schemes. Let private or cooperative and competing firms do all the jobs that people really want done, at competitive prices and subscriptions and allow the statists to continue their statist religious rituals only among their voluntary victims and exclusively at their own risk and expense. – And let groups of volunteers undertake all the experiments or measures they think would abolish unemployment among themselves. - JZ, 4.10.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, SECESSIONISM, EXPERIMENAL FREEDOM IN EVERY SPHERE, CONSISTENT LAISSEZ FAIRE, FREE ENTERPRISE & CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY IN ALL SPHERES PRESENTLY MONOPOLIZED BY GOVERNMENTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: The question is not what I would do to abolish unemployment, if I were free to try to do so, but what I and others would welcome from you and other businessmen, entrepreneurs, reformers and the unemployed themselves, in self-help steps, to overcome unemployment, sales difficulties, depressions, recessions, crises, stagflations, deflations and inflations. – No one and no organization should set themselves up or remain in despotic power in this sphere over whole populations, not only over their voluntary victims. Here, too, all creative or experimental activities among volunteers, i.e. tolerantly practised experiments, changes and reforms, should be welcomed, sufficiently published and closely enough examined and also tolerated as long as they have only voluntary victims. – We need full experimental freedom in the social science spheres as much as we need it in science, technology and all cultural activities. – Sufficient liberation and progress in these spheres do depend upon it, also the realization of all individual rights and liberties that volunteers wish to realize among themselves. - JZ, 30.11.75, 30.9.08, 29.3.11, 23.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The reason why we have unemployment among willing and capable workers today is that the state has prevented the evolution of a proper monetary system. The state can have no knowledge of the volume of goods and services to be offered in exchange next month, still less next year. Yet we allow the state to decide the volume of money needed. When we resort to private enterprise and allow the banker to create the means of exchange, he carefully adapts the supply of money to the demand.” (*) - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 10/77, p.43. – (*) The required adjustment will largely be automated through introducing “free pricing”, free enterprise, consumer sovereignty, competition, freedom of contract and association in this sphere as well. As long as new local exchange media can still be issued at par, i.e., are not refused or discounted but readily accepted at par, their issue limit has obviously not yet been exceeded. The first small discount indicates the current issue limit. When it disappears again then more can be issued until the next small discount does appear. Thus free issues and market rating and free refusals offer a guide, just like a barometer or a fever thermometer, to keep all issues within their natural limits and this much more effectively than happens for capital issue certificates on a free capital market. Why? Because of the immediate convertibility of notes in shops. If still accepted in the nearest shop, which is a member of the local shop association bank, at its nominal value, then it is still sound. Such and other free market monies may be freely refused by all but their issuers and, by contract, their debtors. – JZ, 4.10.08, 23.4.14.. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE BANKING, SHOP CURRENCIES OF LOCAL SHOPS, SUPERMARKETS ETC.

UNEMPLOYMENT: The recession need not be fought but ended, by stopping its causes, especially monetary despotism, which is, next to compulsory taxation and other forms of financial despotism, the worst kind of economic monopoly power and interventionism. - JZ 15.12.92, 31.12.92, 23.4.14. - FIGHTING DEFLATION, RECESSIONS & INFLATIONS VIA MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, ESPECIALLY CENTRAL BANING & TAXATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: The unchecked premised of most people regarding unemployment is that monopolizing exchange media and clearing facilities has nothing to do with the difficulties in exchanging labor for consumer goods and services. All kinds of other factors are widely considered but the most important and missing ingredient, namely full monetary and clearing freedom, is ignored. – JZ, 21.11.82, 3.10.08. – The same could be said about financial despotism. – JZ, 23.4.14. – MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM INSTEAD OF MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: the unemployed are given a dole or put on relief projects. Always there is the damaging stigma of superfluity. - Harold D. Lasswell, The Garrison State, in WAR – Studies from Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, rev. and enlarged edition, ed. by Leon Bramson & George W. Goethals, Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, New York, London, 1968, p.319. – That false impression can only be achieved under the monetary despotism of central banking, i.e. when there is insufficient or only unsound demand for goods, services and labor to help exchange them for the goods, services and labor that is wanted or needed in exchange and when there are not enough free exchange options through quite free clearing, either. The remaining barter options and black market transactions are not a sufficient substitute. Those, who do have wanted or needed labor, goods and services to offer should be freed to offer them, as their main guaranty and redemption good, in form of competing sound currencies and clearing account credits, mainly for their own current expenses and in short term loans for the payments of wages and salaries, or other firms, thereby solving their sales problem and the problem of the continuing production of wanted or needed goods and services and that by paying for them, at free market rates, in alternative sound exchange media. The daily free exchange of goods, services and labor must be assured before a free capital market can properly function. Without this kind of monetary or turnover credit being assured, all productive capital loses much of its market value. Miseans, who concentrate their attention only on the capital market and ignore the frequently deflationary conditions on the turnover-credit market, typical also under monetary despotism, have often even managed to ignore or deny deflations altogether, under the wrongful assumption that the price level of goods, services, rents, and other fees would be immediately and sufficiently adapted to a reduced total of cash and clearing options. They ignored the hoarding threat associated with monopoly monies, which cannot be easily expanded, in every sphere where they are needed, and the psychological effect of prices, which seem to be falling almost day by day and thus do deter from buying for the time being, at least to the extent that people can do this and the contrary effect of those prices, which have fallen and stay sufficiently at the fallen level and do, therefore, encourage buying.  (Inflationary prices rises, expressed in depreciating currency, do also encourage buying, but not lending and towards the end of a rapid inflation prices can even rise faster than the note printing presses can or do print new notes, even in large denominations, so that even in this situation deflationary effects occur, visually expressed in the large German inflation of 1914-1923 by large lines of representatives of enterprises, on paydays, before central bank offices, waiting for their large amounts of inflated and newly printed notes to pay their salary and wage bills with them. Thus even inflation and deflation, under monetary despotism, are not complete opposites.) – JZ, 23.2.13. – & SUPERFLUITY MONETARY DESPOTISM OR CENTRAL BANKING, VS. MONETARY FREEDOM OR FREE BANKING, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONEY CIRCULATION, FALLEN PRICES & FALLING PRICES HAVE DIFFERENT EFFECTS

UNEMPLOYMENT: their policy of raising production costs inevitably causes stagnation and unemployment.” – Dr. Hans Sennholz, Inflation, or Gold Standard? p.14. – That is no more than an additional factor causing extra unemployment! – JZ, 30.9.08. – The exclusive and forced currency, in which all wages and salaries have to be paid, is the main factor. – JZ, 19.4.09. - UNIONS, WAGE CONTROLS

UNEMPLOYMENT: There are ca. 32 million unemployed in the industrialized Western nations alone. (CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, 27.6.83.) – But can one even find 32, i.e., one in a million among them, who are seriously interested in its real causes and all methods for its abolition? – JZ, 27.7.83, 29.3.11, 23.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: There is no shortage of capital that can be blamed for a depression. The real capital assets are there before and after the crisis and they are suffering losses during a deflation by being under-utilized. - There is no shortage of consumer goods and services to supply the unemployed in exchange for their wages and salaries earned by their labors. - There is no shortage of machines. Many are idle or under-utilized. We have just a shortage of the facilities to profitably exchange goods and services - for the services of the unemployed, a shortage of turnover-credit in suitable means of payment. – Sound Exchange media (and clearing facilities) are needed. These are not impossible but their competitive supply is outlawed by the central banking system and the laws of monetary despotism upon which it rests. - All the existing other economic facilities are just waiting to become fully utilized. Without fully free exchange they, too, cannot be fully employed. – JZ, n.d., file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - CAPITAL SHORTAGE? OR ONLY A SHORTAGE OF TURNOVER CREDIT IN SUITABLE FORMS?

UNEMPLOYMENT: There is no shortage of real capital, in the form of machines, factories, raw materials etc. They are there, plentifully offered, before and after a crisis with mass unemployment. They do not suddenly disappear during it. Even at the best times they remain largely under-employed, for not all firms do work in 3 shifts a day. Mainly only exchange media are required. The rest is there and waiting, including productive capital. Nor is there a shortage of consumer goods waiting for customers. The shops and warehouses are almost overstocked with them. But many machines and whole factories stand largely idle, nevertheless and sellers of goods and services go bankrupt or are also unemployed or under-employed as such, in large numbers. Just a shortage of suitable and sound exchange media is involved, although it could be competitively supplied and redeemable upon demand not in rare metals or capital securities but in the consumer goods and services that are daily needed or wanted, and this at their nominal face value, e.g. in grams of gold, for the goods and services also thus soundly priced, instead of a fictitious, abstract and mostly greatly mismanaged paper value standard, a fiat value standard of the government. – Exchange media are required – but their free issue is outlawed. So are alternative value standards to the flawed and compulsory ones of governments. The rest are ready and waiting, including the unemployed and shop owners and the manufacturers who want to stay in business and even expand their production or services by employing more people. – JZ, n.d., & 15.8.08. – SHORTAGE OF REAL CAPITAL, IN FORM OF MEDIUM OR LONG-TERM CREDITS OR ASSETS OR ONLY A SHORTAGE OF SHORT-TERM TURNOVER CREDIT, IN FORM OF COMPETITIVELY SUPPLIED FREE MARKET MONIES, CLEARING CERTIFICATES OR ACCOUNT CREDITS?

UNEMPLOYMENT: There is really no shortage of jobs but merely an abundance of laws, which render the financing the numerous existing jobs possibilities difficult to impossible. -  How could e.g. the legalized option to issue goods warrants, clearing bills and clearing account credits help to abolish unemployment? - When every unemployed, whose labor is needed or wanted but cannot presently be paid for, with the monopoly money of monetary despotism, that of the central bank, could issue service vouchers, in monetary denominations, upon his own labor ability and readiness, i.e. paid his expenses with them and would then, in payment for his labor, accept them like ready cash, then his problem of obtaining employment would be solved. - Since individuals would have difficulties in finding takers for their individual service vouchers, they would have to associate in such a way that their kind of ticket money, redeemed by them in the performance of their wanted or needed labor, which they would issue in common, would be widely suitable for general circulation at least within a district. Admittedly, a more and perhaps the most suitable association would be one between the local retailers as issuers and acceptors of their kind of goods warrants and shopping vouchers in monetary denominations, all with “shop foundation” and an agreement with local employers, employees and job seekers, to accept and use such free market monies in short-term credits to pay their wage bill and for employees to receive them in wages and salaries. Then the employers would find it easier to pay their present wage bills and to employ more people, so paid, productively, at market wages or salaries. The present and additional employees would then be paid in this shop foundation money, which the employers would have obtained from its issuers in exchange for the payment claims the employers have against their wholesale customers, for already produced and supplied goods services. (Petrol-, gas-, electricity, water supply and sewage money or rent money of landlords as well as transport ticket monies, when it comes to service supplies.) The local shops and service providers would receive their goods warrants and services vouchers, granted in short-term credits to employers, back in payments due to them from the thus employed and paid people, deliver their goods and services for them and pay the wholesalers with them (directly or through this issuing bank), while service vouchers would be used to pay for e.g. electricity, transport or other wanted or needed local services to their suppliers. The shops could then redeem their debts to the wholesalers for goods received from them, while the wholesalers could pay with them their short-term debts to the factories. The service supplies would get their service vouchers more directly back, from their customers or subscribers. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - Naturally, part of these transactions would be done not with these goods warrants or service vouchers but by establishing corresponding credit accounts with them at the issuing center and transferring parts of these accounts as required. The circulation would be soon concluded and the returned notes destroyed and replaced by new issues, as required. The discounting job would best be transferred to a special issue department of a local shop association, which would act like the better old private note-issuing banks did, when they discounted good commercial bills of exchange (not financial ones!) with their own banknotes. The free banking school called that the “banking principle” as far as note issues were concerned. The currency school and many of the free banking school still imagined that gold- or silver-cover and redemption would be required, instead of using rare metal weight unit merely as value standards, not cover- and redemption goods, which would have unnecessarily limited the quantity of their banknotes and not adapted them to the requirements of an ever increasing production and exchange or turnover. - All details of the issue and the reflux of such notes should be subject to full publicity – not to government inspectors who might not understand the process and its naturally requirements and possibilities at all, just like many academic “economists”, even 200 years later, do not yet fully understand the workings of the “Real Bills Doctrine” under voluntary acceptances, free clearing and sound value reckoning. – JZ, 1.10.08, 39.3.11, 23.4.14. – SHOP FOUNDATION & SERVICE FOUNDATION LOCAL CURRENCIES, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM, BANKING PRINICPLE, CURRENCY PRINCIPLE, REEMPTIONISM, RARE METAL COVERS & RESERVICE, GOLD-CLEARING OR GOLD ACCOUNTING CURRENCIES, INDEPENDENT OF THE SUPPLY OF GOLD COINS, REAL BILLS DOCTRINE & PRACTICE, TOKEN MONEY, TICKET MONEY, EMERGENCY MONEY ISSUES IN CRISIS TIMES, NO MORE CRISES UNDER FULL MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, PROPERLY UTILIZED

UNEMPLOYMENT:Those who imagine the sole cause of unemployment lies in wages being fixed too high, do ignore that labor is also legally compelled to sell itself only for the government’s forced and exclusive legal tender paper money currency. Without this intervention in the monetarily expressed demand for labor and other institutionalized disincentives for employment, e.g. compulsory licensing, building restrictions, union privileges, foreign exchange rate manipulations etc., the wages offered might even be higher for all willing to work and prepared to accept alternative means of payment, with their wages soundly expressed in some or the other and self-chosen value standard and payable with a variety of optional, market rated and refusable means of payment. This aspect of unemployment is all too rarely discussed, even after Hayek’s two essays against the nationalization of money. – JZ, 25.9.85, 9.9.08. – FULL EMPLOYMENT, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, COMPETITIVELY PRODUCED MONETARY DEMAND FOR LABOR, GRESHAM’S LAW, REVISED VERSION: LET GOOD MONEY DRIVE OUT THE BAD MONEY – IN THE ABSENCE OF LEGAL TENDER, MINIMUM WAGE LAWS, TOO HIGH WAGES, HAYEK, MONEY SUPPLY, FREE VS. CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY SHORTAGE, DEFLATION

UNEMPLOYMENT: Throughout the Keynesian and post-Keynesian era, the inexorable laws of economics have not changed. (*) Unemployment still is, and always has been, a cost phenomenon. A worker whose employment adds valuable output and is profitable to his employer can always find a job. (**) A worker whose employment adds valuable output and is profitable to his employer can always find a job. (***) A worker whose employment inflicts losses is destined to be unemployed. (****) As long as the earth is no paradise, there is an infinite amount of work to be done. (*****) But if a worker produces only $ 2 per hour, while the government decrees a minimum wage of $2.30 an hour plus sizable fringe costs, he cannot be employed. (*** ***) For a businessman to hire him would mean capital loss and waste. In other words, any compulsion, be it by government or union, to raise labor costs above those determined by the marginal productivity of labor, creates institutional unemployment.” – Dr. Hans F. Sennholz, THE FREEMAN, July 77. – Alas, although originally also a German, Dr. Sennholz, too, remained largely, if not altogether, unaware of what I call the Swiss, German and Jewish school of monetary freedom, represented mainly by Prof. Edgard Milhaud, Ulrich von Beckerath, Professor Heinrich Rittershausen, Dr. Walter Zander, Dr. Gustav Ramin and a few others, who drafted between them the “Four Law Drafts” early during the Great Depression in Germany and wrote several books and many essays on the subject and discussed such topics extensively in their correspondence. As far as I could, I reproduced these references in my still largely only micro-fiched PEACE PLANS series, of 1779 issues, which ended in 2002, with some such titles reproduced at  – JZ, -  (*) Monetary despotism and its laws were typical for them and their inevitable negative effects are still widely ignored! - - (**) In my time in West Berlin, up to one third of the workforce, 300, 000 of about 900 000, were unemployed. Among them were ca. 20,000 professionals. – I am certain that Sennholz’s explanation does not apply to all of them. – For instance, groups of unemployed employed themselves, by cleaning bricks from the rubble of the war ruins of Berlin and sold them for goods warrants of one of the large department stores of Berlin. All participants were satisfied. But then the authorities used the law books against them. They had offended against about a dozen legal restrictions by their economic self-help and self-employment and payment method and were thus rendered coercively unemployed again and made dependent upon handouts at the expense of the tax-payers. Perhaps worst of all, from the point of view of the bureaucrats, was that they had no “green card” or official work permit! - Even these otherwise ignorant but thus self-employed people were aware that a means of payment problem was involved and they did solve it for themselves, and their trading partner, although not in a quite perfect method or as good as it could have been solved, and, probably, would have been solved, if their experiment would have been continued and developed. But they had solved it already initially, in a fashion that satisfied them and morally wronged and economically harmed no one. – On the contrary. They made an honest living by helping to reduce the rubble heaps and provided cheap bricks for the building industry, and this without raising cash payment demands upon the central bank or demanding “minimum wages” or using other resources than their manual labor. – They had solved the deflation problem, caused by the central banking system, for themselves. – The above and all too limited view of unemployment, here expressed by Sennholz (I do appreciate him, as a libertarian, very much. He also wrote some monetary freedom articles and at least one book on a form of free banking.), is still all too widely spread among libertarians. - It assumes that e.g. taxation, protectionism, compulsory licensing, financial and monetary despotism, and various other interventionist laws and legalized monopolies have no effect on the rate of unemployment. But just think e.g. of the compulsory schooling system that keeps young people out of jobs – while not even always succeeding in teaching them the “three R.’s” sufficiently. Think of the laws against child labor and how women and non-unionists have often and for all too long been kept out of jobs. Also people above a certain age. Moreover, foreigners in many instances and stateless persons. - This statement by Sennholz assumes that even under an exclusive and forced currency the problem of supplying enough and sound enough exchange media - to pay all employers with and to assure the sale of all the goods produced and of all services offered for sale - has already been completely solved and that only deviations from wage and salary rates have any effect on the rate of employment! It assumes an adaptability of the forced and exclusive currency of the government that does simply not exist and ignores all the problems that such a currency inevitably produces. - The very simplicity of this one-factor explanation of unemployment does naturally have its attractions for libertarians, too. It saves them further thoughts and exploration of the subject. I do not deny at all that this one factor often has increased unemployment. But it did not cause all of it. Nor does the single-factor explanation of the Miseans explain all economic crises. - How can otherwise objective, scholarly and scientifically-minded people simply overlook the existence of over 140 other crisis theories that were once mentioned, many years ago, e.g. by Henry Meulen in his THE INDIVIDUALIST and at least once, according to Meulen, in the German “Zeitschrift fuer das gesamte Kreditwesen”? - Sure, most of these hypotheses or theories are flawed or quite false. But is it really certain that all of them are? - (***) That appears to be self-evident – but it just keeps silent on so much else! - (****) The losses due to his labor may just be due to the fact, that under the existing sales conditions his output cannot be easily or at all sold at market prices and, perhaps, not even at emergency sales prices – expressed in monopolized money tokens of the government. - (*****) True, but could all the additional products and services be readily sold if all that work were undertaken by the hundreds of millions of unemployed or under-employed, under present conditions? Are there sufficient customers with effective monetary demand for them? Customers, who not only need or want these things but are also enabled to pay for them, with acceptable exchange media, ultimately redeemed in what they have to offer in products and services? - Certainly not in most of the severely under-developed and thus impoverished countries and not even in those which are already somewhat developed – but undeveloped, still, when it comes e.g. to a sufficient supply of sound exchange media. - (*** ***) As a politician or a bureaucrat or in other subsidized jobs he is so employed, although not productively, but at the expense of the still employed taxpayers. – If you can manage to explain all that and more in just one or two short slogans, sentences or paragraphs, please, do so! - JZ, 13.8.08. – The odd thing about the above view of Dr. H. S. is that he wrote a number of essays, at least in THE FREEMAN, some of which I micro-fiched in my PEACE PLANS series, and also a good book, “Money and Freedom”, of which I fiched at least a review, not the whole book, because it is copyrighted. Is it online by now? Not even scholars like him are always consistent in their thinking. – JZ, 18.4.09. Or, over a long span of time, they changed their views on such subjects. - JZ, 30.3.11. - WAGES, MINIMUM WAGE LAWS, UNIONS, WAGE CONTROLS, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, KEYNES, MEULEN, BECKERATH, MISES, SENNHOLZ, RITTERSHAUSEN, ZANDER, SWISS, GERMAN & JEWISH SCHOOL OF MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: To achieve full employment not “money” in the form of government budget expenditures or legal tender governmental paper money (with forced acceptance and a forced value) or additional private capital investments are immediately needed but, rather, money in form of competing and market rated local currencies and clearing certificates or accounts, all privately issued and accepted in payment, using sound value standards, and short term credits and clearing methods, all market rated, optional, refusable (with only their issuers having to accept them like legal tender from anyone) in combination with the already existing fixed and real capital assets and independence of the governments monopoly powers and coercion in that sphere as well as of all other kinds of legalized monopolies. – In that case the existing abundance of ready-for-sale consumer goods and consumer services could be easily turned into suitable and acceptable sound exchange media, clearing certificates or accounts for wage and salary payments to newly and additionally employed people and this regardless of how many there are, in normal times or times of man-made economic crises. Natural catastrophes, revolutions, civil war and war conditions are other matters that could interfere with free production and free exchange, while they last. - JZ, 23.4.85, 4.10.08, 30.3.11. – For details see: Ulrich von Beckerath: Must Full Employment Cost Money? - (PEACE PLANS No.10.) in

UNEMPLOYMENT: To say that there are simply no jobs available is to say that all human wants have been satisfied.” – Walter E. Williams, REASON, 8/78. – JOBS, WORK STILL TO BE DONE – IS UNLIMITED

UNEMPLOYMENT: Transferability and values: Free transferability maximizes exchange values. Labor will maximize its salability only once it can be freely offered in certified form, in money denominations, redeemable either in its products or in payment for its wages or in subscriptions to other needed or wanted services. Spending such certificates would lead to corresponding orders and work - when they stream back for the promised redemption in labor, services or goods. JZ 30.12.92. - & FREE TRANSFERABILITY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Transferability, free: Fully free transferability for all owned assets for their owners, including especially labor and service abilities and readiness to sell consumer goods by shop owners of. At a freely agreed price, i.e. and ways and means satisfactory to both sides, all such services are transferable, provided only the means of payment and the standard of value used in pricing out goods, services and labor and expressed in the currencies, are also mutually agreeable rather than imposed by a powerful, monopolistic and centralized third party, like a government's central bank. The transferability of everything, including labor and services, becomes greatly increased if every value can be expressed in freely transferable and standardized banknotes, clearing certificates, or clearing or credit account creditss or in capital certificates, which can be competitively produced and supplied. - JZ 31.12.92. - & FREE TRANSFERABILITY, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, ISSUE PRINCIPLE, REFLUX PRINCIPLE, DEBT FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, FINANCIAL FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Treasurer Costello’s goal: 5% jobless.” – THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 1.2.99. – If it were merely a matter of declaring desirable goals, why not declare for zero unemployment? Would not even a single involuntarily unemployed person, who is willing and able to work, be one too many? And if this treasurer knew how to reduce unemployment from an admitted 8.5 % by 3.5% to 5%, then why does he not know how to reduce the remaining 5% to zero? Why does he consider these 5% to be a desirable goal – and why do voters let politicians get away with such nonsensical statements? – JZ, 1.2.99, 29.9.08. – Q.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Under panarchism or exterritorial autonomy for all kinds of voluntary communities - anyone would be at liberty to organize and offer all public services on a subscription and fee for service basis. No territorial constitutional and legal or juridically protected monopolies would then exist in this sphere, either. All public services, including currencies and exchanges, courts, police and defence and penal services, would then be operated on a competitive and voluntary subscription or user-pays basis or freely agreed-upon other experimental basis. Different exterritorial and autonomous protective communities of volunteers would arrange them differently under their preferred personal law systems. Then any kind of monetary and financial freedom measures could be experimented with or practised to overcome unemployment and other monetary or financial difficulties fast – among the voluntary members and that only at their own expense and risk. - JZ, 31.12.92, 3.10.08, 30.3.11, 23.4.14. - PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Under the present conditions not every potential employer can obtain a short-term loan for wage payments whenever it would be economically justified, He must also offer "securities" that are satisfactory to the privileged central banks. When they, due to some credit restriction imposed by the central bank, have to refuse to discount even perfectly sound commercial bills of exchange, or equivalent good short-term debt certificates, then the demand for labor will be correspondingly restricted. – JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. – With shop currencies their “cover” and redemption “fund” is well and publicly displayed during shopping hours. Add up the value of all these goods and services of all the shops in a country and also the values offered by all other service suppliers, those offering transport services and energy supplies, for instance, and they would come to the value of a small hill of gold. But most consumers do not want a redemption into gold coins or bullion, which they cannot eat, but into the goods and services, which they do need or want every day. They do have to frequently restock their small consumer goods reserves at home and some services like water and electricity supply they need every day, sometimes even every hour. – JZ, 20.4.09, 30.3.11, 23.4.14. - BANKNOTES, REAL BILLS DOCTRINE, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CREDIT RESTRICTIONS, MONETARY DESPOTISM, SHOP CURRENCIES & THEIR SHOP-FOUNDATION COVER & REDEMPTION FUND VS. GOLD REDEMPTIONISM, SHOP CURRENCIES, SHOP FOUNDATION MONEY, TURNOVER CREDITS FOR WAGE & SALARY PAYMENTS, COMPETITIVELY SUPPLIED

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployed should take the initiative: The jobless should give up pinning their hopes upon the policies and measures of politicians and union officials, of nationalists, racists and co-religionists, all practising their exclusive jobs for their jobs for the boys “policies”, almost constantly increasing the number of “public servants” at the expense of their tax slaves. Instead, the job seekers they should engage in their own self-help measures or attempts to provide jobs for themselves, especially by considering, pondering and experimenting among themselves and with others with alternative exchange media and value standards and methods for the exchange of their labors and services and goods for the labors, services and goods they want or need and would be willing and able to work for. Monetary and financial freedom ideas, programs and techniques can offer them the jobs which governments, unionists and employers cannot offer them. - JZ, 25.12.92, 31.12.92. - SELF-HELP, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment and fixed wages (as opposed to e.g. cooperative production earnings), under monetary despotism rather than monetary freedom. There may be a core of truth in Marx's contention that because the "capitalists" would retain the "surplus value", the workers would be unable to buy back their products - which could result in sales difficulties and the laying off of workers. However, not only the “capitalists” are able, and often motivated to hoard cash as much as they can. Employees do likewise, under certain conditions. To that extent both can sharpen an already existing currency shortage. - In one respect the theory is wrong: Every earned cent, earned as wages, salaries or profits, interest or dividend, or taxed away from the earners, will lastly and indirectly appear again as demand for consumer goods. Even funds invested on long terms do thus re-appear since the funds are spent by these debtors to pay e.g. laborers building a factory. - One factor here needs checking, the time element. When funds are spent for wages, they tend to reappear very soon again as demand for consumer goods. Profits, interest payments and especially taxes tend to appear only after a time interval. This time interval, on its own, could already cause stoppages in the exchange process. - The other main element, although often neglected, is the supply of exchange media. Wages and salaries are still predominantly paid in cash, or cheques largely based on cash accounts, whilst other payments are done by compensation. All the non-cash payments, in total perhaps 10 to 20 times as large as the cash payments, carry the inherent risk of the right to demand cash instead, any time, no matter how short the supply of cash may be for the time being. - Modern competition for cash being as strong as it is, may often be assumed to lead to an exhaustion of the cash in circulation for purposes of paying wages, salaries, pensions, welfare payments, taxes and consumer goods. When the available cash is thus almost fully used or hoarded and the cash supply is not rapidly expanded, when and as required, in those circles where it is needed, then it could happen that in some sphere of the economy, that is normally settled by non-cash payments, cash is suddenly demanded and used instead of clearing. Then cash could become suddenly very short within its normal sphere. Being already stretched to its limits, this extra cash demand could then lead to the contraction of ten to twenty times its amount in the sphere of non-cash payments – for which then, too, cash rather than non-cash settlement would be demanded. This could cause difficulties (under monetary despotism, with its money issue monopoly) - via a further demand for cash to keep up the payments previously settled by compensation. Thus 1000 dollars extra cash demand might lead to $ 10 000 to $ 20,000 in extra cash demand. Assume that this cash could still be scraped together, then this might again threaten 10 to 20 times this amount of transactions, normally settled by non-cash payments - that are all lastly based on the right of creditors to demand cash at any time in payment of due debts. - The effect could, under the assumed conditions, snowball very rapidly. As soon as this would be noticed, cash hoarding would increase and thus further worsen the situation. – Prices would fall, in a deflationary way, and thus lead those, who still have cash, and can afford to do so, to hoard more and longer, in the expectation of further price reductions. - When considering this risk, one should keep in mind that at least much of the wages and salaries constitute more or less fixed cash requirements even when paid in cheques upon supposedly existing cash accounts in the banks. They are calculated and agreed upon to remain the same for weeks, even months ahead. They cannot be easily reduced. The attempt to do so would lead to strikes, thus less production and more unemployed. Between them, the payrolls constitute an enormous and largely fixed demand for cash. This demand can be reduced, immediately, only by laying workers off and thus reducing production. That happens extensively during deflations of the usual monopoly money. - Assuming that extortion by coercive unions is rather successful and that the cash stock of employers for this purpose (their cash credit with banks) is largely exhausted to pay for the latest union settlements and that the employers, thereupon, try to recover these extra expenses and losses suffered during strikes by increasing their prices. Then these goods might, indeed, become so highly priced, for the existing deflationary conditions, that they can no longer be bought back by the cash available in circulation. And before prices would be competitively lowered again, to correspond to the remaining cash supply, and long before workers would be prepared to accept lower wages, the above hinted at collapse of the non-cash payment sector might have begun. With it the need for cash would be enormously multiplied whilst the supply would remain the same. (Central banks respond only slowly or with delays to such requirements, and often to an insufficient degree if they do respond at all.) Or the cash circulation would be even become further reduced via hoarding. We would have a deflation. - Transcript of some notes by John Zube from the 60’ties. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - Central banking, trade unionism, collective bargaining, strikes, the right of creditors, including employees to demand cash (formerly gold coins, now legal tender) does introduce an unjustified and harmful rigidity in the payment systems – that can lead to a part-collapse of the monetary payment system, at least under monetary despotism. - JZ, 1.10.08, 30.3.11. – FIXED WAGES, RIGHT OF CREDITORS TO DEMAND CASH, CASH & NON-CASH PAYMENTS, DEFLATION, HOARDING, UNIONISM, COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION EARNINGS MORE FLEXIBLE THAN FIXED WAGES & SALARIES

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment insurance, for example, doesn’t abolish unemployment. I fact, as you know, it tends to increase it.” – Ernest Benn, Benn vs. Maxton, p.107.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is a monetary question. An unlimited number of jobs needs doing. People want them done in the form of the goods and services they wish for or need. And they wish to pay for them with their own unused or underutilized labor power. Needs and wishes are unlimited, thus the quantity of labor opportunities is unlimited also. - Over-production is impossible for all kinds of goods and services. Free market pricing sees to it that misdirected efforts become soon redirected into more useful channels. - Lost wars as well as won wars do increase the quantity of labor that is desired, the quantity of needs that desire satisfaction and the readiness to give labor in return for this satisfaction. - Machines and factories are present and await their optimal utilization whilst today they are often excessively under-utilized. - Machines are largely standing still because there are not sufficient means of payment to pay those who would like to work with them. Moreover, many consumers of the already existing and the potential products are largely un-financial - because they find themselves in the same position, unemployed or uner-employed. – Not enough opportunities for them to earn sound exchange media to pay for their needs and wants. Raw materials, at reasonable prices, are available - yet remain unsold. - Foods and other consumer articles to support workers are available in abundance - but there are not easy to sell for an exclusive currency which is in short supply. - Willing workers and work places are there. Not only those registered as unemployed should be counted as unemployed or under-employed but all others as well, who would gladly work, more than they do now, or would take up at least part-time work if they could get it at free market rated wages or salaries paid for in competitively issued sound currencies, which they, not the central bank or its experts, find acceptable. - Every employed tends to employ, partly, some other persons whenever spends or invests some of his earnings for his requirements. Under freedom people provide work for each other to their mutual satisfaction. They produce for each other and exchange their products freely. Whenever they do not they either do so voluntarily or they are not free to do so. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. - Under free exchange, each, with his needs and wants, provides wanted work for the other and each does also provide for the needs and wants of others. It just amounts to free division of labor in combination with free exchange to make it possible and function well. The government largely permits division of labor but not, or not sufficiently, freedom of exchange, including all the exchange media, clearing options and sound and self-chosen value standards required for this. – JZ, 1.10.08, 30.3.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM AGAINST MONETARY DESPOTISM TO REPLACE INVOLUNTARY UNEMPLOYMENT BY FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is everywhere accompanied by sales difficulties for goods, services and labor because of a shortage of good enough or sound and plentifully and competitively supplied exchange media. Why does that shortage exist, all too often and for all too long? Because that supply is monopolized everywhere and has often lead to an undersupply of sound exchange media, while at the same time unsound ones are excessively supplied so that soon they become almost useless even as mere exchange media, not only as value standards. - Unemployment itself can be defined as a sales difficulty for labor considered as a commodity. In the underdeveloped countries as well as in the somewhat developed ones it has become an almost permanent condition. In the supposed boom times it is relatively low and in the recessions and depressions it is very high. - Sales difficulties are merely another name for stoppages, blockages or bottlenecks in the process of exchanges. Especially for the exchange of labor and of consumer goods and services. The fault lies not with the masses of involuntarily unemployed: They want to work. Nor with those offering consumer goods and services for sale. They do want to sell and depend upon such sales but cannot get enough of them. Nor are the potential employers to blame, who want to employ as many workers as possible and thereby profit more themselves, too. – The owners of machines, workshops and raw materials do also wish to see this real capital fully rather than merely partly used. – Difficulties exist merely for the free exchange and combination of all these factors. This exchange requires exchange media, some form of money or clearing certificates or clearing methods and also sound value standards. Their supply is still monopolized and correspondingly mismanaged. Thus they cannot be freely and competitively supplied in sound forms, wherever and whenever they are needed, by those able to do so, under monetary freedom, to those, who need them. That is the main cause. Exchange is only possible to the extent that the monopolistic central banks and the privileged licensed clearing centers make their exchange media and clearing services available and they are bound to obey the monopolizing and restrictive laws. – Clearing, which, by its very nature, provides unlimited exchange possibilities, is legally bound to the redemption in monopolized legal tender money, which is subject to a centralized value standard-, currency- and credit policy and not the requirements of the national and the international economy. – When exchange media and clearing centers are monopolized and regulated, i.e. not subject to free competition, how can one then expect frictionless exchanges, a free market economy? Once might as well expect a tied-down man to break world records in running and jumping. Nevertheless, these legalized, irrational and anti-economic bonds or chains are not widely enough discussed and criticized nor are their alternatives, free market monies and their competitive supply, using sound and self-chosen value standards. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. There it exists only in a German version, probably drafted by Ulrich von Beckerath and here only rapidly and imperfectly translated, with some notes inserted by me. – JZ, 1.10.09, 31.3.11, 24.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is largely a question of what an employer may legally use to pay his workers with and what the employees allow them to pay them with or insist upon that they are paid with. As soon as they come to a rightful and well-enough informed agreement on this then many of the trouble on both sides will soon be over. – JZ, 17.9.83. – To the extent that they can safely ignore the laws of monetary despotism. Sometimes, for a while, they got and get away with this. But at least the penalties in Australia are so severe, that such cases were hushed up by the participants. The real solutions in this sphere remain outlawed and the supposed experts favor this wrongful outlawry! They will not even concede to volunteers the right to undertake monetary freedom experiments at their own cost and risk! And there exists, so far, no force to uphold that basic right. – JZ, 20.4.09, 30.3.11. – MILITIA, MONETARY REVOLUTION, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is mounting, while there is nothing like a surplus of goods and services in our community. It is not good enough to blame computers and automation, …” – PROGRESS, Nov. 1979. – It is no good, either, to blame it all on high land prices and taxes, as followers of Henry George, like these, are inclined to do. – JZ, 9.6.82. – Isn’t it high time to finally list and respond to all the merely asserted and also the real causes and to respond rightly and rationally to them? – JZ, 4.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment is not a natural but an artificial condition. It can be overcome by either repealing or ignoring the legislation on money and currency. - Labor opportunities and sales of goods should not be confined to that number for which the government makes its exclusive and forced currency available for wage payments and purchases. The supply or issue of standardized means of exchange - the most essential of all commodities - in an economy based on the division of labor - must not be monopolized. - If only the government wouldn't interfere in any way between the ones who want to produce things and the ones who want to buy things, there would not be any unemployment. – JZ, 10/74, 24.4.14. -  "Man is economically and lastly politically free only when he has a direct influence on his supply with standardized means of exchange. Without this influence he becomes the slave of those in whose discretionary power his supply with exchange media lies, even when the constitution recognizes all other rights of men and citizens." - Ulrich von Beckerath, Berlin Program, p.16. - Full employment: You are not free to sell or offer your labor power or exchange it for other services and goods you want. This is why you or others are unemployed or underemployed and why almost all are under-paid. You are not free in this respect because you are forced to sell your labor for one thing only - exclusive and forced currency. This currency is in short supply because its supply is monopolized and controlled by the Central Bank. (Remember the past and current credit restrictions with their artificial unemployment and depression.) - Thus only freely competitive note-issue banking (or fully developed free clearing. - JZ, 30.3.11.) can do away with unemployment and sales difficulties, with depressions and underdevelopment. - Are you aware that nobody is free to offer you gold or silver or sound private banknotes for your labor – i.e. that the current legislation has allowed the bad money to drive out the good money and has created the possibility of a monopolistic shortage of the bad money as well as that of an inflation and a stagflation? At least to the extent of this unjustified coercion, you will tend to be unemployed, underemployed or under-paid. - Whenever you find difficulties in exchanging your labor for goods for cash - check the supply of cash, who rules it, how and by what rules. You will find all too many unjustified, irrational and anti-economic restrictions in this sphere. Then find out how you could help repeal or ignore these and thus make yourself monetarily independent from these suppliers. - The most important, centralistic and monopolistic economic institution of the Australian Federal Government is its Reserve Bank. We should break its stranglehold on the economy - not by destroying it but by depriving it of its privileges and powers, by introducing free and decentralized competition against it. Thereby we could overcome the depressions, unemployment and inflation it has caused. - Try exchanging without money and you will soon find out how large your dependency on the central bank and its exclusive currency has become. - Allow any employer to offer, in payment of wages and any employee to accept in their wages any sound means of exchange or clearing that are acceptable to them. Do not force both to deal only in a monopolistic and also rapidly deteriorating and otherwise mismanaged exchange medium and value standard. Let's have the exchange media as competitively supplied as knives and forks are - and we will have no shortage of them, either. - With sufficient sound exchange media, sound value reckoning, free pricing and when no job or trade is closed to anyone by any monopolies, unemployment could be done away with within hours or days in almost all cases - by people who understand and are free to apply the monetary freedom techniques. - Full employment exists naturally when services can be freely exchanged for other services (some expressed in goods or labor). - Unemployment results only when someone puts some or the other hindrance in the way of free exchanges, thus preventing some or many of them. - The worst such hindrance is the monopolization of the exchange medium and the coercive manipulation of the monopolized “value standard” for all transactions. - From JZ, An ABC Against Nuclear War, in PEACE PLANS16-17, with slight changes. Entry Unemployment. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – THE MAIN CAUSE OF MASS UNEMPLOYMENT IS MONETARY DESPOTISM - LEADING TO A MONEY SHORTAGE MONETARY FREEDOM, 30.3.11, 24.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: unemployment is not an essential element of what has been improperly called the capitalist economy. On the contrary: the natural tendency of such an economic system is toward an increase in production and, concomitantly, in jobs.” – Ballvé, Economics, p.60. – CAPITALISM, JOBS, FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means a man cannot exchange his services for the services and goods he wants and that others want to sell to him. - To do it by barter would be too difficult. It could be done by perfect clearing - but this is not yet established. Seeing that we live in an advanced economy, based on the division of labor and free exchange and that for the free exchange of all goods and services some form of exchange medium is required, which promotes the clearing of all goods and services. Something must be wrong with the exchange medium that we are using whenever we find difficulties in selling our labor, goods and services at market prices. - That something must be wrong, could be presumed already merely from the fact that the exchange medium, generally used, is a monopolized and that its use is enforced, in its acceptance as well as its fictitious, manipulated and all too often depreciated paper “value standard.” (Legal Tender laws) - All exclusive privileges, all coercive monopolies should be doubted. We should not expect the best possible service from them but rather the worst possible disservices, if the experience with other monopolies is any guide. - Money is short particularly during an organized credit restriction. The additional sound money then required should be supplied freely - but not by the government, which only knows how to supply inflated or inflatable money or deflated and stag-flated money. No government knows how to supply additional money without causing an inflation nor has it got any-short term political motives or incentives for supplying such money. Politicians are not monetary experts, either. So they tend to resort merely to force and the note printing presses, i.e. to fiat money, forced currency or paper money, euphemistically and misleadingly called "legal tender money". - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – Revised: 28.3.11, 24.4.14. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, LEGAL TENDER, INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONOPOLY MONEY VS. MONETARY FREEDOM & FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means that due to a shortage of exchange media it is difficult and in many cases even impossible to exchange work ability and readiness into exchange media - with which to buy goods and services, usually the goods and services which others would love to be able to offer in exchange. But instead, the others sit on an unsold surplus of goods, or unable to sell all their readiness to supply wanted or needed services, are even all too close to bankruptcy and are, in other words, underemployed or unemployed themselves. - Unemployment is generally accompanied by sales difficulties, i.e. by difficulties to exchange consumer goods and services into exchange media. (Unemployment may also be defined as the sales difficulty for labor as a commodity.) In other words, in times of unemployment there is no shortage of goods, either. Nor is there a shortage of raw materials, factory or office space, transportation facilities etc. - A sufficient need for goods and services does exist for all available labor and service supply capacity. There is only a shortage of purchasing power to buy them with. (General over-production exists only in the imagination of some people.) - The unemployed themselves - and not only they - do need and want many products and services and would gladly give their services in return. Their services are also wanted and needed and would be bought, if only their potential buyers had the purchasing power to acquire them. - Once the present surplus of goods is sold, the production of new goods, to fill the depleted warehouses and shop shelves, would require additional workers and would thus lead to further employment. (Part of the present surplus of unsold consumer goods, not soaked up by people deprived of many consumer goods for a long time and thus going on a spending spree, should and could be invested on long terms and productively, to increase the standard of living in the future.) - The barrier in both cases is the same: lack of sound and competitively supplied exchange media. - If there were sufficient exchange media (or free clearing avenues) then it would be easy to exchange one's consumer goods or services for those one wants from others in a division of labor economy. – So-called “exchange-media” of governments that are unable to fulfill this exchange function for all workers and retailers are not really exchange-media in the full meaning of that term. They have been rightly compared to “requisitioning certificates”, which somewhat indicates their inferiority, their forced currency or fiat money nature. - Why is there any shortage of exchange media? Because the issue of banknotes and currency is monopolized instead of being left to competitive private enterprise. Competitively issued money without legal tender power could not become short-supplied and it could not be over-supplied, either, i.e., it could not be inflated. It would be issued until every sign of deflation has disappeared and would be stopped as soon as the first and temporary sign of an inflation would appear, as the indication of the saturation of the circulation with exchange media, expressed by a small discount of private notes among wholesalers and brokers, i.e. by a well publicized small fall in the free market rate of an exchange medium in general circulation. This would not relieve the issuer of his obligation to still accept his notes at par, whereupon the discounted notes would soon be used against him and thus their small excess volume would rapidly disappear from the circulation and thereby also their small discount. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – SALES DIFFICULTIES, MONETARY FREEDOM. - 30.3.11, 24.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means that men or women cannot exchange their labor services for the services or goods they want or needs and that others do want to sell to them. To do it by barter would be too difficult. In an advanced economy we live by depending upon division of labor and free exchange, which is mediated by exchange media or clearing or clearing certificates. Money, confined to a single exclusive and forced currency of the central bank is often in short supply, causing a means of exchange shortage or even currency famine, or under such a monopoly and its associated legal tender power for is exclusive paper money, it may be already so inflated that it is only reluctantly, if at all, accepted in payments for work and that no one wants to invest any longer on the basis of such a rapidly depreciating money, with its all too inferior value standard and thus unemployment results for lack of sound money. Sound alternative money could be competitively supplied by many private or cooperative issuers – but this is outlawed. It does not help that most people do not know about their monetary rights and liberties and how to use them optimally in practice, with the right issue and reflux techniques, to make them keep, most of the time and at least near their issuers, their nominal value or par value with their sound value standard. Even free experimentation with monetary freedom alternatives is outlawed and thus optimal private payment systems, using sound value standards, cannot be freely developed, as they could, sometimes, even from primitive and still flawed beginning. The government, according to its record, should never be entrusted with money issues. It has a vested interest to abuse such a power again and again and almost never managed its own issues well enough. It should be supplied competitively by free enterprises or e.g. consumer cooperatives on a businesslike basis. We need a money of the people rather than a money of territorial governments, a free market money rather than a monopoly money, competing sound value standards and free choice among them, rather than a forced, fictitious and almost constantly depreciated monopoly “value standard”. – JZ, n.d. & 15.8.08, 24.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means that there is some kind of blockage preventing the exchange between labor and money and money and goods. - This block lies not with the unemployed who are willing to work for market wages and are willing to change their kind of work and their work locations. (Undoubtedly, at present many unemployed are not willing to do this. But, can the same be said e.g. of the ca. 80 million unemployed in India?) - Nor does the flaw seem to lie among the sellers of goods and services. They are willing to sell them at market prices to anyone who will offer them useful exchange media or clearing certificates or accounts. - It does not lie with the employers, either. They want to employ many people and make a profit from everyone they can manage to productively employ under the existing economic conditions. - It does not lie with the providers of raw materials, transport facilities, landlords etc. They all want their materials and capital productively used, sold, hired or rented. - Thus it must lie with the supply of exchange media, which make it difficult to change labor into goods and services and goods into labor, other goods and services and services into other services, goods and labor. As “Sherlock Holmes” used to say in the famous novels: When you eliminate all the untrue and the impossibilities, then you finally come to the possible cause, however unlikely it may appear to be in the eyes of most. - That mass unemployment and sales difficulties must be due to some flaws with the exchange medium should be self-evident from the very concept of an exchange medium. As already its name indicates, -it should be a suitable tool, sufficiently supplied to help to "mediate" all possible and desired exchanges and should be neutral in its effect beyond this mediating capacity. This would require that it uses a sound value standard, not a manipulated and forced paper one like that of the government’s monopoly money. - Like oil in a well-run machine, it should be neither over-supplied nor under-supplied but supplied in just the right quantity and quality - and replaced whenever necessary. To supply it, one should imagine, should be a rather simple job, compared with constructing a modern computer. How simple it could be would only be demonstrated if there were free competition for the supply of such media. - Naturally, to supply sufficient exchange media for everybody from a single center, would be a difficult to impossible job. It would be as difficult to impossible as ruling all people in a country justly whilst outlawing self-rule, as difficult to impossible as feeding all people to their satisfaction or clothing them to their satisfaction from one center, whilst prohibiting them from supplying their own wants in this respect or hiring other suppliers. Why do we assume that this kind of centralization could work in the sphere of money? - Why do we set up central banks as monetary despots over the exchanges of other people or advocate that some people or institutions should have such monetary powers? Could their record of performance for the last 100 years, as “guardians” of the currency, a stable and honest one, be any worse than it is? Only because we subscribe to some popular monetary errors, hypotheses, myths and prejudices. How often do these have to be refuted in the better economic writings before this monetary and currency despotism is finally abolished be repealing its legal backing and exposing it to free competition from full monetary freedom for free market monies, completely free clearing and their alternative and sound value standards? – JZ, 20.4.09, 14.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment means there are some kind of blockages to prevent the exchange between labor and money and money and good and services. The flaw lies not with workers willing to work for market wages (their kind of profit plus expense account refund), nor with the sellers of goods and services, who are willing to sell them at market prices. Nor does it lie with the employers, who do want to employ as many people profitably as they can, producing as many goods and services at market prices, as they have a chance to sell. They do want to productively utilize their often enormous capital investment, for which they may also be highly indebted, but cannot use all of it, all the time, and employ labor around the clock on this equipment, if they cannot be sure to sell what they produce or offer in services and thus make as much profit for themselves as they can. They are certainly not employers of the unemployed and may have to lay off workers much against their will, thus reducing their production and sales, without reducing their other fixed costs. – What other factor is involved? I hold that it must mainly be the supply of enough and sound enough exchange media. - In our times exchange media are required to mediate the exchange of labor into purchasing power and to change that purchasing power into the goods and services the workers need or want. Curiously enough, the supply of exchange media is monopolized. And what does often happen under monopolies? They often cause an insufficient supply. Moreover, the quality of the monopoly good or service (instances: Post Office, government railways and roads) leaves much to be desired. Can such an important supply be safely entrusted to a government’s central bank? Or a government’s monopolistic mint? All experience not only over centuries but even over thousands of years speaks against it. Only rarely have governments been quite honest in this respect - for a while. Usually they have abused this monopoly, privilege and power, especially since they got legal tender power for their monopoly money. It is high time to abolish this monopoly money and legal tender laws. Only the issuer of any currency should always have to accept it at its face value and so should his debtors, by contract with him. – JZ, n.d. & 14.8.08, 24.4.14. – FREE BANKING OR MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM: ISSUE MONOPOLIES,  LEGAL TENDER LAWS & FORCED VALUE STANDARDS OF CENTRAL BANKS ARE CAUSING EITHER INFLATIONS, DEFLATIONS OR STAGFLATIONS IN EVER RECURRING ECONOMIC MONETARY CRISES AND ALSO FINANCIAL CRISES BY AVALANCHES OF GOVERNMENT DEBTS, AMOUNTING TO “INVESTMENTS” IN TAX SLAVES & ALSO ABUSED TO “MONETIZE” THEM ON THIS EXTREMELY UNSOUND BASIS, WHICH GOES FAR BEYOND THE ANTICIPATION OF TAX PAYMENTS IN THE NEXT FEW WEEKS BY A SOUND TAX-FOUNDATION MONEY – IF ANYTHING BASED UPON COMPULSORY TAXATION CAN BE CALLED SOUND.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment remains high, at seven or eight percent officially, but more than twice as high if you look at the shadow stats. It would be even higher if you counted the so-called discouraged workers who are no longer looking for jobs. And it's even higher if you break it down and look at segments of the population like young, black males. Their unemployment rate is over 40%. - Walter Block Interviewed by Louis James, Editor, International Speculator

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment with its injustice for the man who seeks and thirsts for employment, who begs for labour and cannot get it, and who is punished for failure he is not responsible for by the starvation of his children – that torture is something that private enterprise ought to remedy for its own sake.” – David Lloyd George, 1919. - He, too, seemed to wrongly assume that private enterprise is already free to do so and not tied down by the monetary legislation of governments. – JZ, n.d.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment, for example, is not the product of unhampered free enterprise. It is, rather ‘… the inevitable result of forcing wage rates above their free market value.’” – O’Neill, Ayn Rand, quoting A. R., on p.57. – If only all too many freedom lovers would not try to explain such a phenomenon with one contributing factor only, the various truths on the subject might already have become generally recognized and sufficient counter-steps been taken. – JZ, 4.10.08.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unemployment, inflation, deflation, recessions, depressions, stagflation and involuntary poverty are the prices to be paid for the uniform, forced and either short-supplied or over-supplied and thus depreciated governmental monopoly currencies now existing in all territorial States and this even after State Socialism has fallen in most States and has become largely but not yet completely discredited. Especially not in this sphere. And not in government-run universities. For every book advocating monetary freedom or free banking there are, probably, at least a thousand that advocate monetary despotism. All the monetary freedom information has not yet been sufficiently and permanently published and discussed. This has still to be done for its “old testaments” and its “new testaments”. – There exists as yet no comprehensive handbook or encyclopedia on the subject. Millions do thus continue to suffer unnecessarily because such self-help information is not readily accessible to them. Millions of relatively trivial or even misleading books and encyclopedias are being published instead. And this in spite of the fact that the monetary freedom information could now be very cheaply and comprehensively compiled digitally and published online or on disk, if only enough interested and informed people participated. – JZ, 30.4.98, 1.1.99, 29.9.08, 30.3.11. – Probably no one on his own can sufficiently compile and sum up all the relevant information. As far as I could, I did in an A to Z on free banking and a free banking bibliography, both long but still in complete and flawed but at least offered online at . Now it is up to others to complete these two job, adding abstracts, a links list, reviews, a combined index and an A to Z of refutations of popular errors and prejudices on the subject, a Q. & A. compilation and a comprehensive online encyclopedia on free banking or monetary freedom. – JZ, 24.4.14. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, INFLATION, STAGFLATION, POVERTY

UNEMPLOYMENT: Unfair dismissal laws.” – People who can’t be easily dismissed won’t be easily employed. – JZ, 10.2.99.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Voting with one's own dollars: Once the owners of goods, services and labor become free to vote on a free market with vouchers, warrants, tokens, and other emergency monies and clearing certificates in money denominations, covered by and redeemable in their own goods, services and labor in payment for any other goods, services and labor offered on a free market and once the unemployed, under-employed and employed are free to accept any such alternative means of exchange at par (at their nominal value) or to discount or refuse them, then good issues of that type will search out any remaining unemployed or under-employed able and willing workers. These exchange media and clearing options will be acceptable to them at par and they will be used in employing and paying them  according to their productivity. - JZ 31.12.92, 30.3.11, 24.4.14. – MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Wage payment in alternative and optional currencies: How much of your income would you be willing to take e.g. in a shop currency of your favorite local shopping center and in petrol-, gas-, electricity-, water-, railway- and bus- money issues? Why shouldn't you be at liberty to do so and why shouldn't these shops and companies be at liberty to make you such offers? - JZ, 31.12.92, 30.3.11, 24.4.14. – Q., MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: We are forced to the conclusion that it is impossible for the government to provide useful and profitable work (apart from necessary governmental services themselves) outside of what is or would be provided by an unhampered private enterprise.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.110. – Even Henry Hazlitt had not yet recognized how wrongful, unnecessary and even harmful monopolistic territorial governmental services are. – JZ, 30.9.08. – Did he, sufficiently, criticize monetary despotism and advocate full monetary freedom? – JZ, 20.4.09. – On other economic subjects his writings are among the top ones. – JZ, 24.4.414. - JOBS THROUGH THE GOVERNMENT? LIMITED GOVERNMENTS?

UNEMPLOYMENT: We can always have as much unemployment as we are willing to pay for.” – Henry Hazlitt, Can We Keep Free Enterprise?

UNEMPLOYMENT: We can get rid of unemployment through free pricing, free trading and monetary freedom. – JZ, 13.3.75, 30.7.78.

UNEMPLOYMENT: we have imposed a heavy tax on employing anyone. So the result is that we have made employers unwilling to employ people. The wedge between the cost of the employer and the net return to the employee has become bigger and bigger.” – Milton Friedman, From Galbraith to Economic Freedom, p.49. – TAXATION, VOLUNTARY TAXATION & FINANCIAL FREEDOM IN GENERAL

UNEMPLOYMENT: we insist that under a sensible monetary system the demand for labour would always be greater than the supply. The change to automation will probably be slow, and industry could easily absorb the redundant workers if its money supply were denationalized.” – Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 8/78, p.43. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: We left the right track when the anti-truck rules were finalized and generally accepted in the middle of the 19th. century. Before this, it was still sometimes possible to clear wage claims with other means of exchange than legal tender and gold or silver coins. From then on it was always held that any honest employer would possess enough ready cash or could easily get enough credit to pay wages with. But in reality he had to dismiss workers or could not afford to hire any more, when he was insufficiently supplied with these conventional and exclusive means of payment. - Instead, anything that would have been acceptable to workers in wage payments should have been considered as permissible. The work contracts should have contained corresponding clauses and, gradually, truck payments would have become so improved by competition that they would have become as convenient as ready cash payments and superior by not being subject to the deflation and inflation risk of an exclusive and forced currency. - Employees have today only the choice to be paid in deteriorating and exclusive means of exchange or not to be employed at all, while employers are only allowed to pay their employees in such bad and forced currency or to dismiss them. - JZ 7.8.75, 19.11.85. - Allow any employer to offer and any employee to accept anything agreeable to both in payment of wages. Don't force either to deal only in a monopolistic, forced and deteriorating or deflated exchange medium. Let us have the exchange media, clearing avenues and value standards as competitively supplied and chosen as knives, forks and spoons are and then we will have no shortage of them, either. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - JZ, 30.3.11. - TRUCKSHOP PAYMENT PROHIBITIONS, OUTLAWRY OF PRIVATE EMERGENCY MONEY ISSUES

UNEMPLOYMENT: What benefit is to be had from make-work projects, which are funded with wealth diverted from the productive process? Instead of being turned back to create more wealth, this money is ‘redistributed’.” – Kenneth McDonald, THE FREEMAN, Aug. 77, p.505. - No economic benefits result for the whole population but only high and unearned incomes and personal power benefits - for politicians and bureaucrats running such “programs”. – The already insufficient supply of money, because it is monopoly money, is thus further mismanaged and misdirected. - JZ, 13.8.08. – TAXATION, WELFARE STATE, REDISTRIBUTION

UNEMPLOYMENT: What do you expect to happen when you allow the owners of labor and goods and the service providers to compete only for the acquisition of a monopolized State paper money, i.e., while you do prohibit sound alternative banknotes and other private suitable certificates to compete in the job of mediating all possible and desired exchanges?Monopolies do have, after all their effects, whether you like it, know it or not. – JZ, 20.8.82, 4.10.08, 30.3.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, ISSUE MONOPOLY, CENTRAL BANKING VS. FREE BANKING OR MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE MARKET MONIES, GOOD MONIES VS. BAD MONOPOLY MONEY & FORCED CURRENCIES

UNEMPLOYMENT: What is unemployment? Somehow, the exchange of goods and services does not function properly, almost as if the “machinery” for this exchange were not greased properly. - Are exchange media or clearing certificates or clearing accounts the necessary grease or oil for frictionless exchanges? - In the abstract, there should be no unemployment: If everybody were free to offer his labor and products in exchange for those of others and everyone confined himself to producing only what others want and if monetary and clearing exchanges were fully realized and made easy and cheap, then everybody should be fully employed or out of work only if he persisted in offering goods or services which no one in his circles or in a well informed world market, would want at the prices he has to ask for to cover his costs and labor. - Unemployment might be called a sales difficulty or sales stoppage for the commodity called labor. It is usually accompanied with sales difficulties or stoppages for other commodities and services. Together these difficulties form a depression or deflation, a crisis, nowadays politely called merely a "recession". - World-wide there are probably more unemployed now than there were during the Great Depression of the thirties. - It happens when there are also sales difficulties for consumer goods (rotting away or gathering dust in the stores), factory facilities are used only at a fraction of their potential, many machines stand idle, raw materials accumulating to excess and at depressed prices and there is unemployment even among employers, professionals and managers. - Potential productive capital remains also unused because additional products could not be easily sold. Banks might even have an abundance of short term means available for loans but not enough people are daring to borrow them because, in an economy starved for cash, they could easily spend this cash but they could not be certain it that it would flow back to them in time to repay these loans. Under present conditions of sales difficulties and unemployment the available short-term funds, for the same reason, are not readily invested in turnover credits. Under a money shortage they might then be hoarded or used for something else than spending them on consumer goods and service, boosting retail sales and new orders. Exclusive currencies are sticky and stick in many different hands instead of freely circulating and fulfilling their exchange function. Exclusive currencies or monopoly monies can lead to high degrees of hoarding or high degrees of cash holdings, especially in politically uncertain times. - The resulting difficulties are not due to any mysterious disappearance of long term capital. For this real capital is, obviously, still there, before and after the mass unemployment. Or, in form of investment certificates, it is also still there, although at a diminished market value. - Nor is there, basically, an unwillingness to invest the remaining capital profitably. But the interest rate required to cover the depression risk of a total loss (when only the bankruptcy proceedings are booming), would often be too high to be attractive to potential borrowers, who have already difficulties to sell their stocks of consumer goods or their ready for sale services. – Moreover, once a deflation has begun, a vicious circle sets in that reduces sales further. The customers and consumers see prices not becoming reduced and stopping at a reduced price - but continuously falling. Thus they hold back further purchases, as long as they can, in the hope for further price falls. By this very action they achieve, under the system of an exclusive and forced currency, that the prices do fall further. Only lastingly or temporarily reduced prices encourage spending. Falling prices deter buying. - In other words, there must be some exchange and clearing difficulties for the goods and services and labor ready for sale - but still remaining unsold, even at lower prices, but still falling ones. Needs somehow fail to become transformed into monetary demand on the market, to the limit that the needy, able and willing can and wish to give labor, services and goods in return. - Once one becomes aware of that, one should, logically, look at the legislation that prevents sufficient clearing transactions or the production and circulation of sufficient exchange media. Something must be wrong with the existing system for exchange media and clearing facilities when those provided for this job do not do their jobs properly. – However, while stressing the monetary and clearing factor, one should never lose sight of the fact that the pricing of goods and labor should at least be made as free again as it was before World War I, when something close to a free world market did exist. - When there is an abundance of unused and willing labor, i.e. of people wanting to be employed and “exploited” by employers, employers are, obviously, unable to employ and “exploit’ them, and when the other factors of free production and exchange, e.g. transport facilities, factories, real capital and markets still persist, with free pricing and, nevertheless, it is difficult to turn labor, services and goods into money, while it is very easy to turn money into goods, services and labor, then, obviously, only one thing is short: the exchange medium or clearing facilities to pay labor and goods with. All the rest are there, just waiting to be utilized. Then we do not have a jobs or a capital shortage but a shortage of short term exchange media and other payment-methods as are commonly used for wage and salary payments and retail purchases and sales. - Mass unemployment, thus understood, means a difficulty to exchange labor into exchange media - because of a shortage of exchange media. a) The unemployed want to work - for money. - b) The shop keepers want to sell - for money. - c) The employers want to employ and purchase supplies - with money and they want to sell - for money. - d) The wholesalers want to buy, with money, goods they can sell to the retailers, for money. – e) The retailers want to be able to buy from the wholesalers with money and able to sell them to the workers. – f) The workers want to be paid with money to buy with it goods in the retail shops. – g) The financiers and managers and proprietors want a return, earnings and profit - in money - and precisely money or sufficient clearing opportunities are the things they find difficult to obtain. – (Naturally, in our time “money” often means current accounts, cheques, credit cards, non-cash-transfers, electronic transfers or bilateral or multilateral clearing. But in the current system all are dependent upon the cash base which is, supposedly, sufficiently provided by the central bank!) - In such a situation, it has sometimes happened that even millionaires, with millions in illiquid assets, have found it difficult to raise the cash required for some of their minor cash obligations. (I heard of a case of a millionaire being unable to pay for a cup of coffee!) - The illiquid assets of workers (for each worker worth hundreds of thousands of dollars in the long run) are then also very hard to turn into cash and their main debtors, the employers, find it then difficult to impossible to raise sufficient cash or clearing certificates to pay them wages or salaries with. - Once a problem is properly stated then it implies already its solution: MASS UNEMPLOYMENT IS THE RESULT OF A MONEY SHORTAGE! - This becomes more obvious during an intentional and official credit restriction. But a chronic money shortage exists under the present system all the time, at least to some extent, even while the government tries to counter it by an inflation. - At present, the demand for labor (need supplied with purchasing power) is not free. Just like the monetary demand of consumers for consumer goods and consumer services is restricted when in single person households that person is unemployed or under-employed or in families in which, usually several members were employed one or two of them are unemployed. - It is, essentially, restricted by the supply of exchange media and clearing facilities for wage payment purposes - and this supply is restricted when producers and distributors have insufficient sales for their consumer goods and services, while the supply of exchange media and clearing options is largely monopolized, centralized and directed into certain channels only - with the rest of the economy left to fend for themselves - by scrounging together monopoly money as well as they can or suffer the consequences of being unable to get sufficient of it to fulfill all their needs, wants or obligations with it, while they are not permitted to use suitable self-help measures, applying the "issue-principle" or the "clearing principle" or the “banking principle”. Under a money issue monopoly at least temporary money shortages and money shortages in some sections of the economy are quite inevitable. - - There was hardly ever a money shortage in my own sector of the economy: My public service salary had often come directly from the note printing press, in fresh, crisp notes with consecutive numbers. Others are not so lucky but only suffer under the inflation caused by this monopolistic and coercive money-input channel. (I got and spent these freshly printed notes before they drove up the prices! Insofar I was lucky.) There is also, usually, no flood of money, not even of the inflated money, in their channels. - I do not propose that we put up, indefinitely with such a money shortage, or unsatisfactory clearing facilities or to put up with primitive or only somewhat developed barter options instead of monetary transactions. Most of us would more or less starve if we tried primitive exchanges. Then we would not produce enough because we could not exchange our products and services easily enough. Admittedly, we would rather tend to die from over-work rather than unemployment. And much of our over-worked condition would be due to our efforts to try to obtain by barter what we need in return for whatever goods and services we happen to be able to offer to the rather limited barter market. Today a shopping effort still exists but imagine how much harder and prolonged it would be if you had to get everything you need or want through bartering what you have to offer, especially when you are e.g. a clerk! Or a specialized tradesman, like a locksmith or watchmaker. We would then soon realize how much labor is saved by a suitable and sound exchange medium that is in sufficient supply, how important an economic tool or automatic exchange facility it provides, when present in sufficient quantities and qualities. - I am not satisfied with monetary arrangements that cannot be relied upon, that jump from crisis to crisis, that leave difficulties even in boom times, that do promote wars and unjust revolutions, civil wars and terrorism, waste my labor and endanger my property and my future. - I desire an improved system that would make it easy for every willing and able unemployed and other seller to sell his labor, services and goods for some kind of sound free market money or clearing options that is competitively supplied. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files - (If you can express all this or enough of it, in a short slogan, clear sentence or paragraph, please, do so! – JZ, 30.9.08, 30.3.11, 14.4.14.)

UNEMPLOYMENT: What means unemployment? There is no shortage of needs. Needs mean as a rule willingness to labor and to acquire labor products in return. When A needs $ 1000 worth then this means that he is willing to offer $ 1000 worth of his labor for the $ 1000 worth of labor of somebody else, i.e., there is a need for $ 2000 worth of labor in total. Each person's needs supply labor opportunities not only for himself but also for his trading partner - if he is free to transform his needs into demand. Then one’s needs lead to jobs - first for others and then for oneself, i.e., to more employment and more free exchanges, when he pays for his needs with assignments upon his own products, produce, services or labor, and they are accepted and returned to him for this kind of redemption. The same applies largely to wants that go beyond the basic needs. Nowadays, in somewhat developed countries, most needs constitute only a fraction of the earnings and expenses of employees. - Joblessness does not mean a shortage of jobs but a shortage of means to pay for them. It should be termed otherwise, with some expression that comes closer to "sales difficulties for useful and desired labor" - because others are in the same difficulty with their labor that would, in a division of labor and free exchange process, produce the needed or wanted goods and services. What is really required are not more opportunities for productive labor but easy and cheap opportunities, e.g. through a sufficient supply of sound exchange media and clearing options, for the easy exchange of one’s own productive labor and its output for the productive labor or others and their output, under extensive division of labor and quite free exchange. These exchange and clearing options must be somehow supplied, either by oneself, alone or with associates, by some specialists, like note-issuing bankers, by employers, by retailers or associations of retailers or by other potential issuers or by clearing houses. And this supply or service must be free and competitive, i.e. sufficient and cheap and easy enough. - The unemployed are without money or income because of their own sales difficulty for their labor and their potential employers have the same kind of sales difficulty for their goods and services or they would employ more labor. - Essentially, in time of unemployment, some employers are also “unemployed”, i.e., bankrupt or “under-employed”, by working only at a fraction of their capacity with a skeleton staff. No class warfare is involved but a common interest in freeing exchanges between people, who do with to exchange some things or services or labor.- The employers are in this trouble because their final consumers, other workers, producers, professionals, businessmen or tradesmen do not have enough means of payment, either to buy what they have to offer. Often because they are also under-employed or unemployed. A vicious and self-enforcing circle that must and can be broken. The means of payment are short - and they cannot, at present, be privately and competitively supplied in sufficient quantities and qualities because the supply of means of exchange is monopolized. Thus this monopoly must be broken. - The State serves only to confiscate and depreciate its kind of money and direct it away from employment opportunities or profitable and productive employment opportunities to unproductive ones that waste capital and provide no returns or insufficient returns. It is a loss maker but able to impose its losses upon others, the inflation and tax victims. And by its monopoly for the money issue it does also and all too often render many people unemployed or bankrupt. It always reduces earnings or purchasing power through the abuse of its monetary despotism (central banking, with its issue monopoly and legal tender power: compulsory acceptance and a forced and fictitious “value standard”), taxes and other wrongful and harmful interventions and prohibitions. - To overcome unemployment does not require sacrifices. It does not require more capital or new and money expenditures but just sufficient sound exchange media and clearing options for all that is ready for sale. Underutilized factories, goods stocks, machines, raw materials, transport facilities are there in abundance, even when unemployment is large. But to get them fully operating requires new and sound money tokens and clearing certificates and, certainly, a more stable value standard that central banks have offered during the last 100 years. Essentially, these exchange media cost only thinking, paper, ink and printing labor. Many print shops or also working at less than their capacity during a deflation with its massive unemployment. - As Mises used to joke: It takes a government to turn two such valuable commodities like paper and ink into worthless scrap. Alas, the free entrepreneurs have not been enterprising or free or thoughtful enough in this sphere to turn these two fundamental but affordable resources into something very much needed in such situations and also valuable and sound – together with whatever else they have to offer and an optional sound value standard chosen by them. Something that would rapidly drive the bad government money out of most private exchanges, once full monetary freedom is achieved. What that requires is clearing our heads of all the popular errors, prejudices, myths, false assumptions and conclusions on this subject. (Alas, they have not yet been systematically collected ordered and confronted with their best refutations.) Perhaps this can only be achieved by putting the territorial State altogether out of business and reducing them to a communities of volunteers, voluntary victims for the kinds of statism that they have to offer them and should be free to offer to their volunteers, as long as they do not claim any territorial monopoly but are satisfied with the personal law option. - More of the governments either depreciating (inflated) or deflated monopoly paper money is neither required nor should it be permitted as an exclusive means of cash for the population of a whole territory. - Obviously, everyone who is additionally and productively employed, producing goods and services that can be easily sold, does thereby increase the general standard of living. However, if the goods are merely efficiently produced but then merely stockpiled and if efficient and additional services are merely offered but not sold, nobody is better off. They would have worked for nothing or wasted their time, raw materials and business space and would have involved some running costs. - Every employed person can, under sufficient economic freedom, support several others who are too sick, old or young etc. In other words, under freedom, it would be profitable to employ more workers, paying them in accordance with their productivity. No sacrifices are required, no love for one's neighbor but selfishness based on reason, justice and free exchange opportunities, some new, free, rational and just practices and institutions in the sphere of the provision of sound exchange media and clearing certificates and accounts and of sound and freely chosen and provided value standards. - Out of fear of unemployment, a much lower productivity is adhered to than could be realized, just in order to "save jobs" of the old type (by preventing numerous possible and desirable improvements). We have reduced productivity as a result of calls for solidarity with the relatively unproductive! - While e.g. Free Trade, free capital accumulation and investment, abolition of licensing, quotas, wage and price controls and of regulations would certainly help to reduce unemployment, they would not suffice to deal with involuntary mass unemployment of crisis proportions. That could only be done away with if free market, free exchange, free trade, freedom of contract, free association and free experimentation principles and practices were also applied in the monetary, clearing and value standard spheres. How could one assume that the suppression of the free market in this important sphere would have no or only insignificant effects? What means freedom in this sphere? There must be freedom to issue and freedom to accept means of payment. Also freedom to refuse or to discount them. No means of payment or value standard must be coercive and exclusive. All means of payment must be based on the clearing principle and upon some or the other sound, i.e. voluntarily accepted value standard and that standard must also be used to price out goods, services and labor. (Gold weight units would probably serve best for this service - if they are used for accounting and clearing purposes only, not for reserves and redemption by the issuer.) A free market in gold and private gold coinage and some gold coin circulation would be required. Debtors should be free to pay in gold but not obliged to pay in it.) - With this freedom finally realized, mass unemployment could be rapidly overcome in most instances. (Why and how? I wish I could say that convincingly and in a few words, sentences and paragraphs only. I am almost “forever” trying to do so, but, obviously, I do need help in this. Will you provide it?) - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – UNEMPLOYMENT, CAUSE & CURE, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM. - 30.3.11, 24.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: What this country needs are more unemployed politicians.” - Edward Langley, Artist 1928-1995. – It is not enough to make them unemployed but they ought also be forced to surrender their loot. According to recent newspaper reports Putin secreted away over 46 billion dollars. All naturally quite honestly “earned”. – On the other hand, merely to get rid of their rule and not get it replaced by the rule of another official robber baron, would probably be worth a golden hand-shake. – But, to that extent? - Such funds will probably be productively invested somewhere – and indirectly benefit many people - but why should interest and dividends go to such corrupt politicians? Politicians get richer while their subjects get poorer. – JZ, 5.1.08. – Not only have we to get rid of them, as unwanted rulers over us – or to confine them to their remaining volunteers, in their own panarchies, but we have to get rid of all their silly and wrongful anti-economic laws – or gain the freedom to opt out from under them! – Panarchies and personal laws for them – and also for us, without their “guidance” and “laws”, free to doing our own things for ourselves, under full experimental freedom: panarchism, polyarchism, personal law, competing governance systems or a meta-utopian framework for all kinds of ideals and utopias, systems and methods, all only for their volunteers. - JZ, 20.4.09, 24.4.14. - UNEMPLOYMENT OF POLITICIANS

UNEMPLOYMENT: What to do about unemployment? One standard libertarian answer is: Free pricing and free wage contracts and an honest currency. A dissenting view goes further and demands: Free pricing and wage contracts together with freely competing private currencies. I adhere to the second proposal. It embraces the first, because it would also lead to sound currencies. But it does go beyond it by not relying upon any currency as an exclusive one, not even upon the best one that is commonly known, a circulation of gold coins and 100% covered gold certificates. Competing private currencies could reckon and account and clear in gold weight units without the need to have more than a hand full of gold coins in circulation and traded at a stock exchange. – JZ, 16.10.74 & 15.11.85. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files MONETARY FREEDOM

UNEMPLOYMENT: When the owners of an animal that can earn them $ 5 to $ 5000 a year are free use it as productively, why would they leave it unused in this way? If one considers workers as “animals” economically used, i.e., employed to earn money for an employer and also a wage for themselves, one that motivates them to work productively, then why would any employer not employ these men and women? Much more than ill will or arbitrariness must be involved for them to act thus against their own best interests. And yet the unemployed workers want to blame exclusively the employers, and satisfy themselves with this primitive and false “explanation”. Or they do generally blame what they consider to be a “capitalist system” or a “free market system” or a “laissez faire” system, without taking into consideration that there are xyz restrictions on the supply of capital and even more severe restrictions on the supply of exchange media to pay wages with and to purchase consumer goods and services with. Like the religious people expecting their “God” to be able and willing to act like a good man, so the State-educated workmen believe that the Government, with its central and monopolistic note-issuing bank, is able and willing to supply the whole economy always with sufficient and good enough exchange media to make all desired exchanges of labor for money and then of that money for goods and services easily possible. That is almost like expecting a single national bakery to supply a whole country every day with fresh bread or a single cow-keeping enterprise to supply the whole country every day with fresh milk. – JZ, 4.4.86, 14.8.08. – STATISM, STATE SOCIALISM, LEFTIST OR ANTI-CAPITALIST & ANTI—MARKET ECONOMY, BLAMING THE “BOSSES”, EMPLOYERS UNABLE TO EMPLOY & “EXPLOIT” MORE PEOPLE UNDER PRESENT CONDITIONS OF MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: Why can’t willing workers not find paying work? Why can’t hungry potential consumers afford to buy food? Why can’t potential employers fully utilize all their production facilities and thus employ more people? Why can’t shops and supermarkets, abundantly stocked with goods, sell them fast and easily enough, although there are many people who would gladly buy them, if they could afford them? Why don’t investments in goods and service production often not pay well enough to be profitable or even merely to be continued, indefinitely? Obviously not because willing workers, machines, factories, consumer goods and services and capital are in short supply. Not because wealth, capital or skills are missing. (With the exception of the missing free banking knowledge and skills.) (Here we should keep in mind that before and after a period of mass unemployment they are obviously available and during the unemployment they have not simply disappeared.) The only shortage that can always be observed in economic crises is that of sufficient sound exchange media. (During a natural catastrophe people may still have all their cash but then the goods and service supply facilities are largely destroyed, so that there is too little left to buy with it.) The shortage and, sometimes, even currency famine of sound currency during economic crises should not surprise anyone as long as the supply or currency is monopolized. It is quite wrong to assume that such a monopolist would always be able and willing to supply every sphere in his empire with enough sound exchange media to make there always all exchanges between his subjects possible and easy. In that sphere most people have still to come to realize that its absolute “monarchs”, in this sphere, the high priests of the dominant monetary religion of the people, legitimized by laws and these sanctioned by the practices of majority voting for “representatives”, who voted-in such laws or failed to repeal them, do have limits in what they can do for their subjects, although they seem to possess absolute power, often are even scholars, possess high standards of personal ethics and plenty of good will, apart from their addiction to power. Monetary despotism, as history has all too often demonstrated, is unable to always supply sufficient and sound exchange media, to make all wanted exchanges possible. Instead, its paper money is almost always either inflated, deflated or stagflated and never quite and lastingly sound, sufficient and competitive. This happens precisely because the legislation of monetary despotism has suppressed competition in the supply of sound exchange media, clearing certificates or accounts and of sound value standards for them and all prices, wages and other contracts requiring payments. Alas, even most anarchists do not attack monetary despotism or even question it sufficiently or explore just and sound free market alternatives to it. Instead, some of them even imagine that modern societies and economies, depending upon division of labor and free exchange, could manage without money and clearing facilities. And their opponents do mostly believe that monetary and currency despotism, its uniformity, monopoly and coercion could be a just and efficient substitute for free exchange and all that is required by free exchange to function well or well enough. – JZ, 9.11.98, 30.3.11, 25.4.14.

UNEMPLOYMENT: Why is there so little unemployment in the public service? 1.) It has, usually, a monopoly. 2.) Some people are forced to buy its services even though they might not need or want them, e.g. kerbing and guttering. 3.) The means to pay for them are forcefully extracted from often unwilling taxpayers. 4.) If step 3 does not provide a sufficient income then the inflation “tax” is levied or forced loans are extorted or government “securities” are issued which, under inflation are insecurities and, essentially, are investments in tax slaves. – JZ, 1.9.83, 3.10.08. - PUBLIC SERVICE, GOVERNMENTAL INSECURITIES, TAXATION, INFLATION, PUBLIC DEBT

UNEMPLOYMENT: With the abolition of the money issue monopoly and legal tender for its notes, and legalized restrictions upon private and competitive clearing facilities inflation, deflation, mass unemployment and stagflation would soon disappear. – As it is, bad money is forced into circulation and alternatives to it remain outlawed. - JZ, 29.12.92, 25.4.14. - MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY & LEGAL TENDER POWER FOR IT, MONETARY DESPOTISM

UNEMPLOYMENT: WORKING FOR THE DOLE: This means working for the proceeds of robbery, namely taxation! And it means working on some "community project" which voluntary customers are not willing to pay for. And this robbery and wasteful activity is to be continued and subsidized while full employment options through full monetary and financial freedom remain legally suppressed, because they are supposed to be wrong and harmful. - JZ, 19.8.01, 31.1.02. - EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT IN PUBLIC WORKS

UNEQUAL EARNINGS: What is a Communist? One who has yearnings – for equal division of unequal earnings.” – Ebenezer Elliot - DISTRIBUTIONISM, SHARING, COMMUNISM, WELFARE STATE, TAXATION, POVERTY, RICHES, WEALTH, EGALITARIANISM

UNFAIR TRADE? If it is genuine and free trade then it is fair as such, by its very nature and advantageous to its participants. Fraud or force are not part of trade but all too often imposed upon it. - JZ, 21.6.91. – DIS, FAIRNESS, FREE EXCHANGE, FREE TRADE, FREE MARKETS VS. RESTRICTED MARKETS, FREE PRICING VS. PRICE CONTROLS

UNFORTUNATES: I don’t believe the misfortune of one man gives him a mortgage on the life and earnings of another.” – Ayn Rand. – Unless both of them are voluntary members of the same insurance or mutual aid society or fraternity or of a Welfare State made up of volunteers only, under their self-chosen personal law system. – JZ, 9.8.08, 25.4.14. – UNDERDOGS, UNDERPRIVILEGED, POOR, WELFARE RIGHTS? UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES, CHARITY

UNFORTUNATES: Judging by the tone of contemporary debate and comment, and the emphasis given to it by the media, it almost begins to seem as if helping these unfortunates should be the first purpose of a civilized society, and that the strong, the healthy, the rich, and the happy are the undesirables – second-class citizens who ought to be ashamed of themselves; even punished.” – Peregrine Worsthorne, THE AUSTRALIAN, 7.11.74. – Why most of these people are relatively poor and helpless, either through their own faults or omissions or through wrongs and irrationalities in our economic system, is usually ignored. – Charity and Welfare State actions are usually the only “cures” considered. – JZ, 9.8.08. – The lack of economic liberties, especially of monetary and financial freedom, are, usually, considered to be  irrelevant. – JZ, 24.4.14. - POVERTY, POOR, NEEDY, DISADVANTAGED, UNDERPRIVILEGED, UNDERDOGS, SICK, OLD PEOPLE, BUSINESSMEN, CAPITALISM, FINANCIERS, CORPORATIONS, TAXPAYERS, “THE FORGOTTEN MAN” OF W. G. Sumner, DO-GOODERS, WELFARE STATE. “RIGHT” TO JOBS, HOUSING, MINIMUM INCOME, HEALTH, EDUCATION ETC. CLAIMS – AT THE EXPENSE OF OTHER PEOPLE

UNFORTUNATES: While it is perfectly proper for a society to think ABOUT the unfortunates, it must never be encouraged to think LIKE them. - … No healthy society should allow itself to see the world through they eyes of the unfortunate, since the unfortunate have no great interest in perceiving, let alone exploiting, the highest value of civilization: individual freedom.” - Peregrine Worsthorne, THE AUSTRALIAN, 7.11.74.


UNGOVERNMENT: We have proof that (with the exception of waging war (*) and creating inflation) every job now being attempted by government can be done better by cooperative private action.” – NEW LIBERTARIAN WEEKLY, 14.8.77. - (*) wrongfully, murderously and destructively, rather than really promoting peace and freedom and effectively defending them against aggressors – JZ, 9.8.08. – RIGHTFUL WAR- & PEACE AIMS, DECISION-MAKING MONOPOLIES, CONQUESTS & OCCUPATIONS RATHER THAN LIBERATION, KILLING THE SUPPRESSED SUBJECTS OF TYRANTS RATHER THAN THE TYRANTS THEMSELVES, PROGRAMS FOR RIGHTFUL REVOLUTIONS & MILITARY INSURRECTIONS, GOVERNMENTS & SOCIETIES IN EXILE AS ALLIES

UNIFICATION COMBINED WITH DECENTRALIZATION: Unify all the diverse peoples, everywhere, each group under their own personal law system, chosen for and maintained by themselves, regardless of where they live and work in any country and on earth, each of them under full exterritorial autonomy. This is also the best principle and practice to achieve peace between them – JZ, 17.9.12. - UNITY VIA FREELY CHOSEN DIVERSITY, CHOICE, SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW, ASSOCIATIONISM, CONTRACTARIANISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, MULTI-ARCHISM, PEACE, TOLERANCE, LIBERATION, NON-AGGRESSION PRINCIPLE, VOLUNTARISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, STATISM

UNIFICATION OF EAST & WEST GERMANY: Enemies cannot be “united” but at most reconciled or suppressed or left alone to do their own things for or to themselves. Uniting governments should be distinguished from uniting peoples. Among “the” people or the whole diverse population of any country, its numerous minorities and their rights and liberties should be respected, not only those of the majority. A territorial unification cannot do this sufficiently. There must be freedom for friends or like-minded people, whatever their convictions, ideology, racial kind or ethnic traditions or religion, to voluntarily and individually unite with each other, always without any exclusive territorial monopoly claims for them or any others. The minority of remaining convinced communists should have been allowed to try to continue their communist ideals among themselves, at their own risk and expense, if they had committed no major and inhuman crimes against their opponents, while they were territorially in charge. Even fully justified revenge and punishment should largely be forgotten about in the enjoyment of full individual rights and liberties for all - if a liberation went that far. And if it did not, then former political crimes with victims should also be largely amnestied, except in some extreme cases, since they are all too common in almost all territorial States, except the very smallest. – JZ, 27.9.90, 14.8.08. – For how many are there, even now, who do not still subscribe to territorialism, in spite of all its wrongs and irrationality? Almost all are, in fact, accessories to its crimes and did not clearly disassociate themselves from them. - JZ, 30.3.11, 24.4.14. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, LIBERATION, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM VS. STATISM & TERRITORIALISM

UNIFICATION OF EAST & WEST GERMANY: Now we have thus all the old problems united, once again. – JZ, 26.9.90. - The smaller a territorial State is, the easier they could be solved. And if territorialism is quite abolished then any group of volunteers would be free to attempt a solution under the then resulting experimental freedom. – JZ, 14.8.08. – PERSONAL LAW, MINORITY RIGHTS UNDER EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW SYSTEM, POLYARCHY

UNIFICATION OF EAST & WEST GERMANY: That freedom, which I aim at, was, naturally, not achieved through the territorial unification of these two States. – JZ, 4.10.90, 14.8.08. – (“Die Freiheit, die ich meine”, die wurde durch diese territoriale Staatsvereinigung natuerlich nicht errreicht.) – VOLUNTARISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, INDIVIDUAL CHOICES VS. COMPULSION, COERCION, PERSONAL LAW VS. COUNTRY-WIDE LEGISLATION, CONSTITUTIONS & JURISDICTION

UNIFICATION OF EAST & WEST GERMANY: The extent of the failures of State Socialism in East and West became to a large extent covered-up by further State-socialist measures, always at the expense of the taxpayers. The currency reform that was practised for East Germany was an almost classical case of ignorance and prejudice in action. Market forces and market solutions were, once again, not allowed to operate in this sphere and the supposedly anti-communist currency reformers were unaware that they practised a Marxist proposal and institution: the despotism of a central bank, issuing a monopoly currency with legal tender power, i.e. with compulsory acceptance and a forced value. They had also forgotten everything they had ever learnt, if they ever did, about free exchange rates. – JZ, 10/90, 14.8.08.

UNIFICATION: but I’m not prepared to say that because total isolation is bad, total unification is good. The extremes may both be equally horrible. …” - Isaac Asimov, Foundation and Earth. - He, too, did not distinguish between voluntary and compulsory unification, voluntary and compulsory separatism, territorial and exterritorial unification and territorial and exterritorial separatism. - Any particular truth can only be found by sufficient distinctions. Generalizations or abstracts do, usually, not make sufficient distinctions. - JZ, 30.3.11. - DECENTRALIZATION, ISOLATIONISM, SEPARATISM, INDEPENDENCE, CENTRALIZATION

UNIFICATION: How clearly and forcibly had Proudhon told Mazzini and his adherents what Italian unity would bring to the people: “Every original characteristic in the various districts of a country is lost by the centralization of its public life – for that is the proper name for this so-called ‘unity’. A centralized state of twenty-six million souls, such as Italy, would become, suppresses all liberties of the provinces and municipalities in favor of a higher power – the government. What is this unity of the nation in reality? It is the merging of the separate folk-groups in which men live, and which differ from one another, into the abstract idea of a nation, in which no one breathes, and no one is acquainted with another. (*) … To govern twenty-six million people, who have been robbed of all dominion over themselves, calls for a gigantic machine; then to set this machine in motion, a monstrous bureaucracy, a legion of officials. To protect it from within and without, there is required a standing army, officers, soldiers, mercenaries; these will from now on represent the nation. Fifteen years ago the number of officials in France was estimated as six hundred thousand. The number has not diminished since, the coup d’état. (**) The strength of the army and the navy is proportionate to this number. All this is indispensable to unity. This is the usual cost of a state, a cost which, because of centralization, is constantly increasing, while the freedom of the provinces is constantly diminishing. This grandiose unity calls for fame, glitter, luxury, an imposing civil list – embassies, pensions, benefices, and so on. In such a unified state everyone has his hand out, and who can count the chiselers? The people! Who says unified nation means a nation (***) that is sold to its governmentAnd the profits of such a unified system! They are not for the people but for the ruling classes and castes in the state.” – Proudhon to Mazzini, quoted by Rudolf Rocker, Nationalism and Culture, p. 426/27. – Underlinings by JZ – Compare Hitler’s – or, anyhow, a prominent Nazi slogan like: “Ein Reich, ein Volk, ein Fuehrer!” (“One empire, one people, one leader!”) Also: “Fuehrer befiehl! Wir folgen Dir!” (“Leader, command! We will follow you!”) – (*) Two unjustified generalizations. – (**) The number of public officials in Red China has recently been estimated to come to ca. 46 millions. And that large number is still low, as a percentage of the total population. Most democratic States have a much higher percentage of officials. To that extent some of the ancient Chinese tradition is continued even there. According to Ulrich von Beckerath, there was usually only one Mandarin for ca. 20.000 of the population and the local manufacturers and merchants were often wise enough to bribe that Mandarin so that he would not rule over them! - What degree of “laissez-faire” has actually existed in China, at least unofficially, for a long time? Many have stated that until about 1750 it was the most advanced society in the world. From then onwards the numerous technical and scientific innovations occurring in the much more decentralized Europe, and later in the USA, led to much more rapid progress there. Some ascribed this more rapid development to the effect of patent laws. Others to degrees of monetary freedom and free trade. Others to a greater appreciation of individual rights and liberties. We have no final judgment on this issue yet. We haven’t even got it on the “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” as yet. There are over 45 diverse theories and hypotheses on this ancient question. – We ought to try to learn much more from history than we have done so far. – (***) A merely imagined uniform and coercively united “nation”, in spite of all the diversity of its population and its ideologies and religions. - JZ, 14.8.08, 24.4.14. - STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, POWER, CENTRALIZATION, GREATNESS, WARFARE STATES, NATIONALISM, PATRIOTISM, INDIVIDUALISM VS. UNIFORMITY & COLLECTIVISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, TOLERANCE, PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE & COMPETITION, PERSONAL L,AW DECENTRAIZATION

UNIFICATION: How has unification been achieved in the past? Nearly always by conquest or colonization or both.” – Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, Building a Mote in God’s Eye, in Jerry Pournelle, A Step Further Out, I, p.152 & or p.139 in either.

UNIFICATION: The most important among them “Empire and State”, show how different both are according to their nature, for “the one requires for its existence the same mentality, while the other presuppose nothing but a compatibility of men of the same country and peacefulness in transactions”, and he meant, that the longing for a dissolution of the diverse (German) States in a (German) Empire would merely be the striving for the freedom “to be able to secede with impunity from the league of the State and its state-citizenship”, although he does not believe, that this urge could find its full satisfaction in a (German Reich) empire, either and that those, who in addresses and petitions ask for this dissolution, are clear among themselves, that it is less the “freedom of the whole”, than the freedom from ideological coercion, which induces them to declare to the ruling dynasties (i.e. their particular States) their secessions and to declare to the “Reich” (Empire, united German or other nation) their sympathy. – This was the last time that we know of a collaboration of Stirner with a periodical. If he did still publish something else, then it certainly was no longer done under his own name.” - John Henry Mackay, Max Stirner, S.196. - Was the unification drive in Germany really built upon the desire of many to get away from local despotism by unification into one empire and a conscious desire to gain and keep the right to secede, even exterritorially, as the opposite to the right to join? I know that historically the development of the State from the despotic rule of local feudalist princes to absolute monarchs, dreamed of as benevolent father figures, had often such a motivation, for the own and nearest prince seemed to be, to his victims, the worst possible one. – JZ, 11.10.07. – Very few anticipated that unification would involve them in major civil wars and even world wars. – JZ, 25.4.14. – NATION-BUILDING, UNIFICATION ATTEMPTS, FEDERALISM, STATISM, EMPIRE & INDIVIDUAL SECESSION FROM THE STATE, TERRITORIALISM

UNIFICATION: What does territorial and governmental unification matter compared e.g. with freedom to travel, freedom to migrate, free enterprise, free trade, freedom of speech and press, freedom of information, freedom to engage in any job and profession, free pricing, free wage, salary, fees and subscription arrangements, freedom in the supply of exchange media, clearing options and value standards, freedom to secede as individuals or for whole minority groups, freedom to associate in exterritorially autonomous communities, societies or under competing governance systems, all under personal law only and without any territorial monopoly, full freedom of contract in all spheres, freedom from compulsory taxation and its replacement, if at all, by forms of voluntary taxation or subscription, i.e., with the realization of all individual rights and liberties to the extent that people are prepared to accept them as rules among themselves. Only such rights and liberties are really important and give any justification to any unification attempts. Territorial government unifications prevent rather than promote this kind of unity and freedom in diversity, of mutual tolerance and peaceful coexistence, of non-violent competition, which is also a form of generalized cooperation. Territorial unity should never be equated with freedom and justice for all. Its is even the greatest and most dangerous enemy to all individual liberties and right. Freedom for enlarged territorial governments means as a rule less freedom and rights for their subjects. Territorial rulers are, as a rule, no tolerant cosmopolitans that fully respect the rights of others. Nor are they able to protect them effectively, even if they wished to do so. Political territorial unity without all the basic rights and liberties is of no value at all by itself, objectively, apart from national and patriotic spleens, errors, myths, false assumptions and conclusions about it. – JZ, 6.9.90, 14.8.08. – VOLUNTARISM, VS. STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

UNIFORMITY: A comic picture in THE BULLETIN, 26.4.75, signature illegible, shows a bulldozer leveling all the different houses at one side of a street down to equal heights. – JZ – According to one article I read on the mass murders in Rwanda, the width of the noses of the population played a role. The former colonial masters had given preference in jobs to those negroes with narrower noses, thus coming closer to the beauty ideal of the colonial masters. That created two classes, one privileged and one underprivileged – and an enormous degree of hatred between them – rather than against such silly rulers. If true, this was also a recent example of the ancient Roman rule: “Divide and rule!” – The Nazis also managed to make themselves somewhat popular - with unthinking egalitarians, by proposing to limit earnings to RM 1,000 per month. Naturally, that was merely another one of their wrongful and flawed and state socialist promises, mobilizing envy in their favor. But from foolish, prejudiced and ignorant voters they probably got many votes upon this promise. Naturally, the leading Nazis certainly did not confine their own salaries to this limit. – They were in some ways a clever criminal gang, in other ways extremely ignorant and prejudiced – and all too murderous. - JZ, 20.4.09.

UNIFORMITY: A shoe that fits one person pinches another; there is no recipe for living that suits all cases.” – Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Modern Man in Search of a Soul, 1933. - IMPOSITIONS, ONE LAW FOR ALL, ONE TERRITORIAL POLITICAL INSTITUTION FOR ALL INHABITANTS, STATISM

UNIFORMITY: A sufficient supply of sound exchange media in different forms by different issuers and acceptors is more useful than a single and thus uniform exchange medium that is almost inevitably most of the time mismanaged and leads to over-supplies or under-supplies in form of inflations and deflations and sometimes even manages to combine these two abuses into a stagflation. – Uniformity is overrated in this sphere as well. Enforced totalitarian uniformity is also quite wrong in this sphere even though it spares the misled and mis-ruled much self-thinking. – JZ, 25.9.08. - OF CURRENCY MONETARY DESPOTISM OR MONETARY FREEDOM? OBJECTIONS

UNIFORMITY: As Leonard E. Read has several times pointed out, uniformity of activities would lead to the death of mankind. We largely live by specialization and free exchange. – Progress would come to a stop. Billions would die. The few survivors would be primitives and savages. - JZ, 12.8.08. – Remember the over two hundred millions of innocents murdered by totalitarian and despotic governments during the last century, beyond the numerous victims of their wars. View the “democide” statistics of Prof. Rudolf Rummel online and then examine the alternatives, which could have prevented both kinds of mass murder. – STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, PANARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, POLYARCHISM, SECESSIONISM, DEMOCIDE, MASS MURDERS IN PEACE & WAR, UNIFORMITY, CENTRALIZATION, IMPERIALISM, POWER SPLEENS

UNIFORMITY: Every central government worships uniformity: uniformity relieves it from inquiry into an infinity of details, which must be attended to if rules have to be adapted to different men, instead of indiscriminately subjecting all men to the same rule.” – Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835-39, 2.4.3. – Quoted in QUADRANT, 6/78, p 43. – LAWS, RULERS, CENTRALIZATION, DIVERSITY VS. IMPOSED UNIFORMITY, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES VS. REGULATIONS, LAWS, STATISM, NATIONALISM, IMPERIALISM, TERRITORIALISM

UNIFORMITY: I can merely point out here that all uniform state systems, excluding difference, excluding competition, mean a perpetual arrest at the existing level (*) of progress. So long as great government departments (over which, be it observed, from the very exigencies of administration, the mass of the people can never have any real control) supply our wants (**), so long shall we remain in our present condition, the difficulties of life unconquered, and ourselves unfitted to conquer them. – Auberon Herbert, in Mack edition, p.179. - (*) Or progress only at the speed that territorial politicians and bureaucrats can imagine and implement. – (**) Or, rather, those, which they say we have or should have! - JZ, 9.8.08. - TERRITORIALISM

UNIFORMITY: Imperium. It’s the maintenance of a single way of life. You are commanded to be contented. Life must be uniform on all planets as it is in the Imperial Government…” - Frank Herbert, Children of Dune, ANALOG, 3/76.

UNIFORMITY: Imposition of uniform standards does grave disservice to the diversity of human tastes and abilities.” – Murray N. Rothbard, Education, Free and Compulsory, p. 9. – EDUCATION, DIVERSITY, COMPETITION, COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE & CURRICULUM

UNIFORMITY: Is uniformity of opinion desirable? No more than that of face and stature.” – Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, 1782. – Variety of actions is as important as variety of opinions and ideas. – JZ, 85/86. – EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & FREEDOM OF ACTION IN EVERY SPHERE

UNIFORMITY: Men have now arrived at such a high pitch of civilization (*) that all institutions which act in any way to obstruct or thwart the development of individuals, and compress men together into vast uniform masses, are now far more hurtful than in earlier ages of the world.” – Wilhelm von Humboldt, quoted in Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p.105. – (*) Rather, of addiction to power, statism and territorialism. – JZ, 24.4.14. - POWER ADDICTION, INSTITUTIONALIZATION, POLITICIZATION, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, CENTRALIZATION

UNIFORMITY: no amount of suggestion or pressure will make people uniform.” – R. J. Williams, You Are Extraordinary, p.82.

UNIFORMITY: One can have either a uniform or a just right supply of sound and competitive means of exchange, all using one or the other sound value standard and, through market forces, which avoid both, over-supply and under-supply of unsound monopoly money, by competing alternative free market monies, subject to the law of supply and demand and thus free pricing, and self-regulation of their issues, acceptance, circulation and their reflux to their issuers and, in the case of any inferior means of payment being offered, their refusal or their sufficient discount. In the absence of legal tender in general circulation – while upholding the acceptance at par obligation of the issuer, and also under free choice of value standards and freedom of contract, the sound means of exchange and sound value standards would drive out inferior means of exchange and insufficiently reliable value standards - in a reversal of the popular version of Gresham’s Law, namely that bad money would drive out good money. – JZ, 13.8.08, - GRESHAM’S LAW, LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY FREEDOM, VALUE STANDARDS, INFLATION, DEFLATION, MONEY SUPPLY, FREE BANKING VS. CENTRAL BANKING & ITS NOTE ISSUE MONOPOLY.

UNIFORMITY: One does not suit all.” - Goethe

UNIFORMITY: Savagery is uniformity.” – Murray N. Rothbard, Education, Free and Compulsory. – Enforced uniformity amounts to savagery. Voluntary uniformity or conformity is another matter. It unites e.g. merely chess players in their common interest. – JZ, 9.8.08. – TERRITORIALISM VS. EXTERRITORIAL TOLERANCE & VOLUNTARISM, DIVERSITY, FREE CHOICE, SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW

UNIFORMITY: Should we aim at uniform human beings, uniform fathers, uniform mothers, via cloning of the supposedly best types? Uniform peoples fathered by just one man, produced from the eggs of just one potential mother? Uniformity in hair styles, dress, eating, drinking, reading, entertainment, rations for all, uniformity in sexual practices, one sport for all, uniformity in everything – or in nothing but what is desired by volunteers for themselves? We might as well try to replace mankind by uniform robots with artificial intelligence. – JZ, 3.10.90, 2.8.08.

UNIFORMITY: The government is always endeavoring to make people uniform. So literally true is this that in most countries it actually forces them into the uniform of the soldier or the convict.” – George Barrett, THE MATCH, July/August 75. - TERRITORIALISM

UNIFORMITY: The only kinds of uniformity that are worthwhile are those achieved or chosen by individuals, among themselves, one by one, at the stage of enlightenment and pace of development of individuals. – JZ, 19.11.93. 12.8.08.

UNIFORMITY: The strongest bulwark of authority is uniformity; the least diversion from it is the greatest crime.” – Emma Goldman, The Place of the Individual in Society, 1930’s. – Apart from some tolerated individual private idiosyncrasies, hobbies, crafts, fashions, leisure activities etc. – In totalitarian States even these are severely limited and nowadays even the majority-democratic States have “leisure” policies and expenditures. In this district, for instance, they are pushing for a “leisure centre”, to cost over A $ 17 million, more than the expenditure originally planned for the Sydney Opera House, then reckoned in much less inflated money. The wording of the poll on this, to occur with the next compulsory council elections, is “loaded” in favor of the proposal. Already more than half a million dollars have been spent on “consultations”! Where there is a common trough the pigs will gather. - People are so little uniform that governments are forced to put their soldiers into uniforms, to prevent them from not recognizing each other or the supposed “enemy” soldiers, also put into uniform for this purpose. Nevertheless, the governments on both sides claim to really represent “united” or uniform nations, clearly distinguishable from the members of other “nations”. – JZ, 9.8.08. –  A false and pretended territorial uniformity is involved not that chosen by volunteers for themselves. A self-chosen uniformity is rightful for its volunteers and tolerable for outsiders, not subjected to it, when all are subjected only to their self-chosen personal law system, whether of any statist, libertarian or anarchist kind. – JZ, 25.4.14. – SELF-CHOSEN UNIFORMITY AMONG VOLUNTEERS, PEACEFULLY COEXISTING WITH DIVERSE FORMS OF UNIFORMITY FOR OTHER GROUPS OF VOLUNTEERS, ALL UNDER PERSONAL LAW SYSTEMS, AUTHORITY, TERRITORIALISM, NATIONALISM, SECESSIONISM, ASSOCIATIONISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, CONTRACTARIANISM, TOLERANCE FOR TOLERANT PEOPLE DOING THEIR OWN THINGS FOR OR TO THEMSELVES ONLY, PRIVATE BUDGETS VS PUBLIC BUDGETS, VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTIONS VS. COMPULSORY TAXATION

UNIFORMITY: The tendency to uniformity and the suppression of the urge to be different and better is now spreading to all corners of the earth, because the forms and movements of the machinery of the State as invented and practised first by Germany and then by us, are easily copied by any group of politicians who can secure the reins of government in any country. – Sir Ernest Benn, The State the Enemy, p.15. – STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, COMPULSION VS. CHOICE, VOLUNTARISM, DIVERSITY

UNIFORMITY: there is something bigger and brighter than our squabbles, our greeds, our want to make our fellowmen into copies of us.” - Poul Anderson, Dialogue with Darkness, p.13.  UNITY, INTEGRATION, DOMINATION, EGALITARIANISM, EQUALITY UNDER THE LAW, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, FREEDOM, LIBERATION, DOING THE OWN THINGS, TOLERANCE FOR ALL TOLERANT PEOPLE

UNIFORMITY: Uniform flowers, birds, meals, books, und uniforms instead of clothing, too? All to be “blue ants”, in blue denim clothing, as initially under Mao’s dictatorship, or, rather, everything competitively provided and individually chosen and paid for? Uniformity is not an objective value by itself. – JZ, 15.2.05, 198.08. – It is only the subjective value preference of the power addicts, not that of their involuntary victims. – JZ, 25.4.14.

UNIFORMITY: Uniformity enchains rather than liberates. – JZ, 19.11.93.

UNIFORMITY: Uniformity imposes foolishness, errors and prejudices uniformly rather than wisdom – in most cases. Only the simple-minded or prejudiced would see in uniformity itself a basic factor for every solution. – JZ, 19.11.93. – Well, there are exceptions: The voluntary acceptance of uniform standards of measure was to be welcomed. Adoption of time zones had also some value. Australian States for many years had different width for the rails of their State railways! Some want to impose a single and uniform language on the whole world. But Esperanto, Ido and Voklapuek are just three of over 100 international languages proposed so far. Should we start a world war on which international language proposal to adopt, universally and compulsorily? The voluntary acceptance of a second language for international use is much preferable. The use of English, in spite of all its remaining flaws, is gradually spreading. Ca. 20 % of the world population can somewhat use it already. At one stage Latin was almost an international language - among the educated, at least within the Western World. But it is hardly as adapted to modern realities as some of the modern languages are. Should all of us have to subscribe to the crisis theory of Ludwig von Mises – without closely examining all the other crisis theories, of which there are at least ca. 150? And how could one achieve uniformity among the over 1000 conspiracy theories? – JZ, 13.8.08. – INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE PROPOSAL, CRISIS THEORIES & HYPOTHESES, VOLUNTARISM

UNIFORMITY: uniformity in anything, including government, can only be had at the expense of individualism – of thought, action, standards, incentive, personal liberty and decision-making.” – Peter A. Wright, of the Australian Campaign Against Centralism.

UNIFORMITY: Uniformity is prized by all bureaucracies, political or others, simply because it saves bureaucrats from the always agonizing responsibility of dealing with the individuality and the complexity of real life.” – Robert A. Nisbet, The New Despotism, p.27. – Freedom for diversity rather than any imposed uniformity! – Imagine only one game allowed, one form of dancing, one form of sport, one kind of hobby or craft, one hair style, one organized kind of touring, one kind of tooth brushes, one kind of music, one kind of poetry, Science Fiction or the Bible being compulsory reading for all, etc.! – To counter all such spleens, going into the tens of thousands and filling all too many heads, we need an encyclopedia of the best refutations! - JZ, 20.4.09. - BUREAUCRACY, INDIVIDUALISM, DIVERSITY, VARIETY, VOLUNTARISM, COMPULSION, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS

UNIFORMITY: Uniformity of character and uniformity of culture are to be regretted. Biological evolution has depended upon inborn differences between individuals and tribes, and cultural evolution depends upon acquired differences. When these disappear, there is no longer any material for selection. In the modern world, there is a real danger of too great similarity between one region and another in cultural respects. (*) One of the best ways of minimizing this evil is an increase in the autonomy of different groups.” – Bertrand Russell, Authority and the Individual, p.78. - (*) And in political, economic and social ones as well! Panarchism! Meta-Utopia, competing governance, polyarchism, personal choice, experimental freedom, competition, freedom of contract, association, secessionism, laissez faire in every sphere. To each group of volunteers their own system, society or community! – JZ, 9.8.08. 25.4.14.

UNIFORMITY: We cannot live with uniformity, for if all were precisely as you or I, all would perish; this is easily demonstrable.” – Leonard E. Read, Then Truths Will Out, p.31. – Even the mere degrees of statist and territorial uniformity that are already enforced do greatly restrict our individual rights and liberties. – JZ, 9.8.08.

UNIFORMS: Men should not be “free” to murder each other with impunity simply because they dress up for it in uniforms. The uniform does not make their action non-criminal.” - Kurt Tucholsky, Politische Texte, S.55, in a JZ tr. only of: “… Menschen sich nicht deshalb ungestraft toeten duerfen, weil sie sich vorher dazu einen Schlachterkittel anziehen. Denn der macht nicht straflos.“ – However, presently precisely that and an order from above brings about such immunity for murders, committed quite legally, although not morally. – JZ, 3.4.91. – SOLDIERS, WAR, SLAUGHTERS OF HUMANS IN BATTLES, WAR, DEFENCE, ENEMIES, AGGRESSIVE DEFENCE & DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION – RESULTS OF TERRITORIALISM & STATISM, IMPOSED UPON THE POPULATION OF WHOLE COUNTRIES, WARFARE STATES

UNIFORMS: Prohibition of uniform and weapons. Whoever enjoys dressing himself in colorful cloths should be free to do so, as long as he does not demand that others put themselves into similar costumes.” – John Henry Mackay, Abrechnung, S.129. – (JZ tr. of: “Uniform- und Waffen-Verbot. Wem es Spass macht, sich in bunte Tuecher zu kleined, der moege es so lange tun, als er nicht von anderen verlangt, dass sie sich ebenso kostuemieren.“) - As long as he demands it only of like-minded volunteers that would be still tolerable. – JZ, 9.8.08.

UNILATERAL NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT: A unilateralist is a multilateralist who means it! – A peacenik slogan on a button. - NWT

UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCESIn a society obsessed with arranging every detail of existence, the unintended is ominous. – Unknown – It is not society, which makes such claims but territorial States and their politicians do, in their short-term self-interest. They are bribing their subjects with the tax-funds raised from them or they excuse their wrongful interventionism with the fictions of public interest, common interest, general interest, security, safety and protection through territorial governments. – JZ, 26.4.13. – INTERVENTIONISM EVEN WITH SOME OF THE SMALLEST DETAILS OF DAILY LIVING, PERMITS, LICENSING, CONTROLS & REGULATIONS FOR ALMOST EVERYTHING, STATISM, BUREAUCRACY, TERRITORIALISM, LEGISLATION, LAWS

UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES: This insight had been expressed in more general terms nine years earlier by a sometime Chaplain of the Black Watch, and later Edinburgh University Professor: ‘Mankind in following the present sense of their minds, in striving to remove inconveniences, or to gain apparent and contiguous advantages, arrive at ends which even their imagination could not anticipate … and nations stumble upon establishments, which are indeed the result of human action but not the execution of human design’ (Ferguson 1767, pp122/23). Earlier still David Hume, inspired in part by Bernard Mandeville, had investigated other and even more fundamental formations; arguing not merely that these were not in fact planned and intended products, but that some at least could not have been (Flew 1978b, pp.135-39.).” – Anthony Flew, The Politics of Procrustes, Intended Actions and Unintended Consequences, p.170. – DESIGN, PLANNING, ORDER, DEVELOPMENT, INVISIBLE HAND, CONTROLS, LAWS, REGULATIONS, BUREAUCRATY

UNION OF THE USA: The Union was formed by the voluntary agreement of the States; and these, in uniting together, have not forfeited their Nationality, nor have they been reduced to the condition of one and the same people. If one of the States chose to withdraw its name from the contract, it would be difficult to disprove its right of doing so …” – Alex de Tocqueville, Democracy n America. - Fictions can hardly agree with each other. Only adult individuals can give a genuine consent, as far as their own affairs are concerned. - JZ, 23. 11. 06.

UNIONS, ARMIES, VOLUNTARISM, SECESSIONISM: Rio Tinto to put its non-union deal to the High Court - - We should become free not only to secede from territorial States and make other and personal law arrangements for our affairs, but also from other compulsory associations, like trade unions and armies. Before territorial governmental legislators and courts one cannot, easily enough, get justice towards the claims of the latter two, either. – JZ, 2.8.11, on Facebook. Revised: 18.1.13.

UNIONS: AAA: All the following remarks are directed especially against compulsory and coercive unionism. – If all the others do their things only for and to their voluntary members, I do not mind. Everyone has the right to make his own mistakes. – Voluntarism in all spheres. But I hold that everyone has the right to secede from and to resist coercive, monopolistic and compulsory unions and their actions, to the extent that they infringe anyone’s individual rights and liberties. – JZ, 12.10.08.

UNIONS: A cartel is defined as "an association of industrialists for establishing a monopoly by price fixing, etc." - Labor unions are no less cartels than are some industrial combines. They are price fixers; this is their chief claim to fame. They fix prices not by voluntary agreement but by edict backed by violence.” - Leonard E. Read: Who's listening? p.36.

UNIONS: a government cannot repeal these laws precisely because the Unions would stop it. If this is so, then we might as well come right out and admit that the real government of the country is the union movement. The real problem is that the government wants to solve the Union problem without giving up its own power. To do both is impossible. And only an entirely free economy, and a respect for individual rights will give as a real and lasting solution to the Union problem. Or any other problem.” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.260. – Both, the trade-unionists, the employers, the opponents of the trade unions and those of the employer-employee relationship, do all have the right to their own personal law systems, in their own voluntary panarchies or polyarchies. There they may restrict or liberate themselves as much as they like. – JZ, 9.8.08.

UNIONS: A job belongs to an employee only as long as the job contract lasts, i.e., both sides keep it. – JZ, 21.9.91.

UNIONS: A man has the right to manage his business as he finds best, and when Trades Unions bring force to bear against what they call his tyranny, they are despotically seeking to interfere with his private rights.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.178.

UNIONS: A modern trade union is about as far away as you can get from a free market institution. It is literally shored up by the law....” - Terry Arthur: 95 % Is Crap, Fashionable Crap, p.163.

UNIONS: A particularly significant subtype of socialism is that represented by the "guild socialism" which is practiced by such pressure groups as labor unions and professional organizations. This, states Rand, is one of the most dismal expressions of the statist orientations, for "if there is any one way to confess one's own mediocrity, it is the willingness to place one's work in the absolute power of a group, particularly a group of one's professional colleagues." By openly subordinating the able to the mediocre under the guise of vocational rules and regulations, guild socialism "represents an open embodiment of the basic motive of most statists ... the shackling of the men of superior ability down to the mean average of their profession.” - O'Neill: Ayn Rand, p.54.

UNIONS: A society in which it has become a vice to maintain personal independence, and a virtue to submit to a coercive trade-organization and to persecute those who do not, is a society which will rapidly lose again the liberties it has, in recent times, gained. Men who so little understand what freedom is, will inevitably lose their freedom.” - Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Ethics, par.404.

UNIONS: A union does not earn wages. Work does and gets its price on a free market, with millions of employers bidding for it and workers free to chose among employers. – JZ, 17.2.98, 3.8.08. – WAGES, PRICES, SERVICES, EARNINGS, INCOMES, SALARIES, WORK

UNIONS: A union has been defined as an association of workers formed to advance the interests of the union organizers.” - Ross Sutherland, GOLD COAST BULLETIN.

UNIONS: Actually, our very survival depends upon individual secessions from dictatorships and all nuclear powers. (Never mind, how few people have recognized this fact as yet.) Until this process is well advanced, none of us will be safe. I consider voluntary membership in churches, States, unions and armies - and secessions from their present compulsory forms - as trial runs for survival. - JZ, 29.2.84, 13.10.08.

UNIONS: Actually, union leaders have simply taken credit for the natural and inevitable increase in wages coming from increased productivity. (See: "Why Wages Rise", by F. A. Harper, FEE, 1957) - Joan Wilke, THE FREEMAN, 12/75. – They have even taken credit for wage “raises” that were merely adaptations to the inflation that had already happened! – JZ, 13.10.08.

UNIONS: All people to be allowed to sue unionists for damages due to their strikes. – Especially in class actions. - JZ, 23.6.79, 20.4.09.

UNIONS: All the nonsensical arguments, beliefs, opinions, assertions, views, myths and prejudices of true believers in unions should be collected, digitized, alphabetized by catchwords and then confronted with the best counter-arguments so far found and references to further reading that is already digitally or otherwise available. Such a book, website or disk could become a best-seller at least among non-unionists or involuntary union members. – Those first reading it free online and appreciating it, would also want to get a printed copy of it. - JZ, n.d., & 13.8.08.

UNIONS: Although capitalism has changed in many significant regards since the turn of the century, the operation of trade unions as an interest group has not. Essentially, they remain early 20th. century institutions in a late 20th century world. Just as socialism is a 19th century ideology in a late 20th. century world, they are a check upon modernity, a force for inertia and immobility, and as a result they today actively depress working class living standards that would otherwise be higher.” - Stephen Haseler, QUADRANT, 7/77.

UNIONS: Americans must have the right but not be compelled to join labor unions.” - National Right to Work Committee, "reason", 1/79.

UNIONS: Among the many weaknesses of trade unionism is the deliberate refusal to consider capital at all. Trade unionism, like all political movements, depends for much of its success upon the appeal to ignorance.” - Sir Ernest Benn, This Soft Age, p.96. - CAPITAL, ITS ROLE, CAPITALISM, PARTIES, POLITICS, IGNORANCE

UNIONS: Among the unionists are the most common terrorists.” – JZ, 3.3.84. - TERRORISM

UNIONS: An employer cannot freely make a contract either, since the union tells him that there are certain categories of men who are not employable. - What are these categories? Those who do not belong to a union or who belong to the wrong union. - In other words, the most important legal fact about a man in an economic sense is no longer his skill but his union membership - in short, his status. Men are no longer classified as gentlemen, peasants, burgesses and so on ...” - PROGRESS, Melbourne, 5/76.

UNIONS: any good union man will tell you that you do not work for money: you vote for it and you strike for it.” - R. W. C. Ettinger: Man into Superman, p.173. – WORK & WAGES, SALARIES

UNIONS: Any small benefits which the Unions confer are dearly bought by levies on the wages of the men.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.178.

UNIONS: Anyone who says voluntarism is anti-union is condemning unionism by saying that it can only exist on compulsion.” - Reed Larson, "reason", 1/79.

UNIONS: As Albert Rees put it, unionism “alters the wage structure in away that impedes the growth of employment in sectors of the economy where productivity and income are naturally high and that leaves too much labor in low-income sectors of the economy.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 7/76.

UNIONS: As people think that they owe to unionism their high standard of living, they condone violence, coercion, and intimidation on the part of unionized labor and are indifferent to the curtailment of personal freedom inherent in the union-shop and closed-shop clauses. As long as these fallacies prevail upon the minds of the voters, it is vain to expect a resolute departure from the policies that are mistakenly called progressive.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.153.

UNIONS: Based on my experience as a laborer, I choose freedom. I do not want "labor" union protection. The officials of these power structures are absolutely unaware of what my best interests are; indeed, more than likely they do not know their own.” – Leonard E. Read, Then Truth Will Out, p.65. - Their usual misleaders are just another kind of power addicts, like most politicians. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Better provision against illness and accident is made by clubs which exist for that purpose alone, and whose funds are not liable to be exhausted by long, disastrous strikes.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.179.

UNIONS: But how could it have come to be seriously believed that this disorderly, haphazard, violent, extortionate, obstructive, piece-meal, every-union-for-itself scrimmage is the way to promote "social justice"? - So far from the strike-threat system promoting cooperation within the "labor movement", each union leader to hold his job, tries to prove that he can get more for the members of his particular union than others can get for their unions. This is a competition in leap-frogging, with each union trying to end up as the one on top of the heap.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.137.

UNIONS: But in practice the trade union ignores the market or throws the whole of the responsibility for its maintenance upon the other party to the industrial partnership.” - Sir Ernest Benn, This Soft Age, p.97. – If only it would allow the employers to establish and maintain really free market relationships! Or, if it were really an industrial partnership, instead of one merely by name. – They mostly avoided discussing and establishing productive cooperatives or other self-management schemes. If they had, their role in conducting industrial or, rather, anti-industrial warfare, would soon have been over. - JZ, 27.7.93, 13.8.08. – SELF-MANAGEMENT, COOPERATIVES, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES ON TERMS

UNIONS: But while unionism has not raised the reward of honest labour, it has put a premium on inefficiency by insisting that the idle and incompetent worker shall be placed on the same wage-level as the most skillful and industrious.” - Benjamin Taylor, Nineteenth-century Opinion, (A Study in Trade Unionism, April 1898.), p.215.) - Sometimes they “reward of honest labor” may be even lower than that of the idle etc., if, against his will, he is placed in a collective "bargaining" "agreement" in a different category, which is lower paid. - JZ – Collective bargaining does not do justice to individual workers. Many could do better for themselves through individual work contracts. – JZ, 20.4.09.

UNIONS: By granting monopoly rights to the minority of unionized labor and raising minimum pay laws, they have dis-employed marginal workers and taxed the consumer with higher prices, which fall hardest on the poor.” - Charles A. La Dow, THE FREEMAN, 11/74.

UNIONS: Closed shops are produced by closed minds. - JZ, 16.9.82.

UNIONS: Compulsory unionism involves a denial of the right of the laborer to freely own and dispose of his own labor.” - Ralph Borsodi, 17 Problems of Living, p.355. (353?)

UNIONS: Compulsory unionism is a much greater power in the land than any private monopoly because it is centralized and it can paralyze all aspects of community life.” - George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.68.

UNIONS: Compulsory unionism restricts the flexibility and variety of the labor market, fostering inefficiency and stagnation, leading to lower productivity and consequently lower wages.” - Roy Childs, Liberty Against Power, p.5.

UNIONS: Compulsory unity of monopolistic trade unions is almost as disastrous in its economic effects as is compulsory territorial unity and nationalism is in politics, economics and social life. – JZ, 1.9.97. – At least union membership is shrinking. State membership and subjugation isn’t. – JZ, 13.7.08.

UNIONS: Court judgesemployers must negotiate with unions – even when none of their employees is a unionist.” – News report, 21.12.94. – “It’s a free country, isn’t it?” And “courts of justice” are courts of justice because they are called “courts of justice!” – And “laws” are “law” because they are called “law”! - JZ, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: development of coercive bands of workers whose paychecks are protected by force in spite of incompetence or inefficiency.” - JAG, Feb. 28, 1973.

UNIONS: Disagreements between capital, labor, and civil agencies are thus family quarrels between members of an interventionist tribe.” – Rousas John Rushdoony, The Roots of Inflation, p.89/90.

UNIONS: Divestment does not end with Federal government activities. This game is played on an enormous scale in yet another way, as in the case of organized labor. As with all cartels, the labor union today is really a branch of the Federal government, for its many special privileges are governmental grants, that is, they are power grants, the privilege to act coercively.” – Leonard E. Read, Talking to Myself, p.75.

UNIONS: Do unionists really run the country when, as in my job, they lose 40 hours of normal wages every week through direct and indirect taxation and when only overtime, reckoned tax-free, remains for them to live on? Are they then, in principle, better off or worse than the serfs in the Middle Ages were, as far as the use of their working time is concerned? - JZ, n.d. - Did unionists ever strike for lower taxation or the abolition of it? Did they ever stand up for individual secessionism? - JZ, 31.3.11. -

UNIONS: Does union action or increased productivity increase wages - provided there is free competition in bidding for labor? - JZ – Q.

UNIONS: During uncounted attempts, stretching over several decades, I have never found even one voluntary unionist with whom I could talk sensibly about any important subject like: abolition of unemployment, of inflation, of war, of steps towards liberation at work, of economic steps to spread property, increase prosperity, multiply pensions etc. By their popular errors, prejudices, spleens, myths, false assumptions and conclusions they are blinded to all sensible ideas on production and exchange. - JZ 29.2.84, 25.4.14.

UNIONS: Either their members will run the unions or the union functionaries will run their union subjects. – Free after a version in a film called “The State of the Union”. – JZ, n.d.

UNIONS: Employers should be free to refuse to employ any unionists. Unionists should be free to set up and run their own and self-managed production and business enterprises, in free competition with all others. They have no right to demand that others supply them with jobs, which they all too often refuse to perform whenever it suits them. – JZ, 22.4.98.

UNIONS: Employers would be guilty of the aggressive kinds of violence common to unions only if they went forward violently to compel strikers to return to work. This they have never done, and have never even been accused of doing.” – Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 7/76, p.394. – VIOLENCE, FORCE, COERCION, THREATS

UNIONS: Especially those truths that are not taught in them are significant. Next come all the false ideas and opinions that are taught in them and by them, as if they were truths. All such negatives are strengthened by the popular “philosophy” of the relativity of values and the attacks on any truths that were once widely recognized and are still rightly and objectively upheld – but only by a few. – JZ, 14.2.97.

UNIONS: every time the unions establish pickets to prevent workers from carrying on, they are setting up a private army.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/74.

UNIONS: Fifth, make all trade union contracts binding, with the right to damages for breach as in the case of all other lawful contracts in a civilized community.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.38. – STRIKES AS CONTRACT BREACHES

UNIONS: For a man to be able to leave his job when he can find a better one is good: it encourages enterprise and the acquirement of skills. But for all the workers in a firm to band together to stop work and prevent the employer from engaging other labour (which is the reason why trade unions were started) is to make war and stop production.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/77, p.66. - STRIKES

UNIONS: For the Trade Union Bill which has now gone through the British Parliament and which, in effect, establishes the closed shop by law, constitutes a powerful and ubiquitous obstacle to the right of work. - It is the green light for the trade union bureaucrats to push their power to its absolute limits, and to become the arbitrator of all contracts between employer and employee. - This is a social change of great importance, for it reverses the transfer from status to contract. A man cannot freely sell his labor because the union stands between him and his potential employer. …” - "PROGRESS", Melbourne, 5/76. – CLOSED SHOPS, RIGHT TO WORK

UNIONS: For, as Henry C. Simons called them, unions are ‘battle agencies’...” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 8/75.

UNIONS: Furthermore, suppose that it be the case that the trade union is not the true representative of working-class interest but a power organisation which has climbed on the worker's back; then the 'one nation’ ideal is betrayed, not served, by benevolence towards it.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.36.

UNIONS: government of the unions, by the unions, for the unions.” – Editorial note in FREEDOM NETWORK NEWS, Sept. 97, No. 49, p.7. - Just like territorial States are governments of politicians, by the politicians for the politicians. - JZ, 31.3.11, 25.4.14.

UNIONS: Government, in its last analysis", wrote Professor Woodrow Wilson, "is organized force". (*) And it would seem irrefutable, also, that the prevailing force is government, whether or not it be given that name. If the controlling or prevailing force is government, then labor unions may be termed government. They have legal sanction to employ coercive force and, when it comes to ruling the nation's economy, they often prove to be more powerful than the agencies known as government; indeed, they more and more frequently rule Federal, state, and local governments. - What, really, is a present-day labor union? It is an organization of otherwise independent sellers of labor to manipulate the price of labor to their own advantage - by coercion or the threat thereof. - (*) See The State by Woodrow Wilson, Boston, D.C. Heath & Co., 1900, p.572.” – Leonard E. Read, Then Truth Will Out, p.71. – AS WRONGFUL GOVERNMENTS, WITH WRONGFUL MONOPOLY & POWER CLAIMS, LEGALIZED COERCERS, WAGE CONTROL

UNIONS: governments have shown themselves successively incapable of ruling and have handed over effective control of the country to the trade unions, who (*) appear to be dedicated to the principle of doing less and les work for more money. This feather-bedding, this shirking of an honest day’s work, is sapping at every-increasing speed the moral fibre of the British, a quality the world once so much admired. – Ian Fleming, James Bond. You only Live Twice. – Pan Books, 1965, p.76/77. – (*) which? – JZ. - BRITAIN, THE ENGLISH DISEASE, WORKING CLASS MENTALITY, STATE SOCIALISM, FEATHERBEDDING, INTERFERING WITH FREE EXCHANGE, FREE PRICING OF LABOR, WAGES, SALARIES

UNIONS: Hence union leaders under current labor law and policy are driven to a never-ending career of monopolistic wage-setting. This is another way of saying that they are doomed eternally to use every political, economic and physical measure available which will tend to (a) produce as many employment opportunities for their members as possible and (b) to eliminate as many contenders for those employment opportunities as possible. Like all monopolists, unions must be interested equally in the shape of their demand and supply curves. – Besides their vital interest in eliminating as much competitive labor as possible and expanding job opportunities to the greatest possible extent for their own members, union leaders are driven by one more unremitting goad: they must keep alive the destructive myths and superstitions upon which class-warfare thrives.” – Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, July 76, p. 396. – LABOR LAW, LABOR PRIVILEGES, LABOR MONOPOLIES, POWER MONGERS, WAGE CONTROL, VS. FREE MARKETS, FREE PRICING, FREE WAGE DETERMINATION, FREE COMPETITION, CLASS WARFARE, CIVIL WAR

UNIONS: Henry Hazlitt could correctly say of unions that they are “anti-labor”. I am sure Mr. Hazlitt would agree that the unions which our public policies have produced are anti-consumer as well.” – Sylvester Petro, in “Champions of Freedom, p.93. – ANTI-LABOR & ANTI-CONSUMER, MONOPOLISTS

UNIONS: Higher wages are not caused by unionism. If unionization was the route to higher wages and living standards, poverty could be wiped out instantly in countries like Haiti, Zaire, and Romania – simply by unionization.” - Walter E. Williams, More Liberty Means Less Government. Our Founders Knew This Well, Hoover Institution Press, 1999, – p.250. UNIONS, POVERTY & HIGHER WAGES, UNION “ACTIONS” AS IF PRODUCTIVITY DIDN’T MATTE,

UNIONS: historically the unions have protected mainly the aristocrats of labor (the better paid occupations), and locked out minorities and the unskilled.” - David de Leon in H. J. Ehrlich et al, Reinventing Anarchy, p.313. – MONOPOLISM, PRIVILEGES

UNIONS: How and why did the worker allow the creation of force to detrimental to his own economic interest? Unfortunately, most union members do not realize how unions actually work against their own welfare. The bricklayer, whose union restricts the number of bricks he can lay, can be persuaded that the union is protecting his employment, since he believes that the union is apparently "stretching" the amount of available work. The bricklayer is making the wrong assumption. Actually, the union is unnecessarily increasing the cost of laying brick. This will automatically cause builders to lay less brick as they pursue more economic methods of construction, thereby reducing employment opportunities for bricklayers. Of course, this may be too complicated for the rank- and -file bricklayer to understand. All he can see is the immediate effect of limiting productivity, which he interprets as the union's contribution toward increasing his employment opportunities, when actually the union is destroying employment opportunities. The union, of course, tries to compensate for this shrinkage in employment by limiting those allowed to qualify for membership. Thus, relatively fewer workers are permitted to compete for the reduced amount of work available in order to maintain salary levels for those already in the union.” - Erwin Schiff: The Biggest Con, p.187. – They increase rather than reduce the cost of production and distribution and to that extent are quite anti-economic. – JZ, 25.4.14.

UNIONS: How much of what unionists gain through higher wages and tariffs do they lose through correspondingly higher prices? And how much of the wages lost during their strikes do they recover? Is the balance really in their favor? And if it is, then it is largely at the expense of the other workers and of those made unemployed by them or unemployable in the jobs the unionist monopolized for themselves. – JZ, n.d., 9.8.08. – What they “achieve” is wrongful and coercive redistribution. – just like governments do with their taxation or tribute levies. They don’t produce but rather tax and are thus to be classes among the extortionists. - JZ, 25.4.14.

UNIONS: Hundred or even1000’s of the worst errors, prejudices, false premises and assumptions of unionists should be put alphabetized together and confronted with their so far best refutations from any available sources. This could be done very fast, cheaply and efficiently on the Internet, either on a website or through a circle of emailing collaborators, finally producing between them a corresponding printed book, website or disk edition, or all three, with the printed edition, perhaps, left to the last, after the demand for it has been tested by the digital offers and sales. Then either advance subscriptions to the print edition could be asked for or a contract could be concluded with a printing and publishing firm that produces prints upon demand, binds and mails them. – JZ, 14.10.90, 14.8.08. – PREJUDICES, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS

UNIONS: I can think of no greater enormity in a civilized society than that a man who has something to write is prevented from doing it because of industrial organization.” – Lord Goodman, TV, June 7, 1976. - Journalists have largely monopolized the pages of newspapers and journals and, as “good” unionists, largely keep out contributions from outsiders, regardless of how interesting they would be for the readers of these publications. The same applies, I believe, to radio and TV journalists. – Luckily, the Internet cannot be similarly monopolized. Thus the influence of the journalists becomes more and more diminished. – JZ, 13.8.08. - PRESS, NEWSPAPERS, RADIO, TV, MASS MEDIA, JOURNALISTS, FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION & FREEDOM OF INFORMATION, INTERNET

UNIONS: I do not believe in the "right" to strike - but neither do the unionists recognize my right to work (scab) nor do employers and governments (police) protect it. - JZ, 20.2.84. – STRIKE, RIGHT TO WORK, SCABS

UNIONS: I don’t mind if you have the courage of your convictions with your money, your labor, your work contracts, but I do mind if you force your convictions into my contractual relationships, e.g. by forcing me or my employer to break our work contract, just because you broke your work contracts and went on strike. – JZ, 9.3.84, 9.8.08. – WORK CONTRACTS & STRIKES

UNIONS: I find the babble of most unionists as unbearable as that of most preachers, politicians, artists and literati. – JZ, 21.9.93. – They all represent organized ignorance, prejudices, popular errors, myths, false assumptions and conclusions, all not yet sufficiently collected and confronted with their best refutations. – JZ, 25.4.14.

UNIONS: I know what you want. You want a stranglehold on your men by means of the jobs, which I give them - and on me, by means of your men. You want me to provide the jobs, and you want to make it impossible for me to have any jobs to provide.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.221. – JOBS, EMPLOYERS, SELF-EMPLOYMENT, SELF-MANAGEMENT, PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES

UNIONS: I mean the conclusion that the control of natural capital, of the natural and unreproducible (*) source of all production, or our natural environment, of the planet itself, - that this control and not control of the artificial and reproducible products of human art and skill drawn forth from the planet, is the kind of monopoly that primarily disorders the social service market; and this is what makes workers dependent upon capitalists for opportunities to work, and emasculate their natural ability to exact service for service.” – Louis F. Post, Social Service, N.Y., 1910, p.329. – (*) “irreproducible” according to my spell-checker. Underlining by me. – JZ – As a Georgist the otherwise much enlightened Louis F. Post could not shake this notion of private and exploitative land monopolies. - If one merely takes into consideration the number of private land title holders in a country or in the world, one arrives as so many that the belief - that all of them constitute a class of monopolists - is as absurd as the notion that employers are monopolists, seeing that e.g. in the USA alone there are already 10 to 20 million of them. Land titles as well as jobs and the ownership of enterprises change hands daily in uncounted numbers. That happens even under the all too restrictive conditions of monetary and financial despotism and other statist and unionist intervention with a free labor market by xyz government laws, regulations and institutions. Except in the remaining totalitarian countries no one is bound as a serf to any real estate or to a job [forced labor], apart from the ultimate control over development and taxation that the existing governments reserve to themselves as national territorial monopolists, and tribute gatherers, ruling over private land holders and all job holders and employers. I do hold that the passage underlined by me applies much more e.g. to coercive and monopolistic trade unionism and its wrongful interventions, also to the prevailing monetary despotism and the financial despotism expressed in taxes and regulations and legalized manipulations of the capital market. It applies to the employer-employee relationships rather than to all kinds of self-management, partnerships, extensive employee-shareholding and the best types of productive, because businesslike, productive cooperatives. The only land monopoly that I agree to be significant is that of territorial governments. Alas, most “land-reformers” ignore it! Even without the wars between these kinds of Warfare States, they murdered, between them, during the last century over 200 million people and impoverished and exploited or even enslaved many more. Post’s anti-landlordism largely ignores this large-scale and criminal land monopolism. George-ists seem to think: Why pick on the really big and dangerous enemy, the territorial government, when you would rather blame the relatively small local land lords and land speculators? - JZ, 12.1.96, 13.7.08, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: I sympathize in many ways with the general aims of terrorists and unionists - but almost never with their means. - JZ, 15.5.79. - TERRORISM

UNIONS: I think you made your point, long enough and all too repetitively. How many of you were dissatisfied enough with your job to simply give notice? – JZ, 2.3.84. – Economically, those giving notice go longest on strike against the employer to whom they gave notice. And those unionists, who finally go back working for the employer they did strike against, are then actually acting as scabs, when compared with those, who gave notice and took up other jobs. But unionists would not notice that, either. – JZ, 9.8.08, 31.3.11. - PROLONGED STRIKES

UNIONS: I very much doubt that unionists, on their own and only for themselves, could contract better working conditions for themselves than free workers could, who would neither be tied by union rules nor subjected to strike orders. - JZ 29.2.84. – COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

UNIONS: I want my pay in sound alternative money. But unionists will not even discuss this as an option. It would deprive them of many bones of contention. - JZ, 29.10.79, 30.6.13.

UNIONS: I would like to see fair IQ tests separately for e.g. trade union members and employees that are not trade union members. Also for employers and employees, in different branches of business, manufacture and agriculture. Likewise for the members of the different parties and their voters, for voters and for deliberate non-voters or “informal voters” under the system of compulsory voting. – The results might surprise some of the egalitarians. - All people are different and unequal, - except in their basic rights and liberties. That is what makes life precious and interesting and also what makes people productive and creative. – JZ, 21.11.95, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: I would rather contract with an employer than with a union. – JZ, 26.11.92. – The employer is usually not as ignorant and prejudiced. – JZ, 13.8.08. 31.3.11. - I, too, know some unionists, who would just say: "Bullshit!" to all these arguments. - JZ, 1.3.84.

UNIONS: If a number of persons get together to enforce a price for their products, is that wrong, while, if they get together to enforce a price for their labour, is that perfectly all right?” - Enoch Powell, Freedom and Reality, p.194.

UNIONS: If mass affluence could actually be attained in this arbitrary fashion, the economic millennium would indeed be at hand. It should be self-evident, however, that equating money gains with advances in material well-being constitutes opera bouffe economics.” - THE FREEMAN, 10/1975, after discussing e.g. Argentinean wage increment demands of 80-130 % in inflated money. – Did any union ever demand wage and salary payments in a stable alternative currency? I only heard a rumor once that a public service union in NY City did. I never heard details on this. – JZ, 25.4.14. - INFLATION

UNIONS: If one person resolved upon a wage he was entitled to in his opinion and tried to force an employer to hire him at that wage and under his conditions, he would be considered demented. When such is the privilege granted large groups of workers under the law, the government is deranged.” – Joan Marie Leonard, THE FREEMAN, 9/76. – And many producers and all consumers are thus exploited. – JZ, 26.10.08. - GOVERNMENT, DERANGED,

UNIONS: If one trade union can impose higher wages by restriction of entry, the cost is not borne by investors, who can escape, but by other workers who could do the job but are excluded, and by the consumers who pay higher prices for the product. But as union restrictionism spreads, the expected producer's gains are lost in generally higher consumer prices. Thus the benefit of monopoly (for wages or profits) depends on a differential advantage which vanishes when others join in the same game.” - R. Harris & A. Seldon: Not From Benevolence, p.9.

UNIONS: If sharing the work would be providing productive employment, then why don't the unions insist that just a single job be undertaken, one “shared” by the millions of other workers? If sharing jobs would not reduce the standard of living, then it would not do so, not even in this extreme and assumed case, either. - JZ, 7.12.76, 1.3.84.

UNIONS: If the “free” press had paid as much attention to productive coops and other creative self-help efforts, as they have given to destructive, coercive and monopolistic unionism and their anti-industrial actions or class warfare, then almost all people could already be self-employed by now or partly own the enterprise they work in and have a decisive word at their work-place. The old employer-employee relationship would be largely history. – Alas, the mass media, too, largely preferred irrationalities and prejudices, even pure myths, to justice, freedom and common sense in this sphere. – Not to speak of schools and universities. - JZ, 5.10.92. 13.8.08. - INDUSTRIAL STRUGGLES, CLASS WARFARE, STRIKES

UNIONS: If the businessman suffers from attacks on his freedom, his sufferings are nothing compared to those workers who fall out with the trade union system. – Michael Ivens, Pressures of Conformity, article in PATTERNS OF PREJUDICE, Jan/Feb. 1977. – Would that Journal contain many contributions for an Encyclopedia of the Best Refutations? – I have never seen it. – JZ, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: If the labor union tactic were good economics, and were the unions interested in the general welfare, would they not compel all of us to work less than we do and for more pay than we get? The absurdity is clear. They do what they do because it's the route to power; it is no more the way to a good economy than is any other divestment program. Finally, union organizers are no more to be faulted for union tactics than are the government officials who write and administer the permissive legislation, or the union members who avidly take advantage of it. No distinctions can be made. Nor can we say that these people behave the way they do for lack of formal schooling. It appears that years in school have no inhibiting effect upon the quest for special privilege and power.” – Leonard E. Read, Talking to Myself, p.79. – POWER, PRIVILEGE, MONOPOLISM, CLASS WARFARE NOTIONS, COMBINED WITH IGNORANCE OF OR PREJUDICES AGAINST FREE MARKETS, RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

UNIONS: If the purpose of trade unions is to get more for their members, then it is possible to argue that trade unionism has been, and still is, a gigantic hoax. Of course, trade unions negotiate pay increases but pay increases also occur in industries and undertakings where unions do not negotiate. Pay goes up in countries where unions are strong and in countries where unions are week.” – Prof. Clegg, “How to Run an Incomes Policy”, quoted by Ralph Harris, The End of Government …?, p.74. – And how many of the nominal pay increases of almost the last 100 years have merely been those paid in depreciated paper money? These increases have not necessarily been increases in purchasing power when compared with the purchasing power of the nominally lower wages they received some time before. – JZ, 26.10.08. – INFLATION, NOMINAL WAGE INCREASES

UNIONS: If the union is beneficial, why wouldn't they all WANT to belong?” - Wm. J. Grede, RAMPART JOURNAL, Summer 66. – Q., VOLUNTARISM

UNIONS: If they can help it, they do not want to let any worker, contractor or businessman support himself without submitting to their protection racket. - JZ 1.3.84. – A PROTECTION RACKET

UNIONS: If they wish to retain power, union leaders must convince their members that they have been the beneficiaries of monopoly gains. But such gains carry with them as an inseparable cost that which is implicit in every significant monopoly; namely a reduction in the production which would [not] have occurred but for the monopoly condition. The necessary consequence of monopolistic labor returns is relative unemployment.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, July 76. – The bracketed “not” was, I believe, accidentally left out in this print. – While such union actions tend to increase mass unemployment, they are not its basic cause. – Under full monetary freedom the thus excluded workers could find other jobs, at market wages. Moreover, then lack of fear of unemployment would lessen the motive of trade unionists to try to monopolize the jobs they occupy. - JZ 12.8.08. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FULL EMPLOYMENT

UNIONS: If unions and governments exist to protect workers from businessmen why do government workers need unions? - John Garvey and Meg McLain shared A Truly Free Market's photo. – Facebook, 14.7.12. – Q.

UNIONS: If unions are that powerful, why don't they grab all their wage increases at once? Why limit their demands to a certain percentage raise per year?” – McBride, A New Dawn, p.24. - Q.

UNIONS: If unions were simply groups of workers getting together for a better bargaining position with their employer on the terms of their employment, they would be within their legal if not their moral rights. They would also probably be fired. And maybe black-listed among employers. At least, no employer in his right mind would hire someone he thought would cause trouble with his other employees and try to force demands beyond the original hiring agreement. - Unions couldn't exist for very long without the protection of biased laws.” - Joan Wilke, THE FREEMAN, Dec. 75. - I would add to the last sentence: "and their sanction by biased people. - JZ

UNIONS: Image of loafing husband saying to his wife: "Monday and Tuesday pay strike, Wednesday and Thursday protesting against closures, Friday for higher redundancy pay - roll on the shorter working week." – THE BULLETIN, Oct. 16, 1979. - JOKES

UNIONS: In accordance with the principle of freedom of peaceful association, the law should not prohibit unions, but neither should it go out of its way to encourage them. Certainly, the government should not continue, as it does in the United States, to turn itself in effect into a union-organizing agency and to force employers to negotiate with unions.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.141/2. – THEIR LEGAL & GOVERNMENTAL BACKING

UNIONS: In general, I have little sympathy with trade unions. They have done immense harm by restricting access to jobs, denying excluded workers the opportunity to make the most of their abilities, and forcing them to take less satisfactory jobs. Yet surely in the present instance they are right that it is inequitable for the Government retroactively to void contracts freely arrived at.” - Milton Friedman, An Economist Protests, p.33. - The same statement, up to "jobs", was also in his article: Morality and Control, NEW YORK TIMES, October 29, 1971.

UNIONS: In the 1930’s the U.S. Congress granted labor unions and their members the legal right “to commit wrongs to person and property, to interfere with the use of highways, to break contracts, to deprive individuals of the means of earning a livelihood, to control the activities of the individual workers and their local organizations by national organizations centrally and arbitrarily administered beyond the reach of state laws – things which no one else can do with impunity.” – Two statutes, the Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932 and the Wagner Act of 1935 radically changed the nature of labor relations. …” - Hans F. Sennholz, In Search of Monetary Stability, THE FREEMAN, Feb. 77, p.88.

UNIONS: In the making of a living men are inclined toward the easiest way, and if the easiest way involves robbery (which is a denial of natural law), they will try to institutionalize the practice and make it morally acceptable. Once peculation is regularized, and practices are built on the regularization, it is difficult for the keenest eye to penetrate the fog of tradition to the basic error. And, if the scientist does manage to detect the basic error, his exposition of it meets with the opposition of those whose comfort might be disturbed and who will therefore do their utmost to discredit the discovery. Thus, prudence inclined the liberal economist to treat gingerly the long-established institution of slavery ...” - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.65.

UNIONS: Increasingly, British trade union leaders have removed themselves from their historic function (*) and become the bosses themselves. They are present on all manner of boards, commissions and government agencies. Both formally and informally, they help to determine government policy and run the State. They have, in short, and voluntarily, become agents of the State; a State they do not oppose when necessary on behalf of their members but rather a State in which they feel at home in the upper reaches and which they want to see even further expanded.” – Stephen Haseler, Freedom and the Trade Unions, in K. W. Watkins, In Defence of Freedom, p.47. - (*) I deny that with their “programs” and “actions” they had any “historic function”. They would have had some if, e.g. they had promoted the purchase of enterprises by their employees - on terms - and also full monetary and financial freedom. Most of them did not even show any interest in such and related subjects. They stuck with their errors, spleens and resulting obstructionism and their own kind of exploitation and, mostly, still do. – JZ, 12.8.08. – One of the positive signs of the times is that their membership as percentage of all employed is declining. Usually they do not offer as many or any clear advantages as they believe to be able to do and their victims have recognized that and have also seen the drawbacks of union “actions” and collective “bargains”. – JZ, 26.10.08, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Individual and voluntary work contracts cannot be justly interfered with by third parties like unionists. - JZ 29.2.84. - Just like exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers cannot be rightfully interfered with by territorial States, no more so than e.g. bank deposits by bank robbers.

UNIONS: Instead of inciting to the perfection of craft-skill, it compels the most highly skilled artisan to keep pace with the most slovenly dawdler.” - Benjamin Taylor, Nineteenth-century Opinion, p.216. (A Study in Trade Unionism, April 1898.)

UNIONS: Instead of raising the wages of good workmen, trade unionism tends to increase the cost of production all round by making everything dear for consumers, of whom the majority are the working classes themselves....” - Benjamin Taylor, Nineteenth-century Opinion, p.216. (A Study in Trade Unionism, April 1898.). - Best examples are the two largest expenses for the average family: housing and car. - JZ

UNIONS: Isn't it surprising how many unionists are opposed to the unions of lawyers, doctors and politicians? - JZ 20.5.76.

UNIONS: it is increasingly apparent to most people in Britain that trade unions today are no longer fighting for the same cause as the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Far from defending downtrodden workers who are forbidden to combine, they are seen to be championing the sectional selfishness of an aristocracy of better-paid workers – who are able to be paid more than the market allows, by diverting resources from other areas and so contributing to unemployment – and to be operating as pressgangs that oblige unwilling employees to send an annual subscription to maintain the lifestyles and strike funds of the union leadership. …” – K. W. Watkins, In Defence of Freedom, p.146.

UNIONS: It is interesting to reflect on the natural tendency of rulers to make rules. As it became clear that the unions had too much power, both Harold and Ted tried to reduce it by piling anti-union laws on top of existing pro-union laws. It would have been much simpler (would it not?) just to repeal the pro-union laws, or even some of them.” - Terry Arthur, 95% Is Crap, p.163.

UNIONS: It is often argued that in the case of trade unions it is unfair that those who do not belong should have the advantages believed to be achieved by those in a majority. Those advantages are not, however, received at the expense of those who put on the pressure for higher wages but at the expense of the companies concerned, and they, too, are entitled to do what they wish. The right to individual freedom is paramount and the convenience of organizations is not.” – S. W. Alexander, Letter in FINANCIAL TIMES, Dec. 15, 1976. – This still assumes that the raises were really due to union pressures and union expenditures in their efforts. However, it is more likely that the raises would have come anyhow, either as a result of inflation or of changes in the market situation or due do scarcity of labor. Those who gave notice to this firm and went for better paid jobs did, probably and thereby, do more for the raising of wages and salaries in their prior jobs than did all the strike actions combined of those, who remained in these jobs. One can even consider those, who went to other employers - as being on a permanent strike against their previous employer and those, who stayed with the previous employer and worked for him again, after a strike, whether the strike was successful or not, in their terms, as “scabs” - in relation to those who had given notice, i.e., are on a permanent strike against that job. – Admittedly, trade unionists do not see it that way. But then there are many other things, too, that they remain unaware of. - JZ, 13.8.08, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: It is precisely because the labor union attempts to take the employment relationship OUT of the market place that bitter personal conflict so often marks union-management relations.” – Benjamin R. Rogge, The Case for Economic Freedom, p.25. – They have this in common with hold-up men and thieves. The rightful way to get higher wages would for them to individually look for better wage or salary offers elsewhere and then give notice and accept the alternative jobs. Without the help of any of the trade unions many of the employees do this already habitually and thereby improve their situation. Others become self-employed. Still all too few consider all their self-management options, especially their option to purchase the enterprise they work in on terms. – JZ, 26.4.14. - VS. MARKET RELATIONSHIPS

UNIONS: It is the law that forces employers to bargain, to accept decisions by labor boards to pay back-wages for time spent in idleness or striking, to make raises retroactive, to prohibit firing and regulate hiring while allowing all kinds of welfare financing of strike activities paid out of the taxpayers' pocket and the employers' production costs. Everyone is the ultimate victim of union extortion. - It all happens under the protection of the law. It couldn't happen any other way. Extortionate power is monopoly power. It can only exist under government protection or establishment. The government has granted labor groups monopoly power over industry.” - Joan Wilke, THE FREEMAN, 12/75. – ENGAGING IN LEGALIZED EXTORTION, AS PART OF THE WELFARE STATE & TAXATION RACKET, MONOPOLISM, WRONGFUL POWERS

UNIONS: It takes two people to sit around a table and negotiate.” – A unionist lawyer quoted on ABC, 19.11.95. – They come forward with such statements while they are striking against individual work contracts! Logic and knowledge was never their strength. Capable and industrious individuals, bargaining individually with an employer or simply taking up another and better job somewhere else, have, as a rule, achieved better wages, salaries and conditions for themselves than the average returns for not so able and willing trade unionist workers, which are achieved through collective bargaining between union and employer representatives, who are more concerned about their jobs than about the jobs of the employees subjected to their decisions. Individuals committed not to go slow, not to go on strike, not to take too many “sickies” (taking “sick days” without being sick) and prepared to give real value in form of work for money, also willing to give notice in time, before they stop work to take up another job, can expect to be better paid than the average unionist represented by his trade union, unless the union is on a monopolistic exploitation racket, at the expense of all other workers, all consumers and the employers. – If I were an employer then I would also tend to pay non-smokers and non-drinkers more and all those not plagued by an anti-capitalist and anti-market mentality. - JZ, 13.7.08, 31.3.11. – VS. FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, INDIVIDUAL WORK CONTRACTS

UNIONS: It's the old clash: between the unionists - and the workers. – JZ, 23.10.75.

UNIONS: Labor laws and labor unions against the laborer.” - Leonard E. Read, summing up one of his chapters.

UNIONS: Labor leaders: Those who seem to suffer least from exposure, along with girls. – Cy N. Peace.

UNIONS: Labor Union Becomes Laughing Stock - - The "economics" of trade unionists was never anything else but ridiculous. – JZ, 14.9.11, on Facebook.

UNIONS: Labor union, n. An association of workers organized to advance the interests of the union organizers.” - L.A. Rollins, Lucifer's Lexicon, "reason", 8/76. - But then, what can one say of the ordinary members who imagine that the union is organized for their advantage? Being wronged and harmed, by some powerful functionaries, they go on believing that it is all for the benefit of the members! Those who are still faithful communists in the Soviet Union or in Red China have at least the excuse that there exist neither freedom of information or expression so that they are systematically misinformed. Our consenting victims do not have that excuse. - JZ 1.3.84. - TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, REPRESENTATION, POLITICIANS, LEADERSHIP

UNIONS: Labor unions are anti-employee.” – Leonard E. Read, Thoughts Rule the World, p.17. - Coercion is used to prevent non-union people from working in unionized endeavors; force is used to prevent willing workers from taking jobs which union members have vacated, whether by reason of old age or death or whatever.” – Read, ibid, p.18. - SCABS

UNIONS: Labor unions are no less cartels than are some industrial combines. They are price fixers; this is their chief claim to fame. They fix prices not by voluntary agreement but by edict backed by violence.” - L. E. Read, THE FREEMAN, 4/73.

UNIONS: Labor unions are the worst thing that ever struck the earth because they take away a man's independence.” - Henry Ford. - From booklet distributed to Ford workmen during CIO organization drive, 1936, TIME, August 20, 1945. - As if territorial States were not much worse. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Labor unions can only exploit capital already invested, and they can do this only at the cost of discouraging new investment. By discouraging new investment, by discouraging maintenance, expansion, and modernization, labor unions in the long run reduce real wages below what they would otherwise have been.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.139.

UNIONS: Labor unions have accumulated hundreds of millions of dollars through compulsory dues. Their strike funds are large enough to sustain their members through months of idleness. Their pension funds are ever bigger. If they truly feel their members are being exploited, why don't they buy controlling interests in established corporations or start their own?” - Brian Summers, THE FREEMAN, 7/75. – PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES ON TERMS

UNIONS: labor unions reduce real wages. They do so, and they have done so since the beginning of their existence, by jurisdictional disputes, by forcing the employment of more workers than are necessary for a particular job, by systematic hostility to piece-work, by forcing slow-downs, soldiering and malingering on the excuse that they are combating unreasonable speed-ups, and by countless other featherbedding practices.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.139. – FEATHERBEDDING, REDUCING PRODUCTIVITY

UNIONS: Labor unions, it must be remembered, are not simple associations of workers. They are conspiracies against the public interest. … Through laws and court decisions, the federal government gives these organizations and their bosses a whole range of special-interest privileges. For example, unions are virtually immune from prosecution for assaults and property damage during strikes.” – Llewellyn H. Rockwell, The Scourge of Unionism, in Llewellyn H. Rockwell, ed., The Economics of Liberty, Mises Institute, 1990, p.22. - It is impossible to measure precisely how much damage unions do to the U.S. economy. But Morgan Reynold’s “unsubstantiated hunch” is that real income would rise 10 % if unions disappeared. – Ibid, p.27. - Alas, they won’t disappear while there is unemployment as a result of economic crises and these won’t disappear until full monetary and financial freedom is established. Here, once again, unions are a major obstacle with their insistence upon payment in governmental cash, government’s exclusive currency and by their advocacy and voting Welfare States and State Socialism. – JZ, 4.10.07, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: Labor unions? “I've never understood why if monopolies are bad when they are exercised by businessmen, why they aren't also bad when they are exercised by labor union leaders.” - Barry Goldwater. – MONOPOLISM

UNIONS: Laborers should not organize themselves as laborers but as entrepreneurs – even if only WITHIN the enterprises of others. - The best book I know on this subject is Hyacinthe Dubreuil: A Chance for Everybody. – JZ, 8.8.87. – Between them they do also have, mostly, the purchasing power to buy the enterprises they work in, on terms, using their own kinds of industrial bonds as means of payment for their take-over bids. The trade unions, usually, do not discuss such possibilities, because they would thereby be rendered superfluous. – JZ, 13.8.08. - WORK COOPERATIVES, INTERNAL CONTRACTING, GANG WORK, GROUP CONTRACTING, PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES, ON TERMS

UNIONS: labour ‘leaders' who imagine they can gain something for their cause by violence, are half a century behind the times.” – Sprading, Liberty and the Great Libertarians, p.30. - By now rather 150 years! - JZ 9.11.78. - VIOLENCE

UNIONS: labour racketeers prey on labor, public and business alike. – Chad Welch, From Utopia to Nightmare, p.128.

UNIONS: legal protection the unions now have was originally provided to redress a balance, which tilted against the side least able to defend itself in any dispute about wages and conditions. But so much has the whole pattern of our social and industrial life changed that this protection can and often does sanction an irresponsible use of strength.” - Evans, Sir Lincoln, Journey to Coercion, 1964, quoted in Harris/Seldon: Not from Benevolence, p.136.

UNIONS: Legislate monopoly unionism and you institutionalize unemployment. - Rev. Edmund A. Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 5/73. - As well as anti-industrial strife. Just like the legitimization of territorial States and of monetary and financial despotism has led to international wars, civil wars and violent revolutions. - JZ, 31.3.11. - LAWS, PRIVILEGES, TERRITORIALISM, COMPULSORY MEMBERSHIP & SUBORDINATION

UNIONS: Let us not, however, confine our criticism to unions and job control. There is no distinction between control of jobs and control of goods. Thus, all who favor wage and price controls are on the side of violence - coercive denial of your right and mine to deal with whomsoever we please in free and willing exchange. Neither they nor coercionists in any other field can make the case against the Libyan decree or against holding children forever in kindergarten. They have disqualified themselves!” – Leonard E.Read, Having My Way, p.153/54. - coercers?

UNIONS: Living off others by coercion is not always conducted by the formal agency of government itself. The government sometimes deputizes other organizations with a portion of its coercive power. Every above-market wage rate exacted by labor unions, for example, is precisely of this order. ...” - L. E. Read: Who's Listening? p.91. – WAGES, EXTORTION

UNIONS: Lockouts against willing workers are now much more often undertaken by coercive unionists than by employers. Only the unions don't call these lock-outs by their true name but rather "picketing against scabs" etc. - JZ, 17.3.80. – LOCK-OUTS, CALLED PICKETING AGANST SCABS, CLOSED SHOPS

UNIONS: Macaulay, looking to America, declared that, "Either some Caesar or Napoleon will seize the reins of government with a strong hand; or your republic will be as fearfully plundered and laid waste by barbarians in the 20th. century as the Roman Empire was in the Fifth - with this difference - that your Huns and Vandals will have been engendered within your own country by your own institutions." – THE FREEMAN, 9/75, p.519. – THE NEW VANDALISM, BARBARISM & PRIMITIVISM

UNIONS: many of the labor unions have become associations for the extraction of relative advantages for a privileged class of workers at the expense of the consumers, most of whom are unprivileged workers.” – William F. Buckley, On the Right, Dec. 1, 1964. – PRIVILEGED WORKERS AT THE EXPENSE OF THOSE WITHOUT PRIVALEGES & OF THE CONSUMERS

UNIONS: Many unionists are very afraid of what fanatic unionists would do to them as dissenting members. They are as afraid in this respect as people are who are living in a totalitarian country. And, perhaps, to this extent, we may already be living under at least degrees of totalitarian and terrorist threats. - JZ, 1.3.84, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: Merely bear in mind that every dollar exacted over and beyond what a free market wage would be, represents living off others by coercion. It is taking, not trading!” - Leonard E. Read, Who's Listening? p.92.

UNIONS: minimum wage laws are suggested as a means of increasing the earning capacity of marginal workers, but the immediate effect of such laws is to increase the number of unemployed marginal workers because such laws increase the labor costs of employers. Such legislation has been promoted not out of humanitarian impulses, but out of the desire of labor unions to eliminate lower-priced sources of labor and the desire of employers who are already paying higher wages, to impose higher costs upon their competitors.” - B. D. Shaffer: Violence as Product of Imposed Order. – MINIMUMG WAGE LAWS

UNIONS: Most “free” trade unions are unions against Free Trade and Free Exchange. - JZ, 6.10.82.

UNIONS: Most Australians would not be able to conclude individual work contracts.” – But they can contract for their car, their land, house, furnishings, expensive holiday trips and are entrusted with a vote on the fate of the whole country. As for their labor contracts: Most of them are not for life. Changing one job for a better one is a very wide-spread and frequent Australian practice. In other words, they do make better work contracts for themselves all the time. – Lawyers are also at their disposal, for a price, which costs them probably less than the union fees and the other troubles and losses that unions cause them. - JZ, 8.12.92, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: Most gains that Unions make are sectional, with one group's advances being paid for by another's losses. They do not take the money out of the hands of the greedy rich and re-distribute it to the 'workers’. They take it off their mates.” - John Singleton with Bob Howard: “Rip van Australia”, p.258.

UNIONS: Most unionists seem to know and respect only one right: the right to strike. And that one is not a right! - JZ, 17.2.84. – STRIKES, RIGHTS

UNIONS: Most unionists would rather dictate terms to others than secede from them or let the others secede from them. –JZ, 4.8.93. – They do have this in common with the territorial statists. - JZ, 31.3.11. - COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, COMPULSORY & MONOPOLISTIC, DESPOTIC INCLINATIONS & PRACTICES

UNIONS: Mr. C. V. D. Nair, Union leader in Singapore, said that compulsory unionism is a totalitarian measure and as such is undemocratic and removes the incentive for unions to provide services demanded by the majority. "It is therefore incredible that unions in Australia and Great Britain should seek a totalitarian hold on the working population." - C. V. D. Nair. - NEWS DIGEST INTERNATIONAL, Dec.78.

UNIONS: Mr. Gavin asks a simple question: 'have our unions been loyal to us?’" - John Chamberlain, THE FREEMAN, 11.75. – Q.

UNIONS: Mrs. Peggie Ann King of Hampton, Vermont, is working to free what she calls "slaves of the labor unions". She has filed a suit against a local union and against Gemini Food Services, Inc., after she was fired for refusing to join the union.” - FREEDOM TODAY, Aug. 76.

UNIONS: Never have so many done so little in so long.” – Sir Ernest Benn, Murmurings I, p.101.

UNIONS: Never take the anti-communist, anti-fascist protestations of the union leaders and their economic advisers and apologists seriously. They may not know what kind of a system they are building, but disinterested observation should certainly be able to see how their efforts, intentionally or not, are destroying the enterprise system.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 7/76. – And also preventing the development of the system of capitalist production and free enterprise in the form of business-like productive cooperatives and other self-management systems, as well as extensive employee-shareholding – which would all tend to make trade unions obviously superfluous. – JZ, 12.8.08, 26.4.14. - FREE ENTERPRISE, SELD-MANAGEMENT, PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES, EXTENSIVE EMPLOYEE-SHARHOLDING, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES ON TERMS

UNIONS: No organization of men, not excepting the Ku Klux Klan, the Mafia, or the Black Hand Society (*), has ever produced such a record of barbarism as this so-called organized labor society, which through misdirected sympathy, apathy, and indifference, has been permitted to grow up to cripple our industries and to trample in the dust the national and constitutional rights of our citizens.” – John Kirby, jr., president of the National Association of Manufacturers, 11.1.1910, in Francis X. Sutton et al, The American Business Creed, 1956, p.389. - - (*) What about territorial States? – JZ, 23.9.07. – What about totalitarians States? – JZ, 19.4.09. - TRADE UNIONS, PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS & ASSOCIATIONS OF MANUFACTURERS, WITH THEIR PROTECTIONIST & LEGALIZED MONOPOLIES, TERRITORIALISM

UNIONS: No restrictions or penalties on individual secessions from unions. Freedom of dis-association and association, also for those not sharing the beliefs of unionists. - JZ, 3.12.83.

UNIONS: No severity, necessary for the purpose, is too great to be employed against attempts to compel workmen to join a union, or take part in a strike by threats of violence.” - J. S. Mill, quoted by Lauchlan Chipman, QUADRANT, 4/76.

UNIONS: No union is for me. I am for no union. - JZ, 9.3.80.

UNIONS: No union should have the right to prevent anyone from working - under conditions acceptable to him or her. - JZ, 29.2.84, 26.4.14..

UNIONS: not that union members are distinguished beyond all others in the population for their statesmanship; they do not exhibit devotion to a common, across-the-board justice, free market and private ownership understanding and practice, or a disdain of special privilege! ... Labor unions, more than any other labeled segment of the population, dictate what governments -Federal, state and local - shall and shall not do ...” – Leonard E. Read: Who's listening?

UNIONS: Now we experience the strength of the monopoly power of the trade unions, which can exploit and blackmail the community much more than any business ever could.” - George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.90.

UNIONS: occupational licensing ... gives monopoly power to many craft unions, among them the most powerful and probably the most destructive craft union of all, the American Medical Association.” - David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, p.51.

UNIONS: Of course, in the short run a particular union may raise its members wages, but mainly at the expense of other workers. The fewer union members there are, the easier it is to do this. The more extensive is unionisation, the harder does it become. But beyond the short run only the improvement of productivity can raise wages. This depends principally on enterprise and investment, to which unionism is the greatest single hindrance and deterrent.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.37. - And since they have been obstructed for more than a century, a single "successful strike action" can never make up for all the harm they have done, nay, all their strike actions combined, even when only the "successful" ones are counted, cannot make up for that harm and wrong. - JZ, 1.3.84.) - "is unionisation" or: "unionsation is"? - JZ

UNIONS: On a voluntary basis and at their own expense and risk they should be free to do all their kinds of foolish things. – But anyone must remain free to secede from them, not to join their strikes and to make contracts with the same or other employers that are different from the collective bargaining contracts of the unionists. – They have no right to be coercive or monopolistic. - JZ, 16.6.85, 9.8.08, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: On unionists, their coercive strikes, monopolistic collective bargaining and other anti-industrial actions, I can only say that I wish they had their solidarity, courage, resolution, willingness to make sacrifices etc. in a quite rightful, worthy and rational cause. Instead, for their wrongful and flawed cause, they think nothing of infringing the rights and liberties of others. – JZ, 22.6.83, 9.8.08, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Once employees learned that they have deeper and more permanent common interests with their employers than they do with their union leaders, unions as we now know them would be no more.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, July 76, p.396.

UNIONS: One man's increase is another man's job.” - Quoted by Santamaria, Sept. 76 talk. – That is true only when the increase is monopolistically enforced beyond the free market rate of a wage or salary. At this enforced and excessive rate others get no job at all. – JZ, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: oppose the endless demands of the unions.” – George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.87. – The free market rate for all wages cannot be increased by union activities. On the contrary. With all the obstacles they pose and privileges they claim, the average productivity is reduced and thus the average earnings. – JZ, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: Organized ignorance, prejudices, disinterest in economics, violence and exploitation – for the benefit of a few union functionaries and in support of the errors and delusions of their members. – JZ, 17.12.97.

UNIONS: Organized labor is largely organized nonsense. – JZ, 16.8.89, 12.8.08. – The main spleens of trade unions may still have to be sufficiently listed and refuted in a single reference work, put online. Probably, the author would be well advised to keep his anonymity. – JZ, 12.8.08, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Orthodox unionism inveighs vociferously against monopoly capitalism yet it is a determined and skillful practitioner of a ruthless form of monopoly. Unionism sells labour and it fixes the price of that commodity. Any attempt to undersell the commodity attracts vilification and intimidation. Competition is not allowed.” - Harold W. Fry: Unionism and Human Rights, QUADRANT, 8/81, p. 57.

UNIONS: Over hundred years of unionism has no more led to enlightened unionists than nearly 2000 years of Christianity has provided us with many enlightened Christians. Unionism is a new faith and as such it is still very intolerant - but it remains just as senseless as most other faiths are. - JZ 29.2.84.

UNIONS: Over the years, successive governments, through industrial legislation, have permitted labor unions to become a law unto themselves (*), privileged to breach contracts and to coerce both employers and employees." (**) - Workers Party platform draft, 1975. - *) and unto others! JZ – (**) whether they are members or not! - JZ

UNIONS: power-licensees of statism ..." - ERC WORLD MARKET PERSPECTIVE, Canada, 15.10.75.

UNIONS: recognize that compulsory unionism involves a denial of the right of the laborer to freely own and dispose of his own labor.” – Ralph Borsodi, 17 Problems of Living, p.355.

UNIONS: Remove from any particular group the power to be sole negotiators.” - Noel Dennett, 26.5.76.

UNIONS: Responsible Trade Unionism" is a contradiction in terms: Unions are organized irresponsibility and ignorance. - JZ, 13.4.76.

UNIONS: Self-employed people who have conscientious objections to unionism cannot be granted certificates exempting them from union membership, the Federal Court ruled yesterday.” – THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 3.11.78. - Why should any court have any powers to impose such “judgments” upon us? - JZ 4.6.82. - Federal Courts should have no jurisdiction over involuntary victims of it. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Should any worker by compelled, hi-jacked, conned or conscripted into any union and then forced to stay in it? - JZ, 1.3.84. – Q.

UNIONS: Should unions be allowed to rule, run or ruin the country? I hold that, intentionally or unintentionally they are doing this already, all too much and that too many others do even “morally” or otherwise support them in this.” – JZ, n.d. & 9.8.08.

UNIONS: Should Unions rule the country? Shouldn’t all the different kinds of unions be distinguished? A) compulsory unions vs. voluntary unions, B) unions using coercive tactics and strategies, vs. unions using only freely-agreed-upon contracts, C) enlightened vs. ignorant and prejudiced unions, d) eommunist vs. anti-communist unions. - Can or should one judge all of them the same way, all of them collectively? – JZ, n.d. & 9.8.08. 

UNIONS: Since the pay of each individual in the union is determined by factors other than his own achievement, his incentive to produce deteriorates. Once again, the overall output is bound to be reduced thereby - which means that the overall reward to be shared won't be as high as it could be. - Professional athletes are often represented by agents who negotiate their contracts for them. An agent might represent several athletes to the same employer, but each individual's contract is individually negotiated. No attempt is made to rely on the group for bargaining power. Consequently, individual incentives are maintained fully, value is encouraged, and rewards are greater.” - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom , p.73.

UNIONS: Sir Keith Joseph writes ... they have now reduced prosperity for all. I deny that the unions were ever useful to the production of goods.” - Henry Meulen, The Individualist, 12/77, p.66.

UNIONS: So long as unions are animated by a determination to gain higher incomes for their members while reducing their productivity, they abuse society; they do not serve it.” - Sylvester Petro, Labor-Service Agencies in a Free Society: Champions of Freedom, p.109. – REDUCING PRODUCTIVITY & DEMANDING HIGHER WAGES

UNIONS: So many servants, so many enemies. (Totidem hostes esse quot servos.) - Seneca, Epistulae ad Lucilium, Epis xlvii, sec.? - As many are enemies, as are serving - a boss. - JZ, n.d. – Many trade union bosses are worse enemies of the workers than are the employers of the workers. – Just like their other supposed representatives, politicians and bureaucrats, are often their worst enemies. – JZ, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: some people are forced to join a union pursuing policies opposed to the beliefs of those concerned; ...” - Graham Hart: The Choice, quoted in PROGRESS, Melbourne, June 75.

UNIONS: State membership should not be any less voluntary than union membership. - Compulsory union membership is almost as wrong as is compulsory State membership. - JZ, 3.6.84. - Compulsory State membership and territorial laws and institutions are features of totalitarianism not of democratic or republican self-rule, self-government, self-determination and self-responsibility. - JZ, 15.11.02. – VOLUNTARISM RATHER THAN CONSCRIPTION INTO UNIONS

UNIONS: Striking union workers have been working on the black market, while they had made me unemployed against my will. – JZ, n.d.

UNIONS: Taking a united stand against freedom of contract does not make it right. – JZ, 16.6.85.

UNIONS: The “organized antagonism” (A term coined by Hycinthe Dubreuil in his book “A Chance for Everybody”) of the hierarchical employer-employee relationship, cannot be made quite harmless and right by union, legal, police and court interventions any more than the organized antagonism can be, which is established by territorial sovereignty. – JZ, 11.6.93. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, TERRITORIALISM, MONOPOLISTIC & COERCIVE COLLECTIVISM, INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS & STRUGGLES, STRIKES, DISSATISFACTIONS OF EMPLOYERS & OF EMPLOYEES

UNIONS: the activists, who lead the mass of union members by the nose.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.34. - Their "function" is to act in a disfunctionary or interventionist way when it comes to freedom in production and exchange. - JZ, 31.3.11. - UNION FUNCTIONARIES.

UNIONS: The American labor movement should be recognized for the destructive force it is. Next to the U.S. government, it is the most destructive force in the American economy.” - Erwin Schiff: The Biggest Con, p.185. – I think that the power and influence of central banking is even worse. – JZ, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: The American Medical Association is perhaps the strongest trade union in the United States. The essence of the power of a trade union is its power to restrict the number who may engage in a particular occupation. This restriction may be exercised indirectly by being able to enforce a wage rate higher than would otherwise prevail. If such a wage rate can be enforced, it will reduce the number of people who can get jobs and thus indirectly the number of people pursuing an occupation. (*) This technique of restriction has disadvantages. There is always a dissatisfied fringe of people who are trying to get into the occupation. A trade union is much better off if it can limit directly the number of people who enter the occupation – who ever try to get jobs in it. The disgruntled and dissatisfied are excluded at the outset, and the union does not have to worry about them.” – Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, p.150. - (*) Being engaged in it. – JZ – The power and negative influence of the teacher’s union may be even worse. They have led to the employment of more and more teachers and this at ever higher wages and have achieved less and less genuine education of their subjects, at least in most public schools. – JZ, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: The attachment, both emotional and psychological, to trades unions continues amongst men of the left to an organized group which increasingly bullies and cajoles its members rather than really representing them.” - Stephen Haseler, QUADRANT 7/77. – Like politicians and bureaucrats they are monopolists  and coercers and also managed to get their monopolies and coercion legalized. – JZ, 13.10.08, 26.4.14. - STATISM, COERCION, PRIVILEGES, LEGALIZED CRIMES, TERRITORIALISM, POWER GAMES, REPRESENTATION

UNIONS: The bad workers, who form the majority of the operatives in many branches of industry, are decidedly of opinion that bad workmen ought to receive the same wages as good.” – J. S. Mill, 1806-1873, On Liberty, IV, 1859. - as the good ones? - JZ

UNIONS: The big disadvantage of the union is that it is like a growing animal that is never satisfied.” - Lee Zimmermann, SCREEN PRINTING, Special Issue, 1976.

UNIONS: The cause of the ever increasing exploitation practised by the unions lies in their power to restrict the supply of labour to compulsorily conscripted union members.” - George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.68.

UNIONS: The cost of compulsory, monopolistic collective bargaining is continuous and progressive unemployment. No union leader can stop with one monopoly gain. His members are not content to continue paying dues forever on the strength of one large increase in the past. Each union member is always asking of his leadership: “What have you done for me lately?” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 7/76. – Coercive unionists price themselves out of jobs and render people unemployed, too, who would be willing to work at the coercively unionized jobs for market-determined wages. – JZ, 31.7.92, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: The despotism of the Unions over the men is far worse than that of the masters, and initiative is crushed.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.178.

UNIONS: The essence of labor-union policy today is the application or the threat of violence under the benevolent protection of the government. The unions represent, therefore, a vital part of the state apparatus of compulsion and coercion.” - L. v. Mises, Omnipotent Government, p.64.

UNIONS: The first and in my opinion the most significant source of monopolistic union power derives from the virtually universal failure of governments … to prevent unionists from violently excluding competitive workers.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 7/76.

UNIONS: The following unblushing statement was actually published in 1975 in, of all countries, Britain: ‘The legal arrangements of capitalism provide employers with definite advantages in bargaining.’ (Hollis and Nell, pp. 210-11.) - The true situation even in the much less union-dominated USA has been soberly described as follows: ‘If A is bargaining with B over the sale of his house [B.’s house. – JZ], and if A were given the privilege of a modern labor union, he would be able (1) to conspire with all other owners of houses [or people wanting to buy a house! – JZ] not to make an alternative offer to B. … (2) to deprive B. himself of access to any alternative offers, (3) to surround the house of B and cut off all deliveries, … (4) to stop all movement from B’s house, … and (5) to institute a boycott of B’s business. All of these privileges, if he were capable of carrying them out, would no doubt strengthen A’s position. But they would not be regarded by anyone as part of “bargaining” – unless A were a labour union.’ (Chamberlin, pp.41-2; compare for instance Hutt 1973 and 1975, and Ward. ) - Anthony Flew, The Politics of Procrustes, p.199, note 10. -

UNIONS: The government delegates some of its coercive powers to labor unions which, in turn, prevent many people from working at jobs where they'd otherwise be employed on a mutually profitable basis.” - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom ... p.94.

UNIONS: The majority of Australians are watching with fear and resignation the growth of a society where union officials have a monopoly on the issue of a licence to work and where brute strength is the only criterion of worth.” - Greg Runge, GYMPIE TIMES, 30.6.77.

UNIONS: The methods by which a trade union can alone act are necessarily destructive; its organization is necessarily tyrannical.” – Henry George, Progress and Poverty, VI, 1879.

UNIONS: The most powerful political machine in the nation, the trade unions, encouraged and permitted by the federal government, are literally holding millions hostage to the idea that more pay for less or the same work is right. …“ - "reason”, 12/78

UNIONS: The myth of the benevolent trade unionism: This leads us to the second root of the belief in the essential goodness of trade unionism. Like the workers themselves, most Conservatives believe that unions raise wages; that without them the workers would be forced down to a subsistence level, that they protect the worker's job and save him from the employer's caprice. Even those, who do not really believe this, hardly understand that it is the opposite of the truth. It is a wonderful example of the deceptiveness of appearances, and of the immense power of myths over the human mind. The truth is that the pretensions of the unions are as base as they are baseless; base because, though we are all their victims, the principal victims are the poor and the weak; baseless, because the claims and the facts are poles apart. The facts are that unions do not raise wages but depress them; that without the past century of unionism, the majority of British workers would have risen to middle-class affluence; that unions do not protect jobs but undermine them; that they hinder the creation of new and better jobs; and that the caprice of the employer is powerfully circumscribed by the market, whereas that of the shop steward, the union official or the mob at the factory gate meeting is not.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.36/7. 

UNIONS: The only proper response to job dissatisfaction is: "I quit". Try to take that right away from anyone! - And correspondingly, the response to strikes and union demands is the response only competition can give: "Okay, we'll get someone else." - It is the response of freedom to tyranny. But it is a response that is forbidden by law in a country we still like to call free.” - Joan Wilke, THE FREEMAN, 12/75, conclusion.

UNIONS: The only unionism that I have known is a unionism in which trouble-makers united their ignorance, prejudices, amorality and sanctions of coercion, as well as lies, towards the promotion of their aim: unearned benefits at the expense of others. – JZ, 11.11.91.

UNIONS: The present legal position is that a man can be sacked for refusing to join a union under closed-shop arrangement unless he becomes a convert to some obscure religious sect whose statutes specifically outlaw union membership – and even then, he will have to endure the humiliation of producing co-religionists to bear witness to his faith. This has been allowed to happen in a society in which a majority of the workforce is still non-unionized. And this repressive legislation has been swallowed, with barely a hiccup, by the Conservative spokesmen on industrial relations,  although, at the time of writing, there are signs of a change of heart in that quarter.” – K. W. Watkins, In Defence of Freedom, p.146. - Ask me, privately, about my similar experience in Australia and how I finally won, unofficially, after officially losing my case, being condemned to pay the equivalent of union dues into general government revenue! Religion played no role here but the advantage of not being privately taxed by a union did. – More than half of State socialist notions and practices is the expression of sheer envy! - JZ, 12.8.08.

UNIONS: The Price of Liberty: This price, which we must pay, is the abolition of all special laws for all special groups and interests. Subsidies to businessmen as well as to farmers must stop. Special privileges and preferences for able-bodied veterans must be ended. There must be an end to special laws which exempt labor groups from consequences of their actions.” - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, p.35.

UNIONS: The property, which every man has in his own labour - is the most sacred and inviolable. The patrimony of the poor man lies in the strength and dexterity of his hands; and to hinder him from employing this strength and dexterity in what manner he thinks proper is a plain violation of this most sacred property.” - Adam Smith, quoted in GOOD GOVERNMENT, 12/77.

UNIONS: The public must recognize, first of all, that the interests of unions and union leaders are by no means identical with the interests of labor as a whole, and that being pro-union is by no means synonymous with being pro-labor.” - Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.141.

UNIONS: The ratio of supply to demand is a natural one, and cannot be altered by arbitrary means.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.179.

UNIONS: the relations between master and slave may appear peaceful because of the threat of dire penalties if the slave disobeys the master’s orders; and relations within a trade union or between the unions and employers may appear peaceful because no employee or employer dares challenge its rule.” - V. Orval Watts, THE FREEMAN, 8/75, p.477.

UNIONS: the right to work without having to seek union membership ...” - Marilyn Manion, STRAIGHT TALK, Dec. 29, 77.

UNIONS: The Social Contract”. – Through this mechanism trade union leaders, not their members, determine many of the policies of a democratically-elected parliament. A feeble Government consults them on a whole range of issues, which used to be outside the scope of the unions. The reality in Britain today is that our trade union leaders no longer represent their members as leaders of voluntary organizations. Instead, they help to determine government policy to an extent unimaginable and unwanted by a previous generation of trade unionists.” – Stephen Haseler, QUADRANT, 7/77. – By now they do the same largely in the administration of old age insurance in the form of numerous and supposedly private superannuation funds. – JZ, 9.8.08.

UNIONS: The trade union movement was mistaken in its diagnosis of its affliction. Faced with an excess of labour supply over demand, it should have attacked the currency laws that stifled competition among employers for labour. Instead, it attacked employers, and began the hundred years war that has cost us untold production, bitterness, and the enslavement in socialism of half the world.” - Henry Meulen, "THE INDIVIDUALIST", 12/77, p.66.

UNIONS: The trade unions are the black man's greatest enemy in the United States." - The distinguished Jamaica-born black economist Sir Arthur Lewis, in the Chicago Tribune. – “The greatest enemy of the black working man" - said W. E. B. DuBois. - Quoted by Doris Gordon in "reason”, 12/78.

UNIONS: The trouble with the trade union interest is that it is peculiarly unsuited to be a governing interest, since it comprises - and is intended to comprise - the least individually dynamic, innovative, energetic and successful members of society.” - Editorial, THE AUSTRALIAN GP, Sept. 74. - This overlooks, naturally, that the General Practitioners are also members of unions: medical associations. - JZ, n.d. & 31.3.11.

UNIONS: The union official extols "free American labor" - then maintains that he must have special laws which confer upon him exclusive power to coerce and regiment his members, to abolish freedom of contract and to resort to intimidation and violence, all under the guise of "conserving labor's gains". - Admiral Ben Moreell: The Admiral's Log, II, p.124.

UNIONS: the unions … want to protect their members, not some abstraction, labor, …” - Robert B. Pierce, Mc Murray, Penn., ANALOG, 9/73, p.172.

UNIONS: The unions are gangsters holding the country to ransom.” - Opinion ascribed to Paul Johnson in THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 3.9.75.

UNIONS: the unions have to consider only the majority of their own masses, not the majority of the voters; …” - Hans Habe, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Band 4, S.46.

UNIONS: The unions ought to negotiate with the bosses for further pay rises.” – This seems to be still a popular opinion among unionists. – Should the unions not rather use their negotiation skills, if any, upon the consumers, for, lastly, it is the consumers who pay the wages and salaries of the employees? How could they persuade more of the consumers to pay higher prices or use more of their products or services? The employers are more or less only middlemen, representing and producing for the consumers, intent on satisfying them and thereby making a living from their products or services. - Moreover, there are also the masses of small savers, among the employees, who, indirectly, through their bank savings, some purchases of shares and other securities and through their insurance contracts do act as the financiers of their employers. Should these production enablers not also get their fair share? - Then there are some of the main beneficiaries of modern production and exchange, the unproductive, counterproductive and parasitic politicians and bureaucrats, who through taxes swallow a large percentage of all earnings and upon whose tax burden and spending practices the voters have so far very little if any say. If anyone is a genuine exploiter in the present situation, it is rather the State than the employer. The employer is also very much a victim of the State, just like the employee is through direct and indirect taxes. Are unionists negotiating for the reduction of these tribute payments and the wastage of these funds or do they demand still more costly state interventions and bureaucracies, even more in taxes, under the delusion that these would mainly be paid by the rich? - Moreover, there is the monetary despotism of the central banks, leading to deflations, inflations and stagflations with their involuntary mass unemployment. Should unionists continue to ignore this factor, too? The employers and the consumers are just as much victims of this system as are the employees. What have the unions to say on this, except demanding wage indexing using the consumer-price index, which certainly does not stop these wrongs and evils. – JZ, 31.8.87, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: The unions still claim the 40 hour week as a union achievement - in spite of the fact that by now many taxpayers work up to 40 hours a week just to pay their direct and indirect taxes, so that they are really reduced to being serfs of a feudalistic national government. - JZ, 3.11.78.

UNIONS: The violent few among Australian unionists do, probably, outnumber all the other criminal hoods with victims. - JZ, 29.2.84, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: The way to reduce the monopoly power of unions is to remove the special legal immunities they are now granted, not to replace one concentrated power by another.” - Milton Friedman: An Economist Protests, p.33.

UNIONS: The welfare state mechanism is part and parcel of the current labor union movement. It is the only means by which the unemployment caused by the union's excessive wage demands - coercively implemented - can be screened from public view. The so-called full employment program by government - Federal urban renewal, moon ventures, and countless other uneconomic projects - absorb workers barred from the market by coercive pricing. Thus, the unions manage to conceal their actions, which cause unemployment. We can hardly expect the free market to find favor among the millions following their own short-range and unenlightened interests.” – Leonard E. Read: Then Truth Will Out, p.50/1.

UNIONS: the whole union program is a very sharp example of the autocracy of the majority. If the majority wants to belong to the union, then everybody must belong to the union.” - Wm. J. Grede, RAMPART JOURNAL, Summer 66. - It appears as if either the majority feels too week and helpless - unless it can force the minority to join it, or the organizers are not even certain of majority consent and thus want to coerce everybody. - JZ, 1.3.84.

UNIONS: The workers ... ought not be compelled and hi-jacked to join unions.” - Sen.-John McClellan of Arkansas, in a 1959 Senate debate.

UNIONS: The workers are being exploited - by the unions." - Adrian Culey, 5.3.75. – WORKERS, EXPLOITATION

UNIONS: The workers who lost their jobs as a consequence of union policy enter the market of the free branches and cause wages to drop in these branches. The corollary of the rise in wages for organized workers is a drop in wages for unorganized workers. But if fixing of wage rates above the potential market level becomes general, workers losing their jobs cannot find employment in other branches. They remain unemployed. Unemployment emerges as a mass phenomenon prolonged year after year.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.11. – There are other and even more important causes of unemployment. E.g., Mises assumes here that there are always sufficient exchange media supplied to sell all the produced goods and services offered for sale and to pay all wages and salaries, at least if they are at the market level. Central banks, as monopoly suppliers of means of exchange do not function that well. – Exchange media and clearing avenues for international trading are likewise insufficiently supplied. Sometimes the government's exclusive and forced exchange media are extensively and uselessly hoarded by other central banks, as a supposed cover for their inflated currencies. – JZ, 13.10.08, 31.1.11.

UNIONS: The worst menace to prosperity and civilization and to the material well-being of the wage earners is the inability of union bosses, of "union economists" and of the less intelligent strata of the workers themselves to appreciate the role entrepreneurs play in production. This lack of insight has found a classical expression in the writings of Lenin. As Lenin saw it, all that production requires besides the manual work of the laborer and the designing of the engineers is "control of production and distribution", a task that can easily be accomplished "by the armed workers." For this accounting and control "have been simplified by capitalism to the utmost, till they have become the extraordinary simple operations of watching, recording and issuing receipts, within the reach of everybody who can read and write and knows the first four rules of arithmetic." No further comment is needed.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.137.

UNIONS: There are only two good unions. The Mother’s Union and Rugby Union.” – Graffito, Quoted DAILY TELEGRAPH, 3.2.79. - JOKES

UNIONS: There are well-intentioned men who exhort union leaders to make only moderate use of their powers. But these exhortations are in vain because their authors do not realize that the evils they want to avoid are not due to lack of moderation in the wage policies of the unions. They are the necessary outcome of the whole economic philosophy underlying union activities with regard to wage rates. It is not my task to inquire what good effects unions could possibly bring about in other fields, for instance in education, professional training, and so on. I deal only with their wage policies. The essence of these policies is to prevent the unemployed from finding jobs by underbidding union rates. This policy splits the whole potential labor force into two classes: the employed who earn wages higher than those they would have earned on an unhampered labor market, and the unemployed who do not earn anything at all.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.12. - As if undercutting in wage claims would be the one and only way to do away with unemployment. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: There is a further reason why resistance to the unions' claims cannot be avoided. They cannot produce any kind of economic order. They can only produce disorder. In a free economy order is produced by the market process. The unions disrupt it.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.31.

UNIONS: There is a right to give notice – but no right to strike. And both sides have the right to give notice – any time and for any reason. – JZ, 2.3.84, 9.8.08. - VOLUNTARISM, FREEDOM OF CONTRACT

UNIONS: There is no point in swapping the tyranny of unions for the tyranny of the government.” - Bob Howard, "free enterprise", 9/74. - And there is no point in swapping the tyranny of government for the tyranny of unions! - JZ, 1975.

UNIONS: There is no trade union in the world that can exact for its members higher wages than the industry can afford, except with the certainty of destroying that industry.” - Benjamin Taylor, Nineteenth-century Opinion, (A Study in Trade Unionism, April 1898.), p.215. - Their unemployment will come all the faster, the more their "achieved" wage or salary increases do exceed their productivity. Unless, naturally, they are already as territorially, coercively and monopolistically unproductive and counter-productive as e.g. politicians and bureaucrats are, who are able to continue living off their tax slaves. - JZ, 31.3.11. – By now, in Australia, they have largely come into control of superannuation funds as well. – JZ, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: They are being maneuvered by a handful of mentally deranged political agitators with a lifetime history of promoting change by violence.” - Sir John Egerton on trade-unions, SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 16.12.77. - They can achieve only wrongful and harmful changes, not positive ones. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: They attempt to run the country - but can they cope with e.g. unemployment, inflation, the tax burden or run-away welfarism, any more than the territorial government and its economic advisors - who appear ignorant and helpless in these and other affairs? - JZ, 75, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: They call their sieges and blockades and coercion "industrial disputes" and their coercive inaction and paralyzing of the activity of others: "industrial action". - JZ, 1.3.84. What their actions really amount to are anti-industrial actions. – JZ, 26.4.14.

UNIONS: They demand wage-increases regardless of productivity; they reduce profits and hence capital accumulation; they resist the introduction of better equipment; they insist on over-staffing and general feather-bedding; and, by striking, they further reduce productivity, production and profits, thus triggering off a whole new round of price increases, job losses, business contractions, and so on. In general, Unions seek to reverse the law of cause and effect. Somehow they seek to distribute the cake before they bake it, and to distribute a bigger one than they bake.” - John Singleton and Bob Howard: “Rip van Australia”, p.259.

UNIONS: they endeavour to compel persons who do not belong to their society to cease from working ... The laws against intimidation are far too weak; they should be strengthened and should require the expulsion of any member convicted before a court of intimidating or threatening to intimidate." - Bagehot, quoted in THE INDIVIDUALIST, 2/76.

?UNIONS: They hinder the flexible adaption of supply and demand in industry almost as much as does a war." - Henry Meulen, The Individualist, 12/77, p.66.

UNIONS: They openly break laws, disregard the interests of the community of consumers and defy even their own mates when a few hundred men shut down huge sections of industry.” – George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.67.

UNIONS: They stand self-condemned, because their inevitable effect is seen to be the driving of trade from the country.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.178.

UNIONS: They think that sending bosses broke will give us all a job.” - Chorus recorded at Tin Pan Alley, March 8, 1979.

UNIONS: This is the modern Great Illusion. In fact, each union's extorted "gains", by raising a specific industry's costs and therefore its prices, reduces the real wages of all other workers. The interests of the unions are mutually antagonistic.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.136.

UNIONS: This unchecked union power can only mean unchecked economic disorder. Let the unions have complete power and still they would know no way of sharing its proceeds without conflicts between the skilled and the unskilled, between engine-drivers and guards, engineers and sheet-metal workers, boiler-makers and shipwrights, postmen and dustmen, dockers and lorry drivers, and so on. This must mean growing disruption of the life of the ordinary citizen. Hence he will find that from time to time his home will not be heated, trains and buses will not run, letters will not be delivered, garbage will not be collected, banks and shops will not be open. Each time the disruption will be temporary and the misery will pass. But each time the resentment will bite deeper and deeper, until the ordinary citizen will fall into a rage which will induce him to support anybody who will offer to restore the order for which he will yearn.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, ed. by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, p.32. - In this way the incomplete totalitarianism of the unions might be turned into a complete one, the typical political totalitarianism. - JZ 1.3.84, 27.10.08.)

UNIONS: This world would be a much better place without unions. - JZ, 29.2.84.

UNIONS: This, too, they call "Preserving our Glorious Union;" as if there could be said to be any Union, glorious or inglorious, that was not voluntary. Or as if there could be said to be any union between masters and slaves; between those who conquer, and those who are subjugated.” - Lysander Spooner: No Treason, VI/58, Works I.

UNIONS: to make non-membership in a union a condition of employment … is a part of the constitutional right of personal liberty and private property, not to be taken away, not even by legislation.” – Mr. Justice Mahlon Pitney: Opinion in Hitchman Caol and Coke Co., vs. Mitchell, 1917.

UNIONS: To provide the tools for the workers, a part of the past production of individuals must be saved. There is no other way. Workers compete with one another for the use of tools; the more plentiful the supply of tools, the better each worker's chance of being highly paid for using them. Workers who use their organized power to frustrate production, thus preventing the saving for new tools - new capital - tend to cut off their only avenue to progress.” - W. M. Curtiss, quoted in: The Free Man's Almanac.

UNIONS: Today, however, the unions have become so strong that they have the power to starve the lot of us unless we agree to their demands, however outrageous we deem those demands.” - Henry Meulen, "THE INDIVIDUALIST", June 78, p.34.

UNIONS: Trade Unionism had abandoned all revolutionary claims and was preparing for the structure of reformist societies among the "aristocrats" of labor, skilled craftsmen with a rooted distrust of their unskilled comrades, and no vision whatever of class solidarity." - Ivor Brown, English Political Theory, Methuen, London, 1920, 118. - No great loss, either. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Trade unionism, of course, is not to be condemned merely because it is based on selfishness. What makes it dangerous is that in its modern form it has become flavoured with the Socialistic longing for the transmutation of private capital. What makes it harmful is that it aims at collective success through individual demoralization. It is not possible for any human institution to be beneficial in operation, which climbs to power by the degradation of its own supporters.” - Benjamin Taylor, Nineteenth-century Opinion, (A Study in Trade Unionism, April 1898.), p.216/7.

UNIONS: Trade unionism: The Capitalism of the Proletariat.” – George Bernard Shaw. – Yes, if one understands under capitalism numerous legalized privileges and monopolies. In reality, they and business as usual, working hand in hand  with governments, are the opposite of genuine free enterprise, free trade and laissez-faire and proprietary capitalism. – JZ, 25. 3.84. – Moreover, the free enterprise capitalism of the few has still to be turned into a capitalism of the many, embracing, ideally, all employees of an enterprise as shareholders, partners or cooperators. – JZ, 9.8.08. – Max Borders, yesterday, pointed out to me the existence of the Self Management Institute, and said that someone there would have compiled a long list of self-management enterprise and he is trying to get it for me. I tried a Google search of this institute and got over 74 million search results. I browsed quickly through the first few pages and they pointed out numerous such enterprises. That made my day, At least many of my offspring will not have to work under bosses and their hierarchies. But we still need the same kind of development when it comes to political, economic and social systems for whole countries, so far still under statism and territorialism, with their monopolism, collectivism, coercion, numerous economic crises. Impoverishment, inflations, deflations, stagflations, violent revolutions, civil wars and international wars – because all the larger ones of them tend to be Warfare States. – JZ, 27.4.14. - CAPITALISM, LAISSEZ FAIRE, SELF-MANAGEMENT

UNIONS: Trade unions and their powers and legalized privileges are the inevitable consequence of the prevalence of the employer-employee relationship. Wherever, whenever and to the extent that this relationship is replaced by self-management schemes, e.g. cooperatives or partnerships, the seeming need for trade unions disappears. Quite full employment, as a result of monetary and financial freedom and of the absence of other kinds of anti-economic interventionism has the same effect. – JZ, 27.10.08. - SELF-MANAGEMENT, COOPERATIVES, ECONOMIC FREEDOM, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM.

UNIONS: Trade unions are the only means by which workmen can protect themselves from the tyranny of those who employ them. But the moment that trade unions become tyrants in their turn they are engines for evil: they have no right to prevent people from working on any terms they choose.” – Mr. Justice Lindley: Judgment in Lyons vs. Wilkins, 1896. - As for the first sentence: How could any judge by as much misjudge the real situation? As if there were no other and better employers and as if many employees did not freely change their jobs for better ones - every day. No one is prohibited from giving notice, - except convicts, conscripts and taxpayers and involuntary subjects of territorial States. – Only due to immigration restrictions can e.g. illegal immigrants be somewhat exploited. The real criminals in these cases are those who passed the laws restricting immigration. – Only through government interventionism, especially in the monetary sphere, is there any mass unemployment, which makes workers fear the loss of their jobs and thus induces them to put up with some abuses. – To do some good, trade unions should oppose immigration restrictions, monetary despotism, taxation and conscription. But, do they? - JZ, 13.8.08. - How much economic knowledge and awareness of genuine individual rights and liberties can one expect from current territorial judges, legislators, politicians. lawyers and trade unionists, if any at all? - JZ, 31.3.11, 27.4.14. 

UNIONS: Trade unions cause disruption in almost every western nation - because they have been granted special privileges, which set them apart from other people or associations. The solution is not more special treatment; it is the elimination of privilege.” - Sudha Shenoy, "ON LIBERTY", 9/79.

UNIONS: Trades Unions are often worked by unscrupulous agitators, whose minds are more occupied with their own personal interests than with the good of the workman.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.178.

UNIONS: Trades Unions intensify the antagonism between rich and poor, increase the difficulty of the social problem by rousing the hostility of the masters and, by trying to sell the labor of the men wholesale, do not get the best terms for it.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p.178.

UNIONS: Trades Unions reduce the skilled workmen to the level of the unskilled, and really constitute a despotism of ignorance and inefficiency over intelligence and skill.” - Teach Yourself Books: The Speaker & Debater, p. 178.

UNIONS: True, it is said that in union there is strength, but what does this prove? It applies to evil-doing as well as good.” – L. Labadie, What Is Man's Destiny? -  One might as well say that a strong robber gang is a good thing. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Tyranny of labor is no better than tyranny of military or industry.” - Dagobert D. Runes, A Book of Contemplation, p.77.

UNIONS: union activity and wage legislation harms the old, the very young and the unskilled, by forcing them out of the labour market. Union activity also harms the best workers in any occupation, because with award wages there is a tendency to pay employees in accordance with the award rather than in accordance with their work. This same union activity harms the unemployed, because it prevents them from taking the jobs of strikers, and from taking jobs at lower wages.” - John Singleton with Bob Howard: “Rip van Australia”, p.258.

UNIONS: Union activity has become political. In particular, communist and socialist union leaders are using rank and file unionist as cannot fodder in their efforts to bring about their communist and socialist totalitarian utopias. It is at least consistent that they have chosen to use totalitarian means to achieve their totalitarian goals.” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.259. – Nowadays they have also incomes as managers of many superannuation funds and access to these funds. When will their abuses in that field become sufficiently revealed? – JZ, 8.8.08.

UNIONS: Union demands are limited by the amount of money the employers can pay, which in turn is limited by the quantity of money the consumers have to spend. We see, then, that the chief factor in the whole affair is how much money the consumers have, which in turn is determined by how much money exists in the economy.” – Roger McBride, A New Dawn, p.24. - To assume that "money" can only be a fixed quantity is as wrong as to assume that only a fixed quantity of labor exists and only a fixed quantity of productive capital or of knowledge and skills can be achieved. - Under perfect clearing no money would be needed at all, just acceptable value standards would be sufficient. - JZ, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Union demands beyond the market's real wage level stifle the production upon which future raises depend, increase unemployment and price marginal workers out of the market altogether.” - Joan Wilke, THE FREEMAN, 12/75.

UNIONS: Union functionaries are ".. .power-fascinated labor czars, building up structures of despotism over the working classes."- Dagobert D. Runes, Handbook of Reason, p.63.

UNIONS: Union leaders argue that their struggle for higher wages is against the employer and that their major weapon in that struggle is the strike. They’re wrong on both counts. By itself, the strike is not much of a weapon. Instead, union power lies in its ability to prevent employers from hiring other workers in their places. Otherwise, a strike is little more than a mass resignation. … The real struggle of labor unions is against other workers. Their ability to demand wages that may exceed their productivity depends on their ability to prevent employers from hiring replacements.” - Walter E. Williams, More Liberty Means Less Government. Our Founders Knew This Well, Hoover Institution Press, 1999, – p.249. & STRIKES,

UNIONS: Union members who force higher wages not only artificially increase their own cost of living, but subsidize the foreign competition they complain about, pushing the price for the product of their labor out of market range.” - Joan Marie Leonard, THE FREEMAN, 9/76.

UNIONS: Union membership in the private sector is soon down to 25 %. In the USA it is already down to 12 to 15 %.” – Australian radio news of 9.2.95. – Then I was hoping that by 2000 it would be down to Zero! – What are the current rates? And how does the rate of union membership in the diverse countries relate to their standard of living? - JZ, 13.8.08. - 18% Percentage of Australian workers who were trade union members in their main job in August last year. – 43%  Percentage of male workers in 1992 who were union members in their main job. – 6.6 million Number of workers in Australia who have never been a trade union member. – Jessica Irvine, in her “Index”, THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, Weekend edition, May 26/27, 12, News Review 3, giving as source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Employee Earnings, Benefits and Trade Union Membership, August 2011. - POSITIVE SIGNS OF THE TIMES

UNIONS: Union mentality: No matter how slow and bad we work, how much we cheat and steal, how often we play sick or refuse to work, how much we try to monopolize our jobs and force our wages up beyond their market rates and no matter how many fringe benefits we extort from the employer, out of the huge profits that he is supposed to make out of us, nevertheless, and never minding that he is merely acting as an agent for the consumers and investors and is hugely burdened by taxes and capital debts, unionists will always and wrongly assume that he will be be able to pay us even more, rather than dismissing us and closing down his enterprise. – JZ, 22.9.95, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Union principle: Not to work with a scab. - In a market situation everybody works with and exchanges with everybody, anyhow, although not necessarily in the same jobs. – JZ, 11.3.84. - SCABS

UNIONS: Union rates are fixed at a level at which a considerable part of available manpower remains unemployed. Mass unemployment is not proof of the failure of capitalism, but the proof of the failure of traditional union methods.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.13. - It is still much more so due to an exclusive and forced currency and to financial despotism, especially taxation. - Apparently, Mises did not include full monetary and financial freedom in his planning for freedom. – His hypothesis on unemployment is as flawed as his crisis hypothesis, which is about one among 150 different ones. Have all of them as yet been thoroughly examined and criticized, when necessary? - JZ, 31.3.11. – UNEMPLOYMENT, CRISIS HYPOTHESES

UNIONS: Unionism is an unenlightened, Catholic and intolerant creed, full of unproven and un-provable dogmas. It arose out of the economically far from ideal employer-employee relationship. This has fittingly been called a relationship of "organized antagonism". (Hyacinthe Dubreuil) It ought to be replaced by various cooperatives, partnerships and independent contracting arrangements, all freely developed and experimented with on a really free labor market. Such approach is the only one, which has a chance to once and for all settle the labor question, the main "social problem" and what has been attacked as "capitalism" - which is really the reverse of the capitalist ideal. - JZ, 29.2.84, 1.3.84. – Luckily, by now much research is being done in this sphere, as I found out only yesterday, thanks to Max Borders, who pointed out the Self Management Institute to me – on which Google supplied me with more than 74 million search results, many of them describing such industrial systems in action. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: unionism is merely another kind of political activity. In this regard Berkman wrote: “… the strength of the worker is not in the union meeting-hall; it is in the shop and factory, in the mill and mine. It is there that he must organize; there on the job. There he knows what he wants, what his needs are, and it is there that he must concentrate his efforts and his will. Every shop and factory should have its special committee to attend to the wants and requirements of the men, not leaders, but members of the rank and file, from the bench and furnace, to look after the demands and complaints of their fellow employees. Such a committee, being on the spot and constantly under the direction and supervision of the workers, wields no power: it merely carries out instructions. Its members are recalled at will and others selected in their place, according to the need of the moment and the ability required for the task in hand. It is the workers who decide the matters at issue and carry their decisions out through the shop committees.” - W. O. Reichert, in Partisans of Freedom, quoting Alexander Berkman. – Too many anarchists have not extended their anarchism to the self-management and capital ownership options at their work places, to the great variety of self-management options, which would make trade unions superfluous. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Unionism means industrial warfare - and like all warfare, it is mainly destructive. - JZ 29.2.84. – Unionists and thoughtless journalists call strikes “industrial warfare” – I rather call them: “anti-industrial warfare”. – JZ, 13.10.8.

UNIONS: Unionism seldom, if ever, uses such power as it has to insure (*) better work; almost always it devotes a large part of that power to safeguarding bad work.” – H. L. Mencken, Prejudices, Third Series, 1922, p.4. - (*) ensure? assure? – JZ - QUALITY CONTROL, WORK DISCIPLINE, WASTAGE, NEGLIGENCE

UNIONS: unionism’s grab-what-you-can-and-to-hell-with-everyone-else attitude. – Larry Gambone, ANY TIME NOW, Winter 98.

UNIONS: Unionists and strikers, you act out your popular errors and prejudices, not sound economic vies and you do this, unfortunately, also at my expense. - JZ, 20.2.84, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Unionists are licenced hold-up men. – JZ, 11.7.86.

UNIONS: Unionists are totalitarians. You can recognize them by their friends, their ideology and their methods. - JZ, 70-84.

UNIONS: Unionists do not like individual work contracts because they deprive them of power and of the pretence that the unions could provide better wages, salaries and conditions by collective bargaining. If they were quite consistent then they would threaten employers with open warfare – in the belief that with still more force they could extort still higher wages, while in reality making their struggles still more unprofitable, for both sides, by using still more coercion and production stoppages. Will they ever understand that their labor services do also have their prices, and that the best prices they could achieve for themselves, for what they have to offer in services, are the quite free prices daily settled on a quite free market? – Moreover, will they ever take note of the fact that a quite free market would also include alternative exchange media and value standards to pay their wages and salaries with, monies acceptable to both sides and not forced on anyone at a fictitious value? Apart from indexing attempts, while using only the government’s depreciating monopoly money, they never seriously deal with the money question, although money is what they work for. According to some reports, individuals in Australia, in regular employment, on individual work contracts, got by 1995 up to A$ 20,000 p.a. more than they would have got under collective “bargaining”. Surely, the trade union functionaries do not like that kind of competition, which tends to point out how useless they are. The ABC News brought only the striker’s point of view and not a single counter-argument. It is all too often as “objective”. – JZ, 16.11.95, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: Unionists generally represent the conquest and capture theory of benefits, rather than the producer's and trader's. To that extent they are atavistic throw-backs. - JZ, 9.10.82.

UNIONS: Unionists oppose earning all of their “work” incomes. They rather fight for them or extort them via monopolies, from those who really do not owe them anything but the market value of their labor input. Under the legalized labor monopolies and privileges they have achieved, it is impossible to say how much of their incomes is actually earned by them rather than extorted through their monopoly and coercive actions. – JZ, 22.4.98, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: Unionists should no more be entitled to prescribe work contracts for others than they are entitled to prescribe religious beliefs, marriages, entertainments or diets for others. - JZ 29.2.84.

UNIONS: Unionists should realize, in practice, their own constitutional clauses on voluntary membership. - JZ, 29.2.84.

UNIONS: Unionists ultimately know only one means: force. And force has never constructed anything yet, cannot help everyone and can at most benefit some looters at the expense of their victims, whose rights the looters ignore (and which the victims themselves do often not know or appreciate, either). - JZ 29.2.84, 1.3.84, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Unionists, in their irrationalities, are as unpredictable as the weather - going from "fine" to a thunderstorm in almost no time - and for no good reason at all. - JZ 30.5.79.

UNIONS: Unionists, like politicians, bureaucrats, lawyers and preachers, are, as a rule, counter-productive. – JZ, 9.1.98.

UNIONS: Unionists, mostly, are still so ignorant that they want to settle wages by legislation, court decision or even by illegal threats, assaults, sabotage, arson and killings. – JZ, 6.11.91. – TREATMENT OF SCABS

UNIONS: unions ... consider it a crime for anyone ... to work at less than what they think the individual should work for, even if an individual would love to work for lower wages.” - Robert B. Pierce in "ANALOG", 9/73.

UNIONS: unions acquired the idea that their main function was to raise costs rather than to lower them.” - Sylvester Petro, Labor-Service Agencies in a Free Society: Champions of Freedom, p.107.

UNIONS: unions and all other organizations should not be able to use methods which transgress the rights of others.” – Workers Party, Economic Policy Statement, 12/75.

UNIONS: Unions and Strikes: Every rational being has the right to form and to join trade unions and other professional associations of his choice and may refuse to join them. He has the right to leave them any time and to contract deviations from trade union agreements for himself. - Every rational being has the right but not the duty to participate in a rightful strike, a strike which affects only the employer and not innocent outsiders, as a strike of post-, railway workers, and bank employees inevitably would. - Comment: No union may monopolize any kind of activity for its members. The right to strike does not permit to hinder somebody who wants to go on working or who wants to take over a job which the striking men think is not good enough for them. It does not permit to break an employment contract at random. A strike is, therefore, permissible only after notice has been duly given. - The right to strike does not infringe in the least the corresponding right of employers to give notice to employees. - Once rights 27, 29, 32-34 are realized, unions and strikes will probably be found superfluous. - From the Human Rights declaration in "PEACE PLANS" No.4. (Online at - also there, in the anthology of over 130 private human rights drafts, from PEACE PLANS 589/590, in the digitized and supplemented edition. - JZ, 31.3.11. -

UNIONS: Unions are good for producing shortages. - JZ 11/78.

UNIONS: Unions are no substitute for self-management. – JZ, 2.4.91.

UNIONS: unions are nothing at all if they are not highly professional strike agencies. Encourage unionization and you encourage strikes. It is as simple as that.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 8/75.

UNIONS: Unions are now like a well-established mafia family. Most just pay and obey them out of fear. - JZ 26.5.76. - Less than 3% vote in union elections! - Noel Dennett, 26.5.76.

UNIONS: Unions are organizations to supply disservices to the public - and even to their own members - with the consent or tolerantion of both types of victims. - JZ, 11.6.79, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Unions are the creation of lousy management.” - Dave Locke, quoted in DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIP 13. - Every management of people that is imposed, however temporarily, leads inevitably to contrary interests of the managed and the managers and thus to degrees of industrial warfare. To that extent unions are the creation of "management" of human labor. Most unionists consider a more or less separate and imposed management as a necessity, although in an adversary role. It is, indeed, a necessity for their continued existence, in the same way as the war hawks of one nation need the war hawks of the other nation. - JZ 1.3.84. – Even the most polite and efficient employer, practising nothing but the best free market principles, would today not always get the approval of the union members among his employees. – JZ, 13.10.08, 31.3.11. – The organized antagonism of this relationship remains: The employer wants the highest output for the least wages while the employee wants the highest wage for the least labor. - JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Unions are the ultimate weapon for destroying otherwise invulnerable, self-financing rivals. Further, downward flexibility of wages and prices which obtains without widespread unionization, would increase the ability of the economy to survive ... during the economic crises.” - From: "The Occult Technology of Power." - Without such and many other anti-economic interventions, especially monetary and financial despotism, economic crises would and could, probably, not occur at all. - JZ, 31.3.11. – Apart from those crises created through natural catastrophes. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: unions are unnecessary, and even dangerous, ... their demands are ruining the productive power of the country.” … - Henry Meulen, The Individualist, 12/77, p.66.

UNIONS: Unions are usually defended on the basis of freedom of association ... the right to join together for bargaining. - Actually, unions are in violation of other's rights to freely associate. And compulsory arbitration is no bargain.” - Joan Wilke, THE FREEMAN, Dec. 75.

UNIONS: Unions divide and, as monopolistic coercers, exploit and tax whole nations. They wage even a kind of anti-industrial war against them. They are not there to ultimately serve the consumers but, rather, to frustrate and exploit them. Thereby the numerous union members do also mutually exploit themselves to the extent that all of them are also consumers. – JZ, 9.1.98, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Unions don't increase the general well-being any more than diplomacy and war do. - But free contracts, free exchanges, like e.g. Free Trade, do increase wealth. - However, they are restricted by unions. - JZ 75, 84, 31.3.11.

UNIONS: Unions have existed for many decades and still failed to educate themselves, their functionaries and their ordinary members, sufficiently. Instead, they preach and act upon hundreds of long refuted errors, prejudices and myths. – JZ, 18.4.98.

UNIONS: Unions have nothing to offer except illusions, losses and battle excitement.” – JZ, 22.5.92. – Apart from monopolistic gains at the expense of others. – JZ, 26.10.08.

UNIONS: Unions often stop work - and thus increase poverty. - JZ, 31.8.79.

UNIONS: Unions reduce prosperity through class warfare. They are quite unsuitable organizations for the increase of prosperity through freedom in production and exchange. They would rather monopolize and restrict both as much as they can, with their usual ignorance, errors, prejudices and short-sightedness. – JZ, 16.8.89, 12.8.08.

UNIONS: Unions reduce real wages.” - Henry Hazlitt. The Conquest of Poverty, Arlington House.

UNIONS: Unions will become a relic of the past. They try to defy the laws of economics and have already priced themselves out of business – the textile workers, steel-workers, auto-workers, all of them. (*) We live in a global market, and when unions try to impose a higher- than- market wage, they cause production to shift to places like Mexico, Singapore, and South Korea. There are half as many American steelworkers today as there were seven years ago. With the teamsters, finally people said “enough is enough”, and we deregulated trucking. The market place sets values – the value of capital, labor, any economic input – and unless you have government-enforced monopoly distortion, the market prevails.” – David Stockman, OMNI, Sept. 86, p.115. - (*) In West-Berlin, in my time there, to 1959, the plasterers for large external brickwork plastering jobs did this, largely, to themselves. Their employers preferred to import expensive automatic machinery for this purpose. There I also met the last orthopedic shoe-maker in Berlin. The employers had, finally, simply subdivided their special jobs so extensively that even unskilled laborers could do them. Many printers have also put themselves out of business and so have proof-readers to a large extent, been replaced by automatic spelling checkers, etc. and middle-level managers are largely replaced now by computer programs. OMNI, probably, fell also victim to such developments. – JZ, 12.8.08.

UNIONS: Unions with compulsory membership, legal privileges and even private taxation powers – are to be distinguished from those with voluntary members only, voluntary contributions and a tolerant attitude towards dissenters, non-strikers or “scabs”. – JZ, 16.10.97.

UNIONS: Unions, having priced themselves out of the market, self-righteously command the government to inflate in order to close the 'demand gap1. Money depreciates, and it's on again.” – Prof. Lauchlan Chipman, QUADRANT, A/76.

UNIONS: Unions, the coercive or monopolistic ones, i.e. almost all of them, deny laborers, clerks and often even professionals one of their few remaining liberties, namely, freedom of contract regarding their own work, work-conditions and pay. – JZ, 3.7.87, 12.8.08.

UNIONS: very many would opt out if union membership were truly voluntary.” - Arthur Shenfield, 1985: An Escape from Orwell's 1984, p.37. - End conscription into unions! – JZ, n.d. – COMPULSORY UNIONISM

UNIONS: Voluntary trade unionism could easily lead to leaders with no members to lead; that is why they seek state compulsion.” - Dr. H. L. Soper, LIBERTARIAN DIGEST, Nov./Dec.81.

UNIONS: Wages have not risen because of trade unionism, and would probably have been higher without it.” - Benjamin Taylor,NINETEENTH-CENTURY OPINION, A Study in Trade Unionism, April 1898, p.215.

UNIONS: We are very good at stopping what we do not like, but not at starting anything.” – Len Murray, in 1976. – Quoted by Robert Taylor, The Fifth Estate, 1978. – Anything but trouble! – JZ, 13.8.08.

UNIONS: We have no legislation to eliminate business monopolies - but the community has no protection whatsoever from the much more powerful monopoly of the unions.” - George Hardy, The Doom of the Welfare Society, p.67/8.

UNIONS: we have the peculiar situation of the government first building up unions and then howling for restrictions against their power.” – Murray N. Rothbard, For a New Liberty, p.93.

UNIONS: Wharfies, an Australian term for harbor or dock workers, loading and unloading ships, had for a long time monopolized their jobs and extorted about double as much as their work would have been worth under free market conditions and free work contracts. By 1998 they earned e.g. $ 60 000 to 100 000 instead of about 30,000 to 50 000. – The difference mounts up over 10 years to $ 300,000 to $ 500,000 and over 40 years to $ 1.2 million to $ 2 million per head. Consumers had to pay correspondingly higher prices. I do not know to what extent their privileges still remain. Perhaps containerization has largely done away with them. – JZ, 13.7.08. - To the extent that their "industrial actions" did replace them by "containerization", they may actually have done a service to consumers. - JZ, 31.3.11. - LONGSHOREMEN

UNIONS: What about unions? Won't they protect us? Aren't they for workers' control? No, they are essentially for the control of workers.” - David de Leon in H. J. Ehrlich et al, Reinventing Anarchy, p.310. 

UNIONS: What makes you believe a job needs “defending”, as if it were a personal property instead of a mutual convenience relationship? Why do you hold that the right to give notice, i.e. to permanently “strike” against a certain employer, isn’t a sufficient “defence” or self-help option? – JZ, n.d. – Alas the existence of unemployment under monetary despotism does not make people question monetary despotism but rather induces them to try to share out the jobs remaining under this system, in a way that they consider to be fair to themselves – without regard to the rights of unemployed others, who would gladly work for less. As Ulrich von Beckerath often pointed out: Whoever would succeed in explaining, quite convincingly, the main cause of and cure for involuntary unemployment, and this on a single page – could bring about the greatest social, economic, political and even military revolution ever. – How many thousand attempts would this objective be worth? Could the aim be reached via an international prize competition? If I remember right, e.g. margarine was invented as a result of a prize competition organized by Napoleon I, with a reward of 50,000 Francs, while France was under the then sound silver standard that he helped to introduce and which may have contributed much to his popularity, in spite of his squandering of the lives of Frenchmen and of other "nations". – JZ, 12.8.08, 31.3.11. – Q.

UNIONS: What the worker gained from labor legislation and union wages was absorbed by higher prices.” – Ludwig von Mises, Omnipotent Government, p.77.

UNIONS: What’s evil about the labor unions is that they are efforts to impose tribalism and stasis … and cartel capitalism is the natural ally of tribal labor.” – John W. Campbell in: The John W. Campbell Letters, vol. 1, 1985, editors: Perry A. Chapdelaine, Sr., et al., AC Projects Inc., ISBN 0-931150-16-7, p. 399. - Professional associations and associations of manufacturers are also mostly tribalists or barbarians, seeking to establish and maintain monopolies. – JZ, 28.9.07. - & CARTEL CAPITALISM OR MONOPOLY CAPITALISM

UNIONS: Whatever true coercive power unions may be able to wield over employers is a consequence of this primary power of coercing other workers; the coercion of employers would lose most of its objectionable character if unions were deprived of this power to exact unwilling support.” – F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty – Union Coercion and Wages.

UNIONS: When job preservation comes in at the door, trade-union solidarity goes out of the window. No industrial disputes are more bitterly and stubbornly contested than demarcation disputes; Unions will fight one another for members and jobs harder than they will fight the bosses.” - SUN-HERALD, 29.2.76. - DEMARCATION DISPUTES

UNIONS: When one tries to talk sense with trade unionists on economic subjects, they are either indifferent or tend to show a very thick skin, even an immunity to arguments or simply break off the discussion. But whenever one offends against their unionist religion, e.g. as a scab, their ire is up and some, in their rage, are liable to resort to violence. - JZ, 1.3.84.

UNIONS: When resorted to for mutual aid, combination has proved to be a valuable instrument of civilization. But the union must be for a definite purpose and not an excuse for shirking responsibility. There is nothing inherently wrong in mere combination. Union may become a kind of fetish in whose name the worst abuses and most vicious tyrannies are meekly borne ... the superstition which exalts and sanctifies concerted action whether right or wrong.” - William Bailie. Josiah Warren, p.79.

UNIONS: wherever a union makes a gain by a strike or strike threat, it makes it by forcibly excluding other workers from taking the jobs that the strikers have abandoned. The union always makes its gains at the expense of these excluded workers.” – Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty, p.133. - They do this often at the expense of members of other union, of those who are not members of any union and even at the expense of their own members. There were cases, where the forfeited wages, invested at interest, could have gained the members more than the wage increments they did receive. Moreover, not all strikes succeed in achieving more than mere nominal wage increases in inflated paper money - which may only catch up to the purchasing power obtained before - or may actually remain below it. However, can one rationally talk, with the average unionist, about accepting an alternative and honest standard of value in wage agreements, and alternative means of payment, which are not legal tender and thus are not inflatable? They are not interested in the real and important rights of workers and in real and important options for improving their conditions. Like sectarians, they have their faith and stick with it - regardless of all evidence to the contrary. - JZ 1.3.84.

UNIONS: Which, if any, correct economic opinions have unions taught their members over the last 100 years? Have unionists learnt anything at all about economics during that period? – JZ, 25.2.84, 9.8.08. – Their worst 100 economic errors and prejudices should be assembled in a little book and confronted with their best refutations. – But could one get them to read and to understand it? – At least their critics could make good use of such a book. – JZ, 9.8.08.

UNIONS: Who are the largest oppressors of voluntary unionism? The Soviets and Red China, as far as I know. What did Australian unionists ever do against these oppressors? Nothing as far as I know. – JZ, 2.3.84.

UNIONS: Why can't most unionists see through the fallacies of protectionism, externally and internally, why, in other words, to they mismanage the country, as far as their influence goes? – JZ, n.d., - Q.

UNIONS: Why haven't the unionists learned as yet that no country can be "run", neither by a divine king, nor by a dictator, nor by a democratically elected prime minister, nor by a group of union functionaries? - How could a handful of people possibly run the affairs of all others successfully? Anyone who presumes he could - must be severely misinformed or mentally defective! Any country can only be mis-run or mismanaged in this way. - JZ, 1.3.84. - TERRITORIALISM, COMPULSION

UNIONS: Why should I have to be a member of a union or subjected to its decisions - when I don't have to be a member of a sect, club or choir - and subjected to their rules? - JZ, 29.2.84. – Q. – Most people depend for their living expenditures upon their wages or salaries. Thus, one they see these in any way threatened, they get fearful, angry and thus often prohibitive and violent. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Why should the unions or, for that matter, the government run Australia? Why shouldn't every Australian be free to run his own life and do what he likes with whatever he owns, and together with whoever agrees with him? - JZ, 75. - VOLUNTARISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, PERSONAL LAW, SELF-MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

UNIONS: With all their faults, trade-unions have done more for humanity than any other organization of men that ever existed. They have done more for decency, for honesty, for education, for the betterment of the race, for the developing of character in man, than any other association of men.” – Clarence S. Darrow, in THE RAILROAD TRAINMAN, November 1909. - Are any of these assertions correct or was he here just another criminal lawyer speaking up in defence of criminals with victims, declaring them to be really good boys or mere victims or products of society? – I hold that he could not have been more wrong on this subject. – Moreover, they could certainly not have done this with their many faults, errors, prejudices and false assumptions and conclusions - which he failed to enumerate. - JZ, 13.8.08. –

UNIONS: Without well organized and trained and armed local militias for the protection of individual human rights, complete freedom in labor contracts, in production and exchange of goods and services, can probably neither be achieved nor long maintained - against the popular errors, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions and coercive actions of unionists, politicians, bureaucrats and voters. - JZ, 1.3.84, 27.4.14. - MILITIAS, INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, LEGISLAITION, PREJUDICES, LAWS, POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRACY

UNIONS: worker associations have developed into the socially abusive, extortionist, anti-labor, and anti-consumer agencies that we know of as trade unions.” - Sylvester Petro, Labor-Service Agencies in a Free Society: Champions of Freedom, p.97.

UNIONS: workers conscripted into labor unions ... “ – William F. Buckley: Up from Liberalism, p.181. – COMPULSORY UNIONISM

UNIONS: Workers of the world, secede from you unions and all other coercive bodies. You have only their chains to lose. - JZ, 1.3.84.

UNIONS: Workers who use their organized power to frustrate production, thus preventing the saving for new tools - new capital - tend to cut off their only avenue to progress.” - Quoted in Leonard E. Read, editor, The Free Man's Almanac.

UNIONS: Yes, indeed, union leaders, like all legally sheltered monopolists, have much to fear from the unhampered market economy.” – Sylvester Petro, Unemployment, Unions and Inflation, THE FREEMAN, July 76, p.398/99. – However, their voluntary & involuntary members would benefit from them. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNIONS: Yet if I am to explain convincingly how trade unions have come to be anti-labor and anti-consumer, and if I am to describe how it may be possible for worker associations to become at once pro-labor and pro-consumer, I must expound the difference between the way of command and the way of freedom. For on this subject, despite its great literature, dispute and misunderstanding continue to prevail.” - Sylvester Petro, Labor-Service Agencies in a Free Society: Champions of Freedom, p.94.

UNIONS: Yet the blunt truth is that labor unions cannot raise the real wages of all workers. We may go further: the actual policies that labor unions have systematically followed from the beginning of their existence, have in fact reduced the real wages of the workers as a whole below what they would otherwise have been. Labor unions are today the chief anti-labor force.” - Henry Hazlitt: The Conquest of Poverty, p.131. - Underlining by me. - JZ

UNIONS: You must realize that the doctors’ union is no different from the garbage collectors’ union; a union by any other name smells the same.” – Angus Black, A New Radical’s Guide to Economic Reality, p.98.

UNIONS: Your unionism is a religion for you, whether you recognize this or not. It is a young enough religion to be still very ignorant, prejudiced, dogmatic, intolerant and even violent towards dissenters and non-conformists. Try to ask yourself, objectively: Why should this particular religion enjoy any privileges and powers beyond those of other religious sects or churches? - JZ 10.3.80, 31.3.11. – Q.

UNIQUENESS: HERDED OR HEADED ONE’S OWN WAY? Let each pursue his creative uniqueness, rather than force him into a common mold.” – Leonard E. Read, Comes the Dawn, in summing up chapter XI.

UNIQUENESS: recognition that no one else is like oneself gives at once a unique value to the individual and at the same time demands that every individual recognize the uniqueness of others.” – Quoted by Leonard E. Read in NOTES FROM FEE, 11/76. – “… He at least acknowledges that “no one else is like oneself”, and asks “that every individual recognize the uniqueness of others.” - Leonard E. Read in NOTES FROM FEE, 11/76. – Each person is unique. - Leonard E. Read in Let Freedom Reign, p.36. - Everyone else is equally unique in some way at least. I look for those who are uniquely unique in their commitment to freedom, peace and justice. – Then they would become tolerant, even towards those, who wish to act quite differently, at their own expense and risk, together with other volunteers and under full exterritorial autonomy. - JZ, 21.11.82, 9.8.08, 31.3.11. – INDIVIDUALISM, INEQUALITY, ALL PEOPLE ARE DIFFERENT. NO TWO PEOPLE ARE QUITE ALIKE, PERSONAL LAW FOR ALL VIA INDIDUAL CHOICE, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, VOLUNTARISM

UNIQUENESS: To realize that one is unique in all creation – what a privilege! – Pablo Casals, quoted in READER’S DIGEST, 6/76. – If all the others are also unique then this is hardly a privilege. We have this in common with all idiots and all animals. – JZ, 26.10.08.

UNIQUENESS: When we discover that each individual is unique – not remotely like any other – each person being the best judge of the field in which his growth is most promising, we will all do our best to see that freedom of choice is maximized – liberty for one and all!” – Leonard E. Read, How Do We Know? p.112. – CHOICE, FREEDOM OF CHOICE, MAN, INDIVIDUALISM, MAN, INEQUALITY OF MAN VS. EQUALITY NOTIONS & EGALITARIANISM, THAT ARE NOT CONFINED TO EQUAL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

UNITARIANISM: A Unitarian is a religious person whose ethic derives primarily from that of Jesus, who believes in one God – not the Trinity – and whose philosophy of faith and life is founded upon the principles of liberty, tolerance and fellowship. - Unitarians are firm believers in the “Church Universal”. They believe that this church includes all men and women of every race, color and creed, who seek God and worship him through service to their fellow men.” – Karl M. Chworowsky, LOOK, March 8, 1955, quoted in Seldes. - One serves other men best by engaging with them in voluntary free-market relationships, exchanging with them, under monetary and financial freedom, whatever one has to offer them and they to oneself. Charity as well as tribute levies do uneconomically interfere with such free exchanges. - JZ, 31.3.11.


UNITY: a state of general discord and mutual bullshitting.” – L. A. Rollins, Lucifer’s Lexicon, quoted in REASON, 1/81. – Just consider the fighting for power between the different parties and the faction fighting within each party. Most people are so disgusted with them that they do not join any of them. – Unity is usually the same kind of fiction that illustrates political states by a single color on maps of political States. – Warfare has led to extremes by taking such illustrations serious and also the mere names given to supposedly united countries and their whole populations, just because they have become subjugated to and taxed by a single all-over government. – The map is not the territory. The territory is not the people. And the population does not constitute one people. – It is made up of unique individuals, split into thousands of different voluntary groups and relationships. Any seeming “unity” between them is either enforced or merely pretended or assumed. – Language unity? While there are official languages, there are also often numerous other languages and dialects in use. - JZ, 26.10.08. – The supposed unity between territorial governments and whole populations, combined with collective responsibility notions and territorial statism has led to stockpiles of nuclear mass murder devices, which sooner or later are going to be used, accidentally or intentionally, until this whole Warfare State system does become dissolved into associations, societies, communities and governance systems of volunteers. – JZ, 27.4.14. - TERRITORIALISM, PEOPLES, NATIONS, STATISM

UNITY: A territorially enforced and monopolistic “unity” or “unification” of any diversified population (are there any others left?) assures numerous wrongs and disservices rather than rights, services and liberties. – JZ, n.d. & 14.2.12. – TERRITORIALISM, COUNTRIES, GOVERNMENTS, PEOPLES, NATIONS, STATES, UNIFORMITY, NATIONALISM, STATISM, COMPULSION

UNITY: After all, as the Civil War anarchist Lysander Spooner put it, ‘men are dunces for uniting to sustain any government’ (*) to begin with. Being Dunces they allow their servility to the mundane, to ambition and greed, to security and short-run gain, to undo the revolution. They are less interested in abolishing mastery than in becoming masters. They will settle for a hot meal, a secure job, a vote at the polls, a ‘Mr.’ before their names. The higher things escape them.” – Benjamin R. Barber, Superman and Common Man, p. 26. – (*) Krimerman & Perry, on Anarchism, p.244, quoting from “No Treason”. – MAN, PEOPLE, STATISM

UNITY: American politics is engaged in an attempt to “unify” (the euphemism used by all who would repress, level, regiment, standardize) what is not naturally meant to be one.” – An Arkansian in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 9/81. - TERRITORIALISM, NATION-BUILDING, REGIMENTATION, STATISM, LEGISLATION, BUREAUCRACY, CENTRALIZATION, STATISM

UNITY: An enforced territorial unity amounts to the greatest treason against individual human rights and liberties. – JZ, 8.6.91, 12.8.08. – TERRITORIALISM, POLITICS AS USUAL, TREASON, INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, STATISM


UNITY: Anyone who’s worked with a length of Scotch Tape knows the rapidity with which it can render itself useless – by getting together with itself.” – John Campbell, ASTOUNDING SF, editorial, March 54. – Imagine all bureaucracies of the world – combined into one! – JZ, n.d. - TOGETHERNESS, BROTHERHOOD, JOKES,  WORLD STATE, WORLD BUREAUCRACY

UNITY: As if it were not bad enough to have one whole territorial State involved in a depression, inflation or stagflation, a civil war or a war with another territorial State, a unified bureaucracy, majority or other territorial despotism, a nation-wide corruption and high tax burden, loss-making national “enterprises” etc. No, it has to be all of them, that have “federated”. – JZ, 20.1.90, 12.8.08. As if wrongs and mistakes had to be spread as widely as possible, without a way out for the victims, except, if they are lucky, through emigration. Usually only into a somewhat less mismanaged territory. – JZ, 12.8.08. - FEDERALISM, WORLD FEDERATION, WORLD STATE, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, EMIGRATION

UNITY: Bakunin insisted that real unity can only derive ‘from the freest development of all individuals and groups, and from a federal and absolutely voluntary alliances … of the workers’ associations in the communes and, beyond the communes, in the regions, beyond the regions, the nations.” The communes would remain absolutely autonomous.” – Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, p.628. – Did Bakunin, somewhere, demand full exterritorial autonomy – and this not only for workers associations and their communes, or was he still all too full of territorialist notions and of the supposedly ideal forms of communes that he had in mind? Was he authoritarian and territorialist enough to have become another Lenin or Stalin? I think it possible, if he had lived as long or lived later, unless he rejected territorial and “regional” rule as well. – JZ, 12.8.08. – VOLUNTARISM, AGREEMENT, CONSENT, TERRITORIALISM, EXTERRITORIALISM, FEDERALISM, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, ASSOCIATIONISM, CONTRACTARIANISM, LAISSEZ FAIRE & EXPERIEMTNAL FREEDOM & FREEDOM OF CONTRACT IN EVERY SPHERE

UNITY: Besides, unified we would make a good nuclear target.” – Tom Ligon, The Devil and the Deep Black Void, in ANALOG, Jan. 86, p.135. - Unified territories make good nuclear targets for the masses of stockpiled nuclear “weapons” and the application of the immorality, ignorance, errors and prejudices of those relatively few people who have their fingers on nuclear war buttons. And their computers are almost as likely to play up as mine. But a flaw in my system or my mistakes in handling it, cannot lead to a nuclear war. – JZ, 12.8.08. - NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, ACCIDENTAL NUCLEAR WAR

UNITY: Contrary to what people are led to think, i.e. united we stand, united we fall, it will be harder to destroy a multitude of collectives than the largest organization which centralized control.” – “Reinventing Anarchy”, p.343/44. – CENTRALIZATION, DECENTRALIZATION

UNITY: Decisive is not whether the sun does never go under in the empire of a monarch, like Spain bragged once, but what she sees in these States in her course." – G. C. Lichtenberg. - JZ tr. of: “Es kommt nicht darauf an, ob die Sonne in eines Monarchen Staaten nicht untergeht, wie sich Spanien ehedem ruehmte, sondern was sie waehrend ihres Laufes in diesen Staaten zu sehen bekommt.“ – UNIFICATION, NATIONALISM, EMPIRES, TERRITORIALISM, POWER, GOVERNMENT, RULERS, STATES

UNITY: Dictators usually claim to have united the country over which they rule. In reality they introduce a fresh and deadly cause of division – the different treatment of first-class and second-class citizens. – G. P. Gooch, Dictatorship in Theory and Practice, p.37. - The same could be said about the “democratic” but still territorial party leaders ruling at any particular time in a country. – JZ, 10.8.08. – TERRITORIALISM VS. EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY & VOLUNTARISM, PARTIES, DEMOCRACY

UNITY: Divided we stand, united we fall! – The new slogan of the “nuclear age”. – JZ, 1.9.73. – Compare: “United we fall, divided we stand.” - Randall Garrett, Fighting Division, date of writing not noted by me, p.139 in International Relations through SF, ed. by Martin Harry Greenberg and Joseph D. Olander. - Date? – Either I had kept that remark in mind or the same simple idea occurred to both of us. - NUCLEAR STRENGTH, NUCLEAR DETERRENT, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM

UNITY: Don’t unite coercively. Let them go apart. Let them go their own way. Let them have their schism, their faction, their separatism or their voluntary integration. “Let my people go!” - Let all peoples go their own way! - JZ, 8.9.75, 10.8.08. TOLERANCE, SECESSIONISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, SCHISMS, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW OPTIONS,

UNITY: E PLURIBUS UNUM” - “The fact that no religion has been able to give a satisfactory reason for the existence of evil has certainly kept human beings on their toes during the brief respites that we are allowed between those ages of faith which can always be counted upon to create that we-state which seems so much to intrigue Lessing and her woollies, a condition best described by the most sinister of all Latin tags, e pluribus unum.” - This quote is taken from an essay by Gore Vidal published on December 20, 1979, in THE NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS under the title Lessing's Science Fiction and thus does not refer to the German Gotthold-Ephraïm Lessing of the 18th century, but to the British Doris Lessing of the 20th. What's the occasion? The following! Source:

UNITY: Eggheads of the world unite. You have nothing to lose but your yolks.” – Adlai Stevenson. – JOKES.


UNITY: Gentlemen talk about the Union as if it was an end instead of a means. They talk about it as if it was the Union of these states, which alone had brought into life the principles of public and of personal liberty. Sir, they existed before, and they may survive it.” – John C. Breckenridge, Speech in the Senate, Aug. 1, 1861. – FEDERALISM, UNITED STATES

UNITY: Government by force disunites people.” – Aami Wisdore, “Free World”, p.23.


UNITY: helped to waste five or ten thousand … million dollars and a million lives, more or less, to enforce unity … and uniformity on people who objected to it; …” - Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams, 1907. - CIVIL WAR, SECESSION

UNITY: I also want unity together with all those who want unity, wherever they live on this earth. But I also want diversity – as much as it is desired by individuals. The fundamental uniting principle should be voluntarism – so that unity would serve the individuals and not hinder them in their diverse activities and aspirations. – JZ, 19.10.81. – DIVERSITY, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, COMPETING GOVERNANCE, FREE MARKET CHOICES IN EVERY SPHERE, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, SELF-OWNERSHIP, SECESSIONISM

UNITY: I have always been antagonistic to unity. Unity among weak leaders is dangerous. Unity among strong leaders is downright disastrous.” – Dr. David Cunningham, 2.7.75. – I would rather replace “among” by “under”. – JZ, 26.10.08. - LEADERSHIP

UNITY: I would rather like to see e.g. 100 different German societies, all of volunteers only, as free or as unfree as they want to be, than a single and territorially, coercively and monopolistically “unified” one, which would thus be merely a more or less despotic and territorial German State. – It might lead us into WW3. - JZ, 5.10.92, 12.8.08, 31.3.11.

UNITY: I’m all for the unity of friends, family members, collaborators, private contractors, Free Traders as well as Protectionists, all doing their own things among themselves, but not for the territorial unity of politicians and bureaucrats, doing their things at my expense in money, rights and liberties. – JZ, 29.12.90, 14.8.08.

UNITY: If all pulled in one direction, the world would keel over.” – Yiddish Proverbs (1949), ed. Hanan J. Ayalti. – Each puller does at the same time push, at least with his feet, to an equal amount of energy. – “For each action there is an equal and opposite reaction!” - JZ - JOKES,

UNITY: If I joined you I would not grow stronger, but weaker. Alone, men can become geniuses or saints. Joined together they are only mobs and armies.” – Faraday Nelson, A Song on the Rising Wind, FANTASTIC, Nov. 74. – Here he underestimated the creative power and influence of voluntary associationism, although in our daily lives we are surrounded by numerous examples of it: Almost all the goods and services we enjoy are its output. As Leonard E. Read often pointed out: No one can make a pencil. No one can make a can of beans. Both products depend upon the peaceful collaboration of thousands to millions. – No one can produce a science, or art or literature or music or technology. At most he can produce only a very small fraction of them. – But all of these activities, for their greatest creativity and productivity, require also a maximum of individual liberty and voluntarism. – JZ, 10.8.08. – INDIVIDUALISM, COMPETITION, COOPERATION, COMPETITION, INDEPENDENCE, FREEDOM, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, STRENGTH, ORGANIZATION, COLLABORATION

UNITY: In short, a states' rights movement should take the form of the secession from Washington, not from the Union. ... It would be revolutionary in character but legal in form, because the autonomy of the state governments is inherent in the Constitution. Besides, there is no way for the federal government to indict the state governments, and revolution is always legal when it is successful." - Frank Chodorov (1950) - United we fall. -; - - FREE MARKET NET NEWS 20.12.02. – Geographical or State secessionism is not enough. It must come down to individual secessionism and secessionism for groups of volunteers – under personal laws or exterritorial autonomy. – JZ, 11.1.08. - FEDERATIONS, IMPOSED VS. SECESSIONISM FOR INDIVIDUALS AS WELL AS STATES & MINORITY GROUPS, PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, POLYARCHISM

UNITY: In unity there is also weakness. For example, when thoughtless, irresponsible people band together with a madman in authority, such unity spells their destruction.” – Leonard E. Read, The Coming Aristocracy, p.81, in footnote 6. – AUTHORITY, TERRITORIALISM, STRENGTH, WEAKNESS, LEADERSHIP

UNITY: it being also certainly good and justifiable to divide for good, rather than to unite for evil.” – The English Soldier’s Standard, 1649, quoted in A. L. Morton: Freedom in Arms, p.240. – DIVISION, DECENTRALIZATION, SPLITTING UP, FRACTIONIZING, SCHISMS, SEPARATE DEVELOPMENT, SECESSIONISM, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, FREEDOM OF ACTION, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM

UNITY: Let me add a European example of the consequences of a union: in 1648 Germany and Austria consisted of 331 different kingdoms, duchies, free cities, bishoprics, independent monasteries and what not. After the “mediatization” imposed by the Congress of Vienna (1814) this number was reduced to 38 and the “Reichsgruendung” of 1871, engineered by Bismarck, made Germany (without Austria) into a complete political union. Can anyone conceive of German causing two world wars if it had still consisted of 331 virtually independent territories like in 1648? And can anybody conceive of the States of America entering in both wars if they hadn’t been the United States of America? The ultimate effect of union to America has been to move the center or oppression from London to Washington. To libertarians the emergence of the United States of Europe would not be a dream, it would be a nightmare.” – R. F. A. Vogel, Amsterdam, in LIBERTARIAN REVIEW, U.K., March 77. - EUROPEAN UNION, GERMAN UNIFICATION, USA, CENTRALIZATION, FEDERALISM, DECENTRALIZATION, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM, SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW

UNITY: Love, friendship, respect do not unite people as much as common hatred for something.“ - Anton Chekhov – Have we bothered so far, to combine the best ideals in an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties? Or tried to unite in tolerance for all tolerant actions, like panarchism recommends? Territorialism and tyranny or majority despotism do, indeed, lead to much hatred and violence. – JZ, 8.8.08. - HATE, NATIONALISM, PATRIOTISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

UNITY: National “unity” is really a cover-up for disunity. Only consistent voluntarism and full exterritorial autonomy can represent genuine forms of unity and a genuine mandate for any administration, self-government, self-determination and self-responsibility form of organization and achieve real self-reliance, independence and self-development. – JZ, 25.8.98, 12.8.08.

UNITY: No enforced unity is any rightful alternative to any form of voluntary separatism. No enforced separatism is any rightful alternative to any voluntary and individually chosen and practised form of unity. – JZ, 23.2.00. – STATISM, EXTERRITORIALISM VS. TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM VS. COMPULSION, SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM

UNITY: Nothing but what is voluntary deserves the term national. – A remark ascribed to an Australian pioneer woman, called Caroline Chisholm. (If my memory serves me right. I managed to mislay the brochure in which she was accurately quoted. Somewhere I reproduced this quote already but do not have it on hand. There are many references to her online – which I have not had the time and energy to peruse. – JZ, 28.4.09.  – Among 33,000 search results, on the first few pages, I finally found a confirmation of this quote although not yet its source: Get PDF (1761K) - Wiley Online Library -‎ - with approval Caroline Chisholm's vast generalization : “Nothing but what is voluntary is deserving the name of national.”  - That is one of the relatively few generalizations that I do like. – I remembered the meaning but not the exact wording. - JZ, 27.4.14. – NATIONALISM, VOLUNTARISM, CAROLINE CHISHOLM

UNITY: Now no one can pretend that this sacred union has really survived the War. the extraordinary contrast between the disunity with which we finish the war and the unity with which we begin it, is a disturbing thought when we recollect that the country cannot always be at war, if only because peace is necessary as a preparation for war, for the creation of things for war to destroy. It becomes still more disturbing when we add to this post-war change another even more remarkable, which will be dealt with presently: the objects for which at the beginning of a war we are ready to die – ideals like democracy, freedom from military regimentation and the suppression of military terrorism, the rights of small nations – are things about which at the end of the War we are utterly indifferent. It would seem either that these are not the things that really stirred us – that our feelings had some other unsuspected origin – or that war has destroyed our feeling for them.” - Norman Angell, Human Nature and the Peace Problem, 1925, p.57. - There existed really no comprehensive unity at the beginning of wars nor quite rightful war and peace aims only. Nowhere do most subjects get any say on such matter at all under territorial regimes. No wonder then, that there are still multiple strong disagreements - even after a war is won, among the victors as well as among the defeated peoples. If one side adopted panarchism and practised it in time and made it its only war and peace aim, if attacked, then wars caused by an aggressor against that side could be greatly shortened and much less bloody or an aggression might then even be altogether avoided and replaced by a popular revolution on the other side or a military uprising or a peaceful collapse of its territorial regime. Under panarchism even military or popular uprisings would be much less bloody, if bloody at all. - Under panarchism no borders and “united” people are to be defended but merely individual rights and liberties and the diverse uses that different people have made of these rights – for themselves and like-minded people. It would set an example that would be much more and faster “catching” than the English representative democracy was or the Swiss direct democracy, both still tied to territorialism and majority rule. – Liberating other people panarchistically, in accordance with their own preferences, rather than fighting them, would be the main aim. How difficult, wrongful and self-defeating all attempts are to impose a uniform and supposedly ideal democracy territorially upon a faction-ridden country and population - we can see presently in e.g. Afghanistan and Iraq. Fighting should occur only together with them, with all their factions against their oppressors and exploiters. Panarchists would have everywhere secret or even open and active allies and would minimize the number of their enemies. Not: “make love, rather than war!” Instead, rather, “All kinds of panarchies for both of us, rather than war or civil war, revolutions or terrorism!” Offer them genuine self-rule, in full accordance with their own ideals, however diverse, all individually chosen, under full exterritorial autonomy. This should be offered not only to your friends or sympathizers on the other side but even to your opponents and enemies, unless they are incurable territorialists, totalitarians and authoritarians, quite intolerant towards all dissenters. – For Afghanistan, a tolerant Taliban government in exile should be fully recognized for all its present voluntary followers in the USA and elsewhere and for its future voluntary followers in Afghanistan! – Not “divide and rule!” but, rather, let them divide themselves, one by one and realize among like-minded followers as many or as few liberties as they want for themselves! - JZ, 8.10.08, 31.3.11. - PANARCHISM VS. TERRITORIAL POWERS, QUITE RIGHTFUL WAR AIMS TOWARDS SECRET ALLIES & EVEN ENEMIES, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR ALL, WAR, PEACE, AFGHANISTAN, TALIBANS, TOLERANCE VS. INTOLERANCE,  POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM

UNITY: One territorial government for all people in a country means many wrongs and evils for all of its population, the voluntary as well as the involuntary victims of such a government. – JZ, 28.12.92, 31.3.11. – Only the volunteers would get what they deserve – until they become enlightened enough to secede as well. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNITY: Real unity”, he was to write at the end of his life, “was in inverse proportion to size; so, in every collectivity, organic power lost in intensity what it gains in the extension and reciprocity.” – D. E. Brogan, Proudhon, p. 64/65. - “Let us therefore postulate the following principle, which is based on fact as well as on reason: the strength of unity in any organism is in inverse ration to its size. Consequently, in all collectivities the organic force loses in intensity what it gains in size, and vice versa. …” - S. Edwards, Proudhon, p.112. – STRENGTH, SIZE, COLLECTIVISM, EFFICIENCY, BIGNESS, CENTRALIZATION, DECENTRALIZATION, OPTIMAL SIZE

UNITY: Reunite Gondwana.” - a bumper sticker mentioned by Carl Sagan, in NEWSWEEK, 5.9.77, using the name for the primordial land mass that is believed to have split up to form the earth’s present continents. – It could be used to ridicule all territorial nationalists. – JZ, 10.8.08.

UNITY: Savagery is unity. Civilization is diversity. – D.Z., 12/77 – (Well, he wrote “diversion” instead. He was only 14 then. At about that stage he realized that he had diversified into over 20 different hobbies, realized that he could not carry on with all of them and about halved them. – JZ, 10.8.08.)

UNITY: Seeing how close and how manipulated election outcomes often are (usually, in Australia) one of my kids asked me, many years ago: “Why should the 49% rule the 51% or the 51% rule the 49%, rather than the 49% rule the 49%, while the 51% rule the 51%?” – JZ, 15.3.93. – Out of the mouths of children comes, sometimes, much sense. – JZ, 12.8.08. – I do admit that many others have arrived at the same conclusion when contemplating democracies and their elections. – JZ, 27.4.14. – VOTING, DEMOCRACY, ELECTIONS, MAJORITY DESPOTISM INSTEAD OF VOLUNTARISM, ASSOCIATIONISM, CONTRACTARIANISM, META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

UNITY: Some ask why mankind in general do not compose one nation, and are not contented to speak one language, to live under the same laws and agree among themselves to have the same customs and the same worship; whilst I, seeing how contrary are their minds, their tastes and their sentiments, wonder to see even seven or eight persons living within the same walls under the same roof and making a single family.” – Jean de La Bruyére, quoted in The Free Man’s Almanac, for Sept. 30. - DIVERSITY, WORLD STATE, WORLD FEDERATION, UN, NATIONALISM, FAMILIES

UNITY: Such a working system for the universe suited a young man who had just helped to waste five or ten thousand million dollars and a million lives, more or less, to enforce unity and uniformity on people who objected to it; the idea was only too seductive in its perfection; it had the charm of art. – Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams, N.Y., Modern Library, 1931, p.224/26, quoted in “Social Darwinism in American Thought”, p.16. - UNITY THROUGH CIVIL WAR?

UNITY: Territorial collectivists are pulling in a thousand directions at once, each hindering the other - while crying “unity!” – because territorially they are all, willy-nilly tied together. Individualists, instead, advance unrestrained, in small groups of volunteers, towards any of a thousand directions, which these volunteers prefer for themselves. – Just look at the thousands of territorialist utopias the statists have produced between them. – All were imposed upon dissenters. - JZ, 11/78, 10.8.08. – PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAWS, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, POLYARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM

UNITY: That is our strength: DIVERSIFIED UNITY.” – Stated in THE CONNECTION No.? p.68, by? in the conclusion of a program of 9 strategy points. – UNITY IN DIVERSITY? TOLERANCE FOR EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS? DIVERSITY

UNITY: The possibility of diversity is much more important than unity, for it means freedom, while unity is mostly merely a false pretence and requires compulsion to achieve and maintain it. The freedom required for diversity is that of individuals – to supply or choose for themselves different societal arrangements and relationships. The West-Germans government becoming united with the East Germans under one government meant a greater territorial unity for Germans and a great improvement for most East Germans but not a sufficient or complete improvement of the political conditions in East Germany and in West Germany. The irrational form of currency unification that took place, ignoring the market’s exchange rates, brought a burden to the West, an undeserved hand-out to the East, and also much voluntary and involuntary unemployment in the East. The East Germans, even when receiving mere unemployment benefits in DM were better off than they were before, while working in East Germany for Eastern Marks and were unwilling to spend these DM for the relatively shoddy goods they had produced in East Germany. Instead, they bought largely only the West German goods and thus made themselves unemployable in the East. This case should be closely studied and published as almost a textbook example of how not to engage in a currency reform. Moreover, the introduction of or continuance merely of majoritarian democracy for both sides was very far from introducing sufficient liberty, although it brought equal democratic territorial laws to both sides. Territorial political unity does not represent full freedom and justice, as the Hitler Regime very well demonstrated and the Soviet Regime as well. – JZ, 25.9.90, 12.8.08, 31.3.11. – TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, NAZI & SOVIET REGIMES

UNITY: The union is only perfect when all the uniters are isolated.” – Emerson. – … when all the uniters have the option to separate or isolate themselves from all the other uniters. – JZ, 29.4.91. - Just like the possibility of religious schisms unites all religions on the basis of religious liberty and tolerance, even for non-believers. – JZ, 12.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, RELIGIONS TOLERANCE OR LIBERTY

UNITY: The whole is more than the sum of its parts. – Aristotle, 384-322 BC., Metaphysics. – Under territorialism and its enforced statist unity, the whole is less than the sum of its parts. Only under voluntarism and its secessionism and personal law or meta-utopia options do the creative energies of their members become sufficiently released in every sphere. – JZ, 14.4.14. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, COMPETING GOVERNANCE, PERSONAL LAW, VS. STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, ENFORCED UNITY, COMPULSORY COLLECTIVISM, NATIONALISM

UNITY: There is nothing so divisive as the State’s efforts to bring us together.” – DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIP 8, p.7. – TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, TOGETHERNESS, EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW, ONE LAW FOR ALL. – Togetherness antagonizes – unless it is voluntary. – JZ, 30.6.80. – Compare: “Fish and visitors stink after 5 days!” – Or even earlier, in many cases! – A voluntary association must be daily renewed – or daily dissolvable. - JZ, 10.8.08. – At least in cases of offences against individual rights and liberties. Otherwise one might have to give notice, contractually arranged for. But I do not think it would be necessary as if is, for important workers in private enterprises, who cannot be easily and rapidly replaced. – JZ, 27.4.14.

UNITY: Those favoring unity are always ready to wage war against secessionists. – I would agree with them if they only opposed territorial secessions and would not try to preserve territorial “integrity” by force of arms. – JZ, 9/72. – I also oppose territorial secessionists, who try to enforce their own territorial rule by force of arms against a larger territorial regime and against their own dissenting minorities. – JZ, 12.8.08. – That happened in the secession of Biafra from Nigeria. Voluntary secessionism arouses much less antagonism than territorial secessionism. It leaves to each the own preferences in this sphere. – JZ, 27.4.14. - SECESSIONISM, TERRITORIAL

UNITY: True, it is said that in union there is strength, but what does this prove? It applies to evil-doing as well as good.” – Laurance Labadie, Selected Essays, p.63. - TERRITORIALISM VS. EXTERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM

UNITY: Ulrich von Beckerath, for his friends, made some typewritten copies of some verses by Georg Herwegh, a largely forgotten German poet, which I will try to roughly translate here and then bring the German version: (1) Three Verses from “The Worst Enemy”, February 1871: “One anvil under one hammer, // United will Great-Germany stand, // The delirium of joy will be followed by a great hang-over, // so that your eyes will overflow. -  We will have the whip and the cudgel // Renew the Holy Alliance: // Europe will “enjoy” // The insolence of victorious junkers. -  Like children you let yourselves be deceived, // Until too late – alas – you will realize! - // The guard along the Rhine will not be sufficient, // The worst Enemy stands at the Spree.” … (A river going through Berlin. – JZ) -  (2) Two Verses from: To those drunk with victory, February 1871: “You imagine yourself united, because the pestilence // Of servitude has been generalized, // While every day the small remnant // Of living souls becomes diminished; // You imagine yourself to be unified because one Man, //can now decide on war and peace // And lead you to the slaughter-bench // With the command: Shut up! - Uniformity of laws is not a shield // That protects us from oppression; Only where the Right counts as Justice // will it be a blessing and make us happy // For that alone was what we strove for, // the kind of unity which // Is baptized under the name of Freedom, // While yours originated with the devil! Amen!“ – HERE IS THE GERMAN VERSION: (1) Drei Verse aus “Der Schlimmste Feind”, Februar 1871: „EIN Amboss unter EINEM Hammer, // Geeinigt wird All-Deutschland stehn, // Dem Rausche folgt ein Katzenjammer, // Dass euch die Augen uebergehn. - - - Es wird die Fuchtel mit der Knute // Die heil’ge Allianz erneun: // Europa kann am Uebermute // Siegreicher Junker sich erfreun. - Gleich Kindern lasst ihr euch betruegen, // Bis ihr zu spaet erkennt, oh weh! - // Die Wacht am Rhein wird nicht genuegen, // Der schlimmste Feind steht an der Spree.“ - (2) Zwei Verse aus „Den Siegestrunkenen“, Februar 1871: „Ihr waehnt euch einige, weil die Pest // Der Knechtschaft sich verallgemeinert, // Weil taeglich noch der kleine Rest // Lebend’ger Seelen sich verkleinert; // Ihr waehnt euch einig, weil ein Mann, // Darf ueber Krieg und Frieden schalten // Und euch zur Schlachtbank fuerhren kann // Mit der Parol’: Das Maul gehalten! - Einheit des Rechtes ist kein Schild, // Der uns bewahrt vor Unterdrueckung; // Nur wo als Recht das Rechte gilt, // Wird sie zum Segen, zur Beglueckung. // Nur diese war’s, die wir erstrebt, // Die Einheit, die man auf den Namen // Der Freiheit aus der Taufe hebt; // Doch eure stammt vom Teufel: Amen!

UNITY: Uniformity isn’t unity. – Bastiat, Baccalaureat et Socialism, p.442, vol. 4. – I had managed to put the 6 volumes of his Oeuvres Completes, of the 1862 edition, on 6 of my cheap PEACE PLANS microfiche. Unfortunately, not even one person was interested. – JZ, 12.8.08.

UNITY: Union” of interests is this root of confusion, and disintegration is a necessary step back towards individuality which is the great Divine law of order everywhere. – Josiah Warren, True Civilization, Conclusion, p.153, in point 451.

UNITY: united, though with chains.” – Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy, p.51. – STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, NATIONALISM

UNITY: Unity and diversity through freedom and justice, and free competition, e.g. free trade, free migration, free enterprise, not through a centralized common government, whether situated in Bonn or in Berlin. – JZ, 22.9.90. – The authoritarian and even totalitarian traits on both sides, in East Germany and in West Germany, both territorial, and all too monopolistic, e.g. regarding central banking and other economic interventionism, should have been done away with on both sides. – JZ, 22.9.90, on Germany’s “unification”. Economic freedom and all other liberties and human rights are much more important than territorial political unification under one government. That the usual democratic party politics was extended to East Germany was an improvement but not a sufficient liberation. – JZ, 12.8.08.

UNITY: Unity and self-sacrifice, of themselves, even when fostered by the most noble means, produce a facility for hating.  Even when men league themselves mightily together to promote tolerance and peace on earth, they are likely to be violently intolerant toward those not of a like mind.” - Eric Hoffer. - SELF-SACRIFICE, TOLERANCE, PEACE, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM

UNITY: Unity has no value by itself. It can merely be based upon errors, prejudices or coercion. Every error, each prejudice, all use of coercion against peaceful and honest dissenters can also be realized or imposed despotically by a majority or a minority upon a whole population. What is important is not more unity but more freedom and as many or as few liberties and rights as free people choose for themselves, even when they do renounce some liberties e.g. like monks and nuns renounce sexual liberties or even conventional sexual arrangements like marriage and family life. At least all adults and all responsible teenagers should be free to make use of all the individual rights and liberties they have learnt to know and to appreciate at their own expense and risk. “To each the State of his dreams!” as Kurt Zube formulated it in a chapter of his Manifesto for Freedom and Peace. - I changed this into: To each the government or non-governmental society of his or her dreams. Gian Piero de Bellis replaced the last word by “choice”. For mere dreams can be all “too far-out”. - Each thought of “one people”, “one federation”, “one government”, in the usual exclusive and enforced territorial way, even when sanctioned by a constitution, laws and jurisdiction for a whole territory and all of its population, is still all too much related to the totalitarian Nazi notion of “one people, one empire, one leader!” - What we really should insist upon is the realization of all genuine individual human rights and liberties, to the extent that we have understood and learnt to appreciate them and want to realize them for ourselves and like-minded volunteers, in exterritorially autonomous and decentralized communities of volunteers only, under personal laws, whose members, like members of churches or sects, do not possess any monopoly, except their private or communal property rights, their self-ownership, their rights and liberties, those, which they wish to practise. Among themselves they should be free to apply their personal laws and their international treaties and self-chosen international law systems. For this there are many historical precedents, however limited and localized and largely forgotten or ignored today. There are even some remnants of the old traditions, like personal law in civil relationships and the privileges of diplomats and of occupation armies. Territorialism with its national or religious intolerance has largely suppressed these ancient rights and liberties and did not allow them to become fully developed. It haseven made them, largely, forgotten, even among the modern decentralists, anarchists and libertarians. But this ancient personal law tradition, once it is fully understood, developed and applied, offers the only realistic and lasting solution to the problems posed by political despotism, economic and social interventionism, religious intolerance, fundamentalism and fanaticism, to civil wars, violent revolutions and international war threats. It offers a sound foundation for peace based on rights and liberties, for unlimited progress. prosperity and enlightenment. Parasitism, repression and subjection would thereby be confined to voluntary victims, i.e. to minorities, with the tendency to gradually disappear, like most child sacrifices did and the burning of widows and open slavery and serfdom. There are many steps, which would lead us in this direction. I listed and somewhat described them in my two peace books: & - but they do certainly not yet offer a complete program, fully developed in all details and defended against all possible and likely objections and quite correct and above criticism in every respect. - Probably only in this way can the nuclear war threat be abolished. Among the important steps towards that ideal are (1) the replacement of territorial membership by voluntary membership – through individual and group secessionism. (2) The replacement of territorial States by exterritorially autonomous communities, societies and competing governance systems of volunteers only. (3) Complete experimental freedom for all such associations in the political, economic and social spheres. (4) Thereby also and largely the replacement of compulsory taxation by voluntary taxation and subscription systems. (5) The replacement of conscripted or mercenary standing armies by voluntary citizen forces for the protection of individual rights and liberties. (6) The compilation, discussion and publication of a comprehensive declaration of all genuine individual individual rights and liberties so far discovered and properly formulated. (7) Decision on war and peace, armament and disarmament and international treaties by the diverse peoples themselves, instead of merely by a few rulers. (8) Nuclear disarmament, even unilateral, by the people themselves, since they are the main targets on all sides. (9) The replacement of monetary despotism by full monetary freedom, including free choice of value standards and free clearing. (10) A cosmopolitan “unity” through freedom, rights, voluntarism and diversity, which could very well mean a peaceful coexistence and competition between several world-wide communities, all of volunteers only, like it exists, to some extent, already for some of the world religions. Free Trade would be confined to Free Traders, Protectionism to its volunteers. (Whereby the latter would tend to disappear fast, when full economic freedom is optional.) Emigration and immigration barriers would cease with national territorial monopolies. Globalization would be an option as well as the retention of old traditions, however prejudiced and primitive, all confined to their voluntary upholders. – If you think that you can describe the “exterritorial imperative” more concisely and clearly, please, do give it a try and send me your draft. – My own knowledge, wisdom and writing skills are all too limited. - JZ, 12.8.08, – Territorial monopoly claims have only some survival value for the subsistence economy of hunters, food gatherers, nomadic herders and primitive agriculturalists - for whom not obesity but recurring starvation periods were a common experience. In the USA there lived once ca. 300 000 Red Indians, always all too close to starvation. Now there are ca. 300 million people living there at a much increased standard of living, without famines. Their standard of living would even be much higher still if their governments had not meddled so much with the economy. – And the USA agriculturalists produce food not only for all the USA population but also for much of the rest of the world, although they are, probably, down to ca. 2 to 3 % of the population. - A rough translation of some old and undated German notes, probably from 1991: - JZ, 26.10.08, 28.4.14.

UNITY: Unity is no substitute for freedom. - JZ, 9.3.01. Nation-wide fetters, all uniform, are not substitute for individual rights and liberties. Who benefits from them? - JZ, 2.2.02. - UNIFORMITY, ONE LAW FOR ALL, TERRITORIALISM, COMPULSION, COERCION, MAJORITY DESPOTISM, NATIONALISM

UNITY: Unity is not everything. Freedom is.” – Source?

UNITY: Unity is not worth fighting for – unless it is voluntary. – JZ, 19.2.73. –Unity is not worthwhile fighting for – unless it is voluntary – but diversity is, because it implies voluntarism and individualism, - JZ, 19.2.73. - No one has the right to suppress or destroy or prevent the voluntary associations of other people, who merely do their own things for or to themselves, at their own expense and risk, in any sphere selected by themselves, even when “public opinion” and the supposed “experts” are all against them. – We ought to grant experimental freedom in the economic, social and political spheres just as much as we have already realized it in the religious, scientific and technical spheres, and in the arts, for private hobbies, crafts, sports and entertainment. Do you know any sphere where it does not or could not work, under this condition? – Well, like most moral and rational people I do oppose e.g. further experiments with nuclear power production and with nuclear “weapons”, regardless of their possible and likely consequences in the long run. – JZ, 10.8.08. - DIVERSITY

UNITY: Unity is now self-destructive. We can’t face the future “united”. If we try, there will not be a future for us. - JZ, 26.1.79. – Territorially pretended or assumed “unity” is a pre-condition for the “modern” and “scientific” mass murder devices, quite wrongly called “weapons”. Without territories there are no targets for them. No motives, or finance either, for keeping them “safe” from the targeted peoples. – JZ, 10.8.08. – Who will sit in the safest shelters when it comes to the crunch? The people, who have no say on the subject or the guilty governments, who prepared and finally carried out the general nuclear holocaust? – JZ, 26.10.08. – Q., NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, MASS MURDER DEVICES, MASS DESTRUCTION DEVICES, MAD = MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION “POLICIES”

UNITY: War is, of course, the time-honoured national unifier.” – Edmund A. Opitz, in the Ideas on Liberty section of an issue of THE FREEMAN. – Date? – Are all issues of THE FREEMAN already digitized? (YES! By now! - JZ, 31.3.11.) Then further good extracts from it and dating this one should be relatively easy. –– To the extent that any texts are already online one should be able to find the source of any quotation simply by putting part of a quote into quotation marks and then searching for it online. – But I haven’t got the time and energy left to thus make up for my omissions. However, whoever is really interested in a particular quote … - JZ, 14.8.08. - WAR

UNITY: We do not have too little but too much unity. Our times are ripe not for further unification but for separation.” – Leopold Kohr, Weniger Staat, S.142. – Did he anywhere speak up or write for exterritorial autonomy? And for personal law separatism and also for international communities of volunteers only, thus united but separated from other internationals of other kinds of volunteers. I did not notice any hint of such thoughts in any of the three books of his in my possession. – He seems concerned only with territorial decentralization, and this at a time when one can find up to a million search results with Google when looking for personal law. - JZ, 13.8.08, 28.4.14. - UNIFICATION, TERRITORIALISM, DECENTRALIZATION.

UNITY: We need secessionists, dissenters, non-conformists, resistance members, rebels, freedom fighters, revolutionaries, separatists, rather than unity addicts, yes-men, conformists, obedient subjects, taxpayers and soldiers. – To each his own system, not one that is territorially imposed. - JZ, 8.1.98, 12.8.08.

UNITY: When people in voluntary organizations speak of unity they refer often already to degrees of an exterritorial autonomy of some, their own voluntary members, under their own personal rules. – Unfortunately, they neglect to ponder the expansion of this principle and practice to all of the present territorial politics and organizations, which they take all too quietly, without any protest, for granted and justified, as if they were natural or necessary or useful rather than quite wrongful and harmful. – JZ, 3/77, 12.8.08, 28.4.14.

UNITY: You don’t need it for trade, culture, civilization, technology, science, art, progress in every sphere. But you do need it for aggressive wars, oppression, also for large-scale exploitation and deception. – JZ, 9.11.93, 12.8.08. – TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, NATIONALISM, TAXATION, PUBLIC DEBTS, INFLATIONS, DEFLATIONS, ECONOMIC CRISES, MASS UNEMPLOYMENT, POVERTY PRODUCTION THROUGH WRONGFUL INTERVENTIONS

UNIVERSAL CONSCIOUSNESS: Most of what's going on in the universe isn't really any individual's concern. If he were trying to be aware of it all the time, he couldn't walk across the room without falling on his face. Besides, it would kill him.” - James H. Schmitz, Sour Note on Palayata, p.31 of ASTOUNDING SF, 11/56.

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: And the adjective “good” could be used only if one could apply the principle of universality to his maxims. If that line comes through easy to you, I am disappointed in me. I did not know what it meant. But I have learned that if I lean up against a door long enough it will cave in, and I leaned up against that door long enough to clear it of its obscurity. - Let me give you a sample maxim: I have a moral right to my life, my livelihood, my liberty. Is that good? According to Kant, that is good only if you can concede that same right to every other human being universally. Can I? Yes, I can. Therefore, it is good. – Let me reverse the maxim and watch it come through. I have a moral right to take the life, the livelihood, the liberty of another. Is that good? According to Kant, that is good only if you can rationally concede the right of murder, theft, enslavement to every other person on earth. Can I? I cannot. Therefore it is not good.” – Leonard E. Read, “The Miracle of the Market”, in “Champions of Freedom”, p.53. - The passage that I underlined is also good for my intended collection of “Redensarten” persuasive wordings, that I usually indicate, here, with RED. – JZ, 14.8.08. – Another and very similar version: “Or test what is good and just by applying the principle of universality to one’s maxims. A sample maxim: I have a moral right to my life, livelihood, liberty. Is this just? Yes, if one can concede a similar right to every other individual. I can! Try it in reverse: I have a moral right to take the life, livelihood, liberty of another. Just? Only if I can rationally concede the right of murder, theft, enslavement to everyone else. I cannot concede this right to anyone; thus, it is neither good nor just.” – Leonard Read, Who’s Listening? p. 5, referring to Kant, The Foundation of the Metaphysics of Morals. – Compare also the practical test that Kant recommends towards the end of his “Eternal Peace”, on maxims that require publicity to succeed and maxims that cannot stand publicity if they are to be successfully applied. – JZ, 14.8.08. – TOLERANCE, GOLDEN RULE, PANARCHISM, EQUAL RIGHTS, EQUAL LIBERTIES, ETHICS, MORALITY, PRINCIPLES, PUBLICITY

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: Clearly, Kant’s conception of rationality was untenable. A maxim that can be universalized is not necessarily rational. – Walter Kaufmann: Without Guilt and Justice, p.40. – That was not the only statement that Kant made on ethics or morality. It was just one of the characteristics of morality and rationality. - Compare e.g. his statement never to use men merely as a means but to consider them as ends in themselves. Also his remarks about a genuine “good will”. Also his statements for individual rights and liberties and on publicity in “Eternal Peace”. One has to consider all his statements on reason, rationality and ethics in context, rather than merely attacking him by picking one sentence as if it were the only one he ever uttered on this subject. To that extent Kaufman was guilty and did not do Kant justice. – JZ, 11.8.08. – Anyhow, Kant expressly warned against actions whose principle, if universally applied, would lead to disasters. In his “Eternal Peace” he warned against actions whose principle could not stand publicity and asserted that only those actions whose principle would stand publicity would be moral. - Have the principle of collective responsibility and actions upon it been exposed as yet to sufficient publicity to demonstrate, convincingly, their wrongness and self-defeating irrationality? – Obviously, they are still all too widely and thoughtlessly supported, at the top as well as at the bottom. The preparations for a nuclear war are a good example for this. - JZ, 26.10.08. At least by now, when I search for “collective responsibility” + criticism of it, with Google, I get 739,000 search results. Alas, it will take time before they penetrate into public opinion. – JZ, 28.4.14.

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: Here is an “I owe others” rule that appeals to me: to abstain from that type of conduct which, were it practiced by everyone, would bring everyone to ruin.” – Leonard E. Read, Talking to Myself, p.101. - RIGHTS, CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, MORALITY, ETHICS, LIBERTIES

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: I hate to universalize.” – George Smith. 9.1.91. – I would rather say that it is dangerous and often misleading to generalize. – JZ, 14.8.08.

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: Immanuel Kant had a yardstick for measuring moral heights, one that all of us might well adopt: “In every case I must so act that I can at the same time will that the maxim behind my act should become a general law.”(*) – In a word, behave in a manner that would be agreeable to you were everyone else to so behave. Here we have a rational morality. – Leonard E. Read, The Love of Liberty, p.110/11. – Would or “should” or “could” be agreeable? – JZ - (*) Immanuel Kant, Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten, I, 1785. - CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, MORALITY, ETHICS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.” – Herbert Spencer, Social Statics, 1850, Pt. iv, ch. 30, sec.16. – Nevertheless, the degrees of freedom, morality and happiness that volunteers could already realize among themselves are, firstly, worthwhile and are, secondly, the fastest possible way to almost universally achieve the same. - JZ, 6.7.82. - A close approximation to this ideal at least for dissenting minorities is possible via his “The Right to Ignore the State”, as he expounded it in the first edition of this work in chapter 19. – Each in his own and self-selected spheres and together with like-minded people, could then be as free, moral and happy as they want to be and can make themselves, largely independent of what outsiders would continue to do to themselves. – JZ, 12.11.82. – While no one can make all other people happy, like-minded and associated volunteers can at least make themselves as happy as possible by their own efforts. Should they cease doing this while there are still people around, who make each other unhappy by their beliefs and actions based upon them? The best they could do is to go on setting attractive examples which all other enlightened people would follow as fast as they can. All liberation must at least to a large degree be self-liberation, starting with self-enlightenment on self-liberation options. Those, who do not take a sufficient interest in this ought to suffer the consequences, until they do. – JZ, 28.4.14. - PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMYH, PERSONAL LAW, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, META-UTOPIA, HAPPINESS, SELF-ENLIGHTENMENT, STARTED BY SELF-INTEREST IN ALL ONE’S OWN AFFAIRS, LEADING TO SELF-LIBERATION & TO LIGHTTOWER EFFECTS & ATTRACTIONS OF THE SUCCESSUFL EXAMPLES OF SELF-LIBERATION

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: R. M. Hare, for example, offers a theory of moral universalization that is often regarded as Kantian in character. According to Hare, the fundamental principle of morality is the principle that whatever rule any agent applies to other persons he must also apply to himself, and conversely. This is, according to Hare, simply the demand that moral judgments must, as a requirement of rationality, be universalisable. - Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant, The Philosophy of Right, p.65. – GOLDEN RULE, TOLERANCE TO THE TOLERANT

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: The Golden Rule. The principle of universality; that is, avoid any action that would bring ruin and chaos if universally practised.” – Leonard E. Read, ABC’s of Freedom. – Also in: NOTES FROM FEE, 1/82. – Also in: The Path of Duty, p.37. – EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, NON-AGGRESSION, MUTUAL TOLERANCE, DOING THE OWN THINGS, GOLDEN RULE, MORALITY, ETHICS

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: We should bear ourselves toward others as we would desire they should bear themselves toward us.” – Aristotle

UNIVERSALITY PRINCIPLE: you should act on no maxim, which is incapable of being a universal principle. …” - Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant, The Philosophy of Right, p.65.

UNIVERSALITY: a state that is not pleasing or delightful to me, how could I inflict that upon another? – Samyutta Nikaya, v.353. – BUDDHISM. Q., INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, SELF-OWNERSHP

UNIVERSALITY: And as ye would that men do unto you, do ye also to them likewise.” Luke 6:31, K. J. version of Bible. – CHRISTIANITY, GOLDEN RULE

UNIVERSALITY: Do for one who may do for you, that you may cause him thus to do.” – The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant, 109-110; original is from 1970 to 1640 B.C. trans. R. B. Parkinson. – Egyptian version of Golden Rule

UNIVERSALITY: Do not do to others that which would anger you if others did it to you.” – Socrates, 5th c. BCE.

UNIVERSALITY: Do not do to others what you do not want them to do to you.” – Analects, 15:23, CONFUCIANISM

UNIVERSALITY: Don’t do things you wouldn’t want to have done to you.” – British Humanist Society - HUMANISM

UNIVERSALITY: May I do to others as I would that they should do unto me.” – Plato, 4th c. BCE.

UNIVERSALITY: No one is my enemy, none a stranger and everyone is my friend.” – Guru Arjan Dev: AG 1299. – SIKHISM. - I lived for almost 12 years under Hitler, saw him only once from some distance and only often heard his raucous and rabble-rousing voice on the primitive little radio that he had spread cheaply – for it could not receive foreign broadcasts. He was certainly not my friend or my hero – JZ, 31.3.09.

UNIVERSALITY: None of you (truly) believes until he wishes for his brother what he wishes for himself.” – Number 13 of Iman ‘Al-Nawawi’s Forty Hadiths. - ISLAM

UNIVERSALITY: One going to take a pointed stick to pinch a baby bird should first try it on himself and feel how it hurts.”- YORUBA

UNIVERSALITY: One should be ‘contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow against himself.” – Thomas Hobbes

UNIVERSALITY: Regard your neighbour’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbour’s loss as your own loss.” – T’ai ShangKanYoing P’ien, - TAOISM.

UNIVERSALITY: The law imprinted on the hears of all men is to love the members of society as themselves.” – Roman Pagan

UNIVERSALITY: This is the sum of the duty; do not do to others what would cause pain if done to you.” – Mhabharata 5:1517. – HINDUISM

UNIVERSALITY: Treat your inferiors as you would be treated by your superiors.” Seneca, Epistle 47:11, 1st c. BCE. – That could be nasty, in both cases! – He was finally ordered by his emperor to commit suicide! – But he offered better advice to his friends. - JZ, 31.3.09.

UNIVERSALITY: We should bear ourselves toward others as we would desire they should bear themselves toward us.” – Aristotle

UNIVERSALITY: What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow man. This is the law; all the rest is commentary.” – Talmud, Shabbat 31a. - JUDAISM

UNIVERSALITY: What you would avoid suffering yourself, seek not to impose on others. – Epictetus, ca. 100 C.E.

UNIVERSE, MAN, ALIENS, INTELLIGENCE IN THE COSMOS, GOD: The proof, which is now only a matter of time, that this young species of ours is low in the scale of cosmic intelligence, will be a shattering blow to our pride. Few of our current religions can be expected to survive it, contrary to the optimistic forecasts from certain quarters. The assertion that “God made Man in His own image”, is ticking like a time-bomb in the foundations of Christianity. As the hierarchy of the universe is slowly disclosed to us, we will have to face this chilling fact: if there are any gods, whose chief concern is Man, they cannot be very important gods. – Arthur C. Clarke, Profiles of the Future, Pan Books 1964, p.106.EXTRATERRESTRIALS

UNIVERSITIES: [To quote] “Buchanan and Devletoglon (1970) we encourage ‘consumers who do not choose’ (students) to accept ‘free’ education from ‘producers who do not sell’ (academics), and we somehow expect the resulting allocation of resources to, and within, tertiary education to help our community satisfy its many and varied needs. – Michael G. Porter, QUADRANT, 9/78.

UNIVERSITIES: A more general example is the great scandal of government financing of higher education. The benefits accrue primarily to persons who are destined to have high incomes and most of whom are from the middle and upper classes. But much of the cost is borne by the working class and by people who cannot go to college or university. This system of subsidizing university education from taxation is supported by well-meaning people who do not intend to milk the general public but who are in practice supporting a transfer of income from the poor to the richer classes. Loans repayable from the higher future income would be both more equitable and more efficient.” – Milton Friedman, in Down with the Poor, ed. by Dr. Rhodes Boyson, p.21. - On the other hand, those so subsidized will, probably, pay more in taxes during their working lives than do the poor workers. However, only a voluntary credit, insurance or pricing system can balance all accounts properly, much better than any bureaucratic regulation or redistribution of incomes could, under political considerations. - JZ, 1.4.11. – TAXATION, REDISTRIBUTIONISM, SUBSIDIES, WELFARE FOR THE RICH

UNIVERSITIES: A similar situation has come about in university education where academics decide which applicants it best suits them to present with a ‘free’ place. At present there are probably thousands of young people who desperately wish to go to university, who are qualified for entrance and who would be prepared to pay their way under a loans system, and yet cannot obtain a university place. Among other undesirable results the policy of attempting to provide university education free has brought about the candy-floss society when a young person can buy himself a sports car or a continental holiday by installment credit but cannot buy a university education. - Prof. Richard Lynn, Loans for Students, in Dr. Rhodes Boyson, Down with the Poor, p.104/05. – EDUCATION LOANS

UNIVERSITIES: A university should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning.” – B. Disraeli, 1804-1881, Speech, House of Commons, 11. March, 1873. – A. Andrews Quotations, p.468. – And that requires complete independence from government support, direction and controls. – JZ, 5.4.89. - If it were achieved, would it e.g. teach territorialism as “political science” and the mixed economy or government interventionism as “economics”? – Would “theology” be on its agenda? -JZ, 11.8.08. – By the way, Philip Kerr in The Penguin Book of Lies, Viking, 1990, exposes Disraeli as a frequent and quite serious and unrepentant liar. – But then which politician wasn’t or isn’t to a large extent? - JZ, 14.8.08. – ECONOMICS, POLITICS, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

UNIVERSITIES: As even THE TIMES has acknowledged, 24th July, 1971, the project for an independent university in Buckingham is wholly desirable, given the extent that state universities have prostituted themselves towards the political establishment and the inappropriateness of much of their training.” - Dr. Rhodes Boyson, Science and the Market Place, in “Goodbye to Nationalization”, p.59. – How many or, rather, how few of the present universities are quite independent of government support and contracts? – JZ, 26.10.08.

UNIVERSITIES: at university level student grants have increased demand beyond the genuine scholar … - Dr. Rhodes Boyson, Down With The Poor, p.3.

UNIVERSITIES: Buchanan and Devletoglon (1870) once asked what we should expect of an industry which offered its workers lifetime jobs and gave the product away.” – Michael G. Porter, QUADRANT, 9/78.

UNIVERSITIES: Colleges are places where pebbles are polished and diamonds are dimmed.” – R. G. Ingersoll, Abraham Lincoln. – SCHOLARS, ACADEMICS, SCIENTISTS, PROFESSIONALS, STUDENTS, LECTURERS, PROFESSORS

UNIVERSITIES: If I had children now, I should send them to the ballet. At any rate it is better than the university. Their feet alone might be spoilt in the ballet, but at the university it is their heads.” – Tolstoi, in A.B. Goldenveizer, Talks with Tolstoi, p.140.

UNIVERSITIES: If the government owns the campus and pays the professor’s salary, the teacher becomes a political flunky, no longer free to research, write, and teach according to his best insights and conscience.” – Edmund A. Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 5/79, p.291.

UNIVERSITIES: In the world of the Saracens, no authority suppressed scientists, and no policeman harried them – nor did any government take care of them. They opened schools, and from Baghdad to Granada, students flocked to them. Some of these schools grew into great universities, and for hundreds of years they continued to grow. LEARNING VS. TEACHING – The Saracen universities had no formal organization – Mohammed contended that too much organization leads to corruption. The rules were few. There were no standardized programs, no regular curriculums, no examinations. To guard against the fallacious idea that education ends with graduation, the Saracens’ schools granted no diplomas, no degrees. They were institutions, not of teaching, but of learning. Students went there to acquire knowledge, just as Americans go to grocery stores to buy food. Classes were held on an open-house basis. Anyone in quest of knowledge was free to wander about and listen. If he decided to remain, he picked a teacher and privately discussed with him what he wanted to learn and what he should study, and they agreed upon a fee. If, after joining the class, he didn’t get the knowledge he wanted, he stopped paying the teacher and went to another teacher or another university. When he had learned what he thought he ought to know, he quit school and put his new knowledge to practical test. - For 800 years, the Saracens’ schools and universities proceeded on the principle of freedom – on the basis of voluntary agreement between teacher and student. They offered all the learning of the past, with special emphasis on scientific knowledge. …” - Henry Grady Weaver, The Mainspring of Human Progress, revised edition, FEE, 1953, p.105/06. - Are the modern libertarian “Think Tanks” similar enough to them? – The Internet could also be considered as a “free university”, for anyone wanting to use it as such. – But e.g. a comprehensive catalog of all the electronic texts that it offers in its “library” is still missing. - JZ, 13.9.08. - FREE UNIVERSITIES

UNIVERSITIES: It can only be because we have become so used to the way the universities are financed in Britain that we do not realize how curious the system is. The universities are state-financed institutions whose dons are allowed to choose their own customers for services provided free of charge. Think of the indignation there would be if a system of this kind were introduced more widely. Imagine state-financed theatres providing free plays to an audience selected by the producer. Or state-financed boutiques which gave away free haute couture to women chosen by the manageress. Any proposals of this kind would be regarded as ridiculous. Yet they are hardly more absurd than the prevailing system of financing the universities. … Personal Responsibility – There is another important psychological argument for loans. British students are the most generously treated in the world. Do our most able young people really need to be pampered so much? Would it not be more healthy for them to stand on their own feet and make some contribution to paying their own way, like everyone else in society except the chronically sick, the infirm, the insane and the mentally defective?” – Prof. Richard Lynn, Loans for Students, in Dr. Rhodes Boyson, Down with the Poor, p. 100 & 103.

UNIVERSITIES: It was naïve to assume in the first place that the traditional role of the university as the home of independent inquiry was compatible with an ultimate dependence on government for support.” – Dr. Rhodes Boyson, Science and the Market Place, in “Goodbye to Nationalization”, p.59.

UNIVERSITIES: Maybe the first procedural change should be to let the whole higher education shebang collapse by withdrawing public support. This would force a new breed of university president to rely on full-cost tuition payments, and we would soon have a new dispensation on the campus, one that would be prepared to stick to teaching in order to attract the really serious students.” – John Chamberlain, THE FREEMAN, 6/74. - Competing student loan companies could also provide the required personal loan credits. - JZ, 1.4.11.

UNIVERSITIES: More and more people are entering college – and fewer and fewer people are emerging properly educated.” – Nathaniel Branden, quoted in LIBERTARIAN OPTION, 1/75.

UNIVERSITIES: My definition of a University is Mark Hopkins at one end of a log and a student at the other.” – Attributed to James A. Garfield in a letter accepting nomination for President, July 12, 1880. – Quoted in Leonard E. Read: Let Freedom Reign, p. 110. - Let each student have at least the chance to hire or otherwise gain a short audience or interview with a deservedly famous man – possibly only after weeks or even years of preparation, to come prepared, at least on a particular subject, to equal that famous teacher. – JZ, 30.11.78. – Now, at least electronically, he would have a chance to encounter many of them in their recorded views, with sound and pictures and even a kind of Q & A session would be possible with them, if the famous person’s knowledge had been sufficiently and electronically recorded, to call up his views on most subjects. – JZ, 11.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: Once people sought social and ethical knowledge in monasteries. Now they do in universities. The results are hardly sufficiently better. – They largely learn to know only still more errors, myths and prejudices, especially in the so-called “social sciences”. - JZ, 19.2.82, 11.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: Probably a student would learn more in an evening with Betty Friedan than in full semester in one of these expensive cathedrals of higher learning. … These institutions have been defined as educational, and we accept their product, inferentially, as education.” – Richard C. Cornuelle, Demanaging America, p.57.

UNIVERSITIES: Sometimes it seems that universities have largely become a refuge for people with lack of talents and interests, while, ideally, the opposite should always be the case. – However, they are pretty good in representing popular errors, prejudices, false premises, myths and lack of interest in freedom, peace, justice and progress alternatives – in all too many cases. – JZ, 13.10.04. – That is my impression, perhaps a biased one. Am I quite wrong or at least partly right? – JZ, 22.10.07. Probably the current dependence of most universities on government funding has much to do with this. – JZ, 3.11.07.

UNIVERSITIES: State universities, for instance, subsidize the schooling of the upper classes with money much of which comes from the relatively poor taxpayers.” – David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, p.30. – One of many alternative ways to finance universities would be a credit union between all former and present academics and all students, with some other investors for personal loans to promising students being included as well. The academics in business or professions and the teaching academics between them should be able to best assess the potential of students for personal education loans. The students themselves could and should form guaranty associations for such loans. – Then, if not otherwise, the students could appear as paying customers at the universities. – And as paying customers they would also waste minimal time in just enjoying student life. I remember a female sub-tenant we had in our flat in West Berlin. She frankly admitted that she studied mainly to increase her chances to encounter promising husband material and not out of commitment to any science or to a professional career. She also thought that many of her female co-students were similarly motivated. True or false? - JZ, 122.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: Stop paying the universities. If they produce nothing marketable, they should not be in business. – Jack Boulogne, FREEDOM NETWORK NEWS, Sum. 92.

UNIVERSITIES: Tax exemption for all student loan schemes. Value-preserving clauses should be legalized for them, too. Interest regulations abolished for them and, likewise, the money issue monopoly of the central bank and legal tender laws for its note issues. Universities should be free to issue their own education currency and accept it in payment for their courses. Special credit unions should be established, mainly by academics outside and inside the universities, with most of their investments going to the promising students as personal loans. Free competition between all kinds of universities or tertiary course offers and between certification companies for the achievement of certain degrees of competency would also be helpful. Reliance largely on alternative media like microfilm and digital ones could greatly reduce the costs of their library services. – JZ, 8.6.96. - UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FINANCE, WITHOUT TAXATION

UNIVERSITIES: the current trend is to subsidize the “rubbish” through college. Everybody has to be educated.” – Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.30.

UNIVERSITIES: The higher education bubble has popped - - Did it ever reach really high education, when it comes to the so-called "social sciences"? – JZ, 17.8.11, on Facebook. – Q., ACADEMICS, TERTIARY EDUCATION, HIGHER EDUCATION, SOCIAL “SCIENCES”

UNIVERSITIES: the professors have been bribed for too long by government aid; …” - John Hospers, REASON, 9/72.

UNIVERSITIES: The pseudo-liberals monopolize the teaching jobs at many universities. Only men who agree with them are appointed as teachers and instructors of the social sciences, and only textbooks supporting their ideas are used. The essential question is not how to get rid of inept teachers and poor textbooks. It is how to give the students an opportunity to hear something about the ideas of economists rejecting the tenets of the interventionists, inflationists, Socialists and Communists.” – Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.162. – By now all these freedom texts could be offered cheaply on a single DVD or HD! Do copyrights have priority against this enlightenment opportunity? – JZ, 11.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: The Student’s Empty Wait for Real Life.” - PAIDEIA, Spring 72.

UNIVERSITIES: The true University these days is a Collection of Books.” – Carlyle, Heroes and Hero-Worship: The Hero as Man of Letters. – BOOKS, LIBRARIES, LEARNING, SELF-EDUCATION

UNIVERSITIES: The universities, too, surely are not sufficiently truth finders or factories, either. – JZ, 21.10.80, 11.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: These institutions, supposedly of “higher learning”, are all too often and all too much institutions of lower learning, which perpetuate wrong hypotheses, theories, dogmas, theses and even popular errors, myths and prejudices, especially in the so-called “social sciences”. – JZ, 22.9.91. – Some critics of e.g. Einstein said that it happens also, too much, in the natural sciences. – How often have e.g. astronomical and nuclear physics theories been changed or revised or supplemented during the last few decades? – Not to speak of the almost perpetual struggle between orthodox medicine and representatives of alternative medicine. - JZ, 14.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: They learn nothing there [at the universities of Europe] but to believe; first, to believe that others know that which they know not; and after, that themselves know that which they know not.” – Bacon, Cogitationes de Scientia Humana. – CONCEIT, KNOWLEDGE, BELIEF, ARROGANCE, LEARNING, SCHOLARSHIP, THE PRETENCE OF KNOWLEDGE

UNIVERSITIES: Today universities are, largely, places where you learn more – of garbage! – JZ, 5/73. – Especially in the so-called “social sciences”. – JZ, 14.8.08.

UNIVERSITIES: Universities where individualism is dreaded as nothing else, wherein manufactories of patent drama, business schools and courses for the propagation of fine embroidery are established on the order of the monied.” – Thomas Beer, The Mauve Decade, p.207.

UNIVERSITIES: Universities, too, distort heads or let them wither. – JZ, 25.10.80.

UNIVERSITIES: University courses are increasingly leisure activities!” – Prof. Lauchlan Chipman, 8.10.76.

UNIVERSITIES: University sports are one of the reasons why the brick and mortar universities should be replaced by “distant” university education options. Initiation ceremonies for freshmen are another. – JZ, 8.1.98. – I see no reason why the buildings and surroundings of universities should be the equivalent of ancient palaces and their parks and recreation and amusement facilities. – Especially when this is largely done at the expense of people themselves unable to attend universities or to send their children or grandchildren there. - JZ, 13.8.08. - SPORTS

UNIVERSITIES: We may summarize the structure of the typical American university in the following way: (1) the consumers of the product do not pay for it, (2) the producers of the product do not sell it; and (3) the owners do not control.” – Dr. James Buchanan, PAIDEIA, Spring 72.

UNIVERSITIES: What would you expect of an industry that gives lifetime tenure to its workers and gives its product away?” – Mike Porter, THE BULLETIN, 6.11.79. – Financed and controlled largely by the State it largely teaches territorial Statism, as far as possible, in every one of its “social sciences” faculties. – JZ, 11.8.08, 28.4.14.

UNIVERSITY COURSES ONLINE: David E. Shellenberger - Free courses. - - 12 new universities join Coursera! - We are THRILLED to announce that 12 universities—including three international institutions—will be joining Princeton University, Stanford University, University of Michigan, and … - Facebook, 23.7.12. – UNIVERSITY OR TERTIARY EDUCATION NEED NO LONGER BE EXPENSIVE.

UNIVERSITY LECTURES: VIA TWO TEACHERS TAKING OPPOSITE STANDS: He would have seated a rival assistant professor opposite him, whose business should be strictly limited to expressing opposite views. Nothing short of this would ever interest either the professor or the student; but of all university freaks, no irregularity shocked the intellectual atmosphere so much as contradiction or competition between teachers. In that respect the thirteenth-century university system was worth the whole teaching of the modern school. - Henry Adams, The Education of Henry Adams, 1907.

UNIVERSITY ONLINE: No more excuses. There's a world of learning opportunities out there. Have fun. - Get free online courses from the world's leading universities. - - Ken West – 400 Free Online Courses from Top Universities. –

UNIVERSITY, FREEDOM COURSE: Why did nobody think of this before? An intensive course in Economics, History and Philosophy, taught by the very best professors in each field, with live online sessions and Q&A's, plus a huge amount of written, audio and video sources, all for $100 per year. Beats any university I can think of. Top stuff. - Andy Surtees added a link from 16 October 2012 to his timeline. - Liberty Classroom: The history and economics they didn't teach you -  - Knowledge is your best weapon in the struggle for liberty. Arm yourself! – Facebook, 20.10.12.

UNKNOWN: Whatever is unknown is magnified.” – Calgacus, the Briton, before battle. – Tacitus, 55-117. – Does that apply e.g. to freedom, rights and justice, to knowledge? – Within what framework or condition is that a true statement? – E.g., Red Indians seeing the first white conquerors on horses and imagining the combination to be a single and very powerful being. – Add to this efficient body armor and weapons of sharp steel as well as long developed and practised military tactics. - JZ, 11.8.08. – Many important individual rights and liberties are still widely unknown. Does this magnify their effectiveness or does it rather lead to many avoidable disasters? – JZ, 26.10.08. - EXAGGERATION, FEAR, TERROR, IGNORANCE

UNKNOWN: Yet the unknown may be better than the known. It often is.” – From film: Duel in the Jungle, Channel 7, 25.10.76. – How many of the genuine medical as well economic and political remedies are still known only to a few instead of being generally known and applied? And this in spite of the fact that they could all be described on a few discs! – JZ, 26.10.08. – Even on a single one. – JZ, 28.4.14. -IDEAS ARCHIVE, REFORMS, INNOVATIONS, INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES, MEDICINES, LIBERTIES, RIGHTS, ANARCHISM, LIBERTARIANISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, MONETARY FREEDOM, LIBERTARIAN LIBRARY ON A DISC

UNLEARN: To stay young requires unceasing cultivation of the ability to unlearn old falsehoods.” – Robert Heinlein, Lazarus Long. – PREJUDICES, ERRORS, MYTHS, ENLIGHTENMENT, REFUTARIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA

UNLIMITED GOVERNMENT: It seems clear that unlimited government is tyranny.” – Leonard E. Read, The Love of Liberty, p.5. – But to the extent that even his supposedly ideal “limited government” is still a territorial one, with involuntary subjects, it is still a tyranny. Kant even went so far to declare that every government, which still has the right to decide on war and peace, is really a despotism. – JZ, 11.8.08. – TYRANNY, DESPOTISM, DECISION ON WAR & PEACE, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

UNPOPULARITY: I have always been of the opinion that unpopularity earned by doing what is right is not unpopularity at all, but glory. – Marcus Tullius Cicero, quoted by Nizam Ahmad shared Ordo Viri Lupis's photo. – Facebook, 13.12.13.

UNPOPULARITY: My definition of a free society is a society where it is safe to be unpopular." Adlai Stevenson. – Those who are unpopular should not only be safe but free enough – to do their own things for or to themselves. – JZ, 26.12.07. – PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM UNDER EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS , POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW

UNSELFISHNESS: too much unselfishness can be a bad thing.” – Chad Walsh, From Utopia to Nightmare, p.145. – The selfless person acts as if he or she had no worth himself or herself and makes a voluntary human sacrifice of the own life to that of others. If these others were at least very important personalities for mankind, not merely great political leaders or generals, then this would make at least some sense. A kind of meritorious hero-worship would be involved. But are most of those, for whom others sacrifice their own lives, really worth such sacrifices? – JZ, n.d. - SELFISHNESS, EGOISM, SELF-APPRECIATION, SELF-REALIZATION, ALTRUISM, SELFLESSNESS CHARITY, SELF-SACERIFICE

UNSKILLED WORKERS & IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS: While the original emphasis of most immigrant recruitment programs was on skilled labor, the majority of people recruited in this manner were unskilled workers who, interestingly, often were more productive than their skilled counterparts. As each industry advanced with the technological changes that were to make America the most powerful nation on earth, managers discovered that unskilled workers were the fastest to learn the new techniques. For example, in the steel industry, at ever step of production involving technological change after 1880, managers discovered that it was easier to teach new methods to completely unskilled workers than to retrain skilled workers from related crafts and industries. (8) James Howard Bridge, The Inside History of the Carnegie Steel Company (New York Arno press, 1972), 81. Originally published in 1903 s The History of the Carnegie Steel Company. - Paul Zane Pilzer, Unlimited Wealth, updated edition, Crown Publishers, New York, 1994, p.136. - – TRAINING, SKILLS, SKILLED & UNSKILLED WORKERS, TRADESMEN

UNTAX: Untax everything and everyone! – JZ, 31.12.97. – At least as far as involuntary victims are concerned. If others want to play some sado-masochistic games in this way, among themselves only, I would not object. – JZ, 14.8.08.

UNTHINKABLE: This may, indeed, be “unthinkable” - for you! – JZ, 21.9.91. - RED.,

UNTOUCHABILITY, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & SECESSIONISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS: Peaceful and productive people should be untouchable by any government, its laws and institutions, unless they have signed a contract with it. – JZ, 22.10.12.

UP & DOING: Better being up and doing than down and being done.” – John Clemitson, 3.7.80. – For a while he ran the first Australian libertarian bookshop. – He probably got burnt out, too, from such efforts. – He did not have enough buyers and got done. Why stick with printed books only when by now over 3 million of them could be offered on a single 1 TB HD? - JZ, 12.8.08. – LIBERTARIAN LIBRARY ON A DISC

UPRIGHTNESS: A man should be upright, not be kept upright. – Marcus Aurelius Antoninus - MANHOOD, DIGNITY VS. SUBSIDIES

UPRIGHTNESS: If, on self-examination, I find I am not upright, shall I not be in fear even of a poor man in his loose garments of hair-cloth? If on self-examination, I find that I am upright, I will go forward against thousands and tens of thousands.” – Mencius, bk.ii, pt. I, c.ii, v.7. – INTEGRITY, CHARACTER, JUSTICE, JUST CAUSE, RIGHTEOUSNESS, MORALE, ETHICS, MORALITY

UPRIGHTNESS: It is better to die on your feet than live on your knees. –Emiliano Zapta, Mexican revolutionaryZapata? – JZ  - Even if you achieve nothing by your death? One need not always spend one’s whole life on one’s knees. One can and often does rise again. Survive resist and fight another day. Oppressors are not almighty and omnipresent. – JZ, 28.4.14. - RATHER THAN SUBMISSIVENESS, STATISM & OBEDIENCE TO WRONGFUL AUTHORITIES

UPRIGHTNESS: Man is born for uprightness. If a man lose his uprightness and yet live, his escape is the result of mere good fortune.” – “The Wisdom of Confucius”, Analects,, c.xvii. - Australian READER'S DIGEST edition, Aug. 08, contains a report on the bonobo, a pygmy chimpanzee, who walks upright 25 % of the time and is peaceful, making love rather than war, with the females dominant, living in large social groups. Found only in the Congo, where the human apes, by hunting and eating them and destroying their habitat, are in the process of wiping them out. Today only a few thousand remain. Who is the beast there? – JZ, 11.8.08.

UPWING: There is nowhere to go but up.” – Source? – That might include going up as part of a nuclear mushroom cloud or going up in a starship. “Up” and “down” are as insufficient directions towards freedom, justice, peace and security as are “left” and “right. – We still need much better classification systems and all the proposed ones have not yet been sufficiently published, discussed and compared. – JZ, 26.10.08.

URANIUM MINING: Hancock gets tough over uranium mining - Should we have free enterprise in the provision of raw materials for mass murder devices and for unsafe nuclear reactors? - JZ, 13.8.11, on Facebook. – NWT, NUCLEAR “WEAPONS”, Q., FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE TRADE & MASS MURDER DEVICES

URANIUM MINING: Trade in materials, which, e.g. through pollution and military abuse do inevitably threaten the lives and health of all, should not be free. It should especially not be undertaken or should be stopped immediately if even obviously criminal organizations are supplied with such materials. I consider all those as criminals who stockpile mass extermination devices or who “peacefully” pollute air and water with radioactive poisons. – JZ, n.d. – Now smoke detectors, containing some radioactive isotope, are made compulsory for Australian homes! Just like an over-production, as a by-product, a fluoride poison, was compulsorily introduced into public water supplies - as a dental health measure! – JZ, 11.8.08.

URANIUM MINING: Uranium miners are war criminals. – JZ, 2/77.

URANIUM MINING: Uranium mining does not express property and trading rights but, rather, a severe threat against them. – JZ, 2/77. – It is part of a threat against human life on this planet. – JZ, 28.4.14.

URANIUM MINING: Uranium Mining is another instance of the truth that you can bribe people into helping to kill other people. – JZ, 21.1.77.

URANIUM MINING: We are doing out bit towards the greatest mass murder in the history of mankind. – JZ, 20.10.76.

URANIUM: Don’t try to poison our Earth. Take your uranium to Mars and build your radioactive paradise there. – JZ, 21.1.77.

URANIUM: GAO reports that AEC can’t account for 2 tons of uranium and plutonium, enough to blow up a small continent. – SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 9/76. – I know of no “small” continent, but for me any nuclear “weapon” is much too large in its effects to be useful against the real enemies, the wrongful decision-makers at the top. – JZ, 26.10.08. – MASS MURDER RATHER THAN TYRANNICIDE? NWT

URANIUM: The metal of force, fraud and coercion, even suitable, once sufficiently processed, to commit mass murders via territorial governments and their excuses for such actions. – JZ, 31.12.76. – NUCLEAR WAR THREAT

URANIUM: The uranium situation is that 90 % of the public is mad and the final result will be that 100 % end up dead. – D.Z., 24.1.77, JZ, 11.8.08.

URANIUM: Uranium – one flash and you are ash.” – Graffiti, AUSTRALASIAN POST, 23.3.78. – Decades ago, I had collected and displayed many anti-nuclear war jokes in the “anarchist cellar” in Paddington, Sydney. During the LSD “epidemic” these “anarchists” ripped them off, did not return them to me, and replaced them with psychedelic posters! Instead of this cellar being filled with arguing anarchists, their bodies, drugged, covered the floor. I asked one of them, who was still able to talk: “What about your anarchism?” His reply: “You don’t understand, man: This Is Anarchism!” – I would never have counted all the Australian drunks or junkies as anarchists. - JZ, 11.8.08. – ANARCHISTS & DRUG ABUSE

URANIUM: We know we can cope with coal. We don’t know yet whether we will ever be able to cope with uranium. – JZ, 7/77.

URANIUM: Which profit is more important? The one for uranium, if it’s taken out of the ground or the profit of saving millions of lives if uranium is left in the ground? – D.Z., 21.1.77. – PROFIT

URANIUM: Whoever employs a permanent poison like Uranium or Plutonium anywhere on Earth threatens our lives and we may take defensive steps against them. – JZ, 30.10.76, 11.8.08. – Nuclear “weapons” are not tyrannicide weapons. They are directed against whole populations, the subjects of governments, not against those who misrule, abuse, oppress and exploit them. – JZ, 28.4.14.

URANIUM: You do not produce and export uranium in my name. You are the profiteers or consenting victims of mass murder preparations. – JZ, 20.11.74.


URBAN PRIVATE TRANSPORT: A model for the privatized transit of the future exists today in the 'Queens Van Plan.' This is a privately operated transit service in New York City that serves mostly low-income neighborhoods. Despite an unsubsidized fare of only $1, the service operates at a profit. The owner would like to expand beyond the borough of Queens, but is presently barred from doing so by the city council. You see, the public transit system needs to hold on to a "captive" transit clientele lest their case for large extractions from taxpayers be undermined." - From John Semmens' review of "Alternate Route: Toward Efficient Urban Transportation" by Clifford Winston and Chad Shirley, published in the March, 2000, issue of "Ideas on Liberty". - PROFITABLE WITHOUT SUBSIDIES

URBAN RENEWAL: OEO economist John Welcher found that the $ 12 billion of federal urban renewal had made a lot of poor people poorer and a few rich people richer.” – Richard C. Cornuelle, Demanaging America, p.10. –– When I visited Detroit, in 1990/91, public services, like e.g. fire-fighting, were denied to slum areas selected for re-development, in an attempt to remove the remaining residents. Parts of it looked like they had been fire-bombed. Apparently, the authorities were in cahoots with rich developers. Its mayor was said to have 60 bodyguards. He may have needed them. As the final result of its protectionist and unionist policies, most jobs in its car industry had finally disappeared. Statism “at work”. – JZ, 11.8.08. – SLUM CLEARING, HOUSING, DETROIT, TOWN PLANNING & CONTROLS

URBAN RENEWAL: The federal urban renewal program is becoming the classic example. After sixteen years of experiment in urban renewal, there is only one honest conclusion: the federal effort has flopped. It hurts the poor it promises to help and holds back improvement in private housing for poor people.” - Richard C. Cornuelle, Reclaiming the American Dream, A Vintage Book, p.11/12. – STATISM, FEDERALISM, LIBERALISM, MODERN

URBAN RENEWAL: The same government that brought you urban renewal is likely to make an even worse mess of suburban renewal.” – Steven Hayward, THE NATIONAL REVIEW, 3/22/99. - Most governments probably still outlaw value preserving clauses in mortgages and other housing credits and put heavy taxes on buildings and landlords. Some even engage in rent controls still. When I left in Germany in 1959, it was said that the governmental housing administration did cost the country as much as 300 000 new homes every year. Under rent controls in France, for many years after WW II, more old houses collapsed than new houses were built. - JZ, 23.11.06. - SLUM CLEARING PROJECTS, SUBURBAN RENEWAL, GOVERNMENTAL HOUSING POLICY, CITIES

URBAN RENEWAL: This is not the only socialist program that goes back to ancient Rome. The Emperor Nero invented Urban Renewal.” – SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 12/76, on Nero, supposedly, caused the burning of Rome, then blamed it on Christians. – Hitler’s response to the devastation of Berlin by air raids was: We will build it up again, more beautiful than ever before! Vandalism comes in all forms and kinds. – JZ, 11.8.08.

URBAN RENEWAL: urban renewal – which always somehow seems to accommodate fewer people than it dispossesses.” - Ted White, Secret of the Marauder Satellite, p.10. - SLUM CLEARANCE

????US AGAINST THEM: This book specifically rejects the short-term, irrational “us-against-them” philosophy. As long as people, in pursuit of freedom and well-being, see themselves as laborers versus businessmen, blacks versus whites, environmentalists versus polluters, or liberals vs. conservatives, to list but a few examples, the destructive cycle will not only continue, but get worse.” – Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.26. – Panarchies for all the diverse groups, so that they can no longer blame each other but merely themselves for their failures. – JZ, 11.8.08. – What would happen to the present financial crisis if all the freedom lovers were free to accept full monetary and financial freedom for their own affairs while statist interventionism and “service charges” or tributes would be confined to the remaining faithful statists? – JZ, 26.10.08. – It would disappear among the dissenting groups of volunteers, to the extent that they realized the freedom alternatives among themselves, leaving the remaining statists alone to continue their restrictions, prohibitions and tribute levies among themselves, considering these statists like they would the sick of former centuries, who believed in blood letting to cure themselves and the flagellants, who believed in whipping themselves. To each the own choices means, obviously, leaving others to their own choices. – JZ, 29.4.14. - CLASS WARFARE, PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, TOLERANCE TOWARDS THE TOLERANT

USA GOVERNMENT: I say one evil empire down … one to go.” – Michael Moore, The Big One. – He failed to distinguish between those empires from which people flee in large numbers and those to which people flee in large numbers, if they do get the chance. Under full consumer sovereignty as well as free enterprise in every sphere, those now monopolized by territorial governments, the situation would radically and peacefully change for the better, step by step, through individual free choices. To some extent all territorial governments, even merely local ones, are imperialistic by their nature, aims and practices. – In at least some respects local governments are more despotic than country-wide ones, with their petty prescriptions for details. It is only the territorial monopoly and coercion, which makes them imperialistic, power-addicted and power-mad. Under free choice for dissenting individuals and minorities, the coercive empires of all sizes will shrink in membership whilst e.g. the “empire” of free trade and free migration and of all other individual rights and liberties would grow in numbers and prosperity. – JZ, 23.11.06, 28.4.14. – IMPERIALISM, PERSONAL LAW, SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARISM, COMPETITION, FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION, CONTRACT & EXPERIMENTATIION IN EVERY SPHERE

USA GOVERNMENT: Ignorance, prejudices and, mostly, good will, combined with all too great powers. They make an abominable combination - but no worse than that in most other countries. - JZ, 24.3.02. 20.8.02.

USA, AMERICA: Through its imperialism, warfare, nuclear war power, territorialism, i.e. its statist monopolism, is has become one of the most hated countries, peoples and governments, which has forgotten the best of its revolutionary and liberating traditions, and developed and upheld some of its worst features. As territorial governments, the Federal Government, its State Governments and its local governments have gone from almost bearable limited governments to almost unbearable unlimited governments. Only individual and group secessionism combined with full exterritorial autonomy for all groups of volunteers offers a radical and lasting way out of all the problems it has created for itself through its territorial statism and avalanches of wrongful laws, starting with a very incomplete bill of rights, only belatedly and quite insufficiently amended and corrected. It, too, has set the world all too many examples of what should not be done. – JZ, 17.2.13. - TERRITORIALISM, POWER, WORD EMPIRE, IMPERIALISM, AMERICANISM

USA, RESOURCES, OR LIBERTY AS FACTORS: Fortune, which has conferred so many peculiar benefits upon the inhabitants of United States, has placed them in the midst of a wilderness where they have, so to speak, no neighbors; …  – Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, transl. Henry Reeve, Cambridge, Sever & Francis, 1863, chapter ON WAR, SOCIETY, AND THE MILITARY. – Here he managed to overlook e.g. ca. 500 tribes of natives, also some settlements by other European powers in North America and the most decisive factor, namely the degrees of rights and liberties the USA subjects enjoyed and utilized initially, also that other countries are just as rich in natural resources, and that for all too long these “freedom” pioneers tolerated or even practiced slavery and racism and that they, too, held themselves back by establishing territorial States at the federal, State and local government level. Moreover, they were already in competition with the naval forces of e.g. England, France, Spain and Holland, i.e., not far enough removed from European statist powers. Moreover, they, too, practiced monetary and financial despotism to a large degree, instead of full monetary and financial freedom. However, at least for a while, the white settlers there were among the least un-free and lived in one of the least populated and least ruled territorial States. – JZ, 24.2.13.

USA, THE LAND OF THE FREE? This nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave. – Unknown – This “land of the free” was never quite free, either. Bravery was shown by Nazi and Soviet soldiers as well. On its own, without quite rightful war and peace aims, bravery is insufficient and often supports quite wrongful governments instead of the own rightful aims and purposes, clearly formulated and proclaimed and prepared for. – COURAGE – FOR THE WRONG AIMS & PURPOSES?

USA: Is there really such a thing as the United States, or just a lot of people pretending?” - Alexei Panshin, How Can We Sink When We Can Fly? p.334, in Isaac Asimov et al, “The Future I”, Fawcett Crest, 1981.

USA: the economic system of the United States was out of control, that perhaps another war was already brewing.” - John Horne Burns, Lucifer With A Book, Avon Books, 1949, 1977, p.198. – It and the population of all other countries do, actually, greatly suffer, under all too many and often contradictory controls, with many of these controls still not sufficiently understood as causes of disastrous consequences. – JZ, 11.8.07. – A free economy needs only the natural controls of free markets. All territorial governments do wrongfully interfere with free market relationships between free people. Nowhere are all individual rights and liberties fully declared and realized. – 29.4.14. - ECONOMIC SYSTEM, CONTROLS, MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, WRONGFUL INTERVENTIONISM, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES VS. CONTROLS, INTERVENTIONISM, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, ANTI-ECONOMIC “ECONOMIC POLICIES” & SYSTEMS, CONTROLS, LAWS & REGULATIONS

USA: The home of freedom, and the hope of the down-trodden and oppressed among the nations of the earth.” - Daniel Webster. - That was a long time ago. Not enough of the original liberty is left. Nor have original limited rights and liberties ever expanded to include all individual rights and liberties. E.g. the abolition of open slavery was not enough while tax slavery and monetary despotism was continued. - JZ, 23.11.02, 29.4.14. - AMERICA AMERICANISM, LIBERTY, ASYLUM, IMMIGRATION

USA: The United States has become too big, too authoritarian, and too undemocratic. Its states assume too little responsibility for the solution of their own social, economic, and political problems. So starved for revenue are our states that they are all too willing to abdicate to the federal government their responsibilities for public education, criminal justice, employment, and environmental protection. Fine-tuning or patch[ing?] our badly crippled political system will do little to turn the situation around. There is only one solution to the problems of America – peaceful dissolution, not piecemeal devolution. –Thomas H. Naylor & William H. Willimon, Downsizing the U.S.A. – Downsizing the States, down to individuals and communities of volunteers – is just as much required. – Territorial States, regardless of their size, do antagonize rather than unify all too many people. Individual consumer and supplier sovereignty, freedom of contract, competition, laissez faire, experimentation and association in every sphere! - JZ, 23.4.13, 29.4.14. – STATE “RIGHTS”? BIGNESS, BIG GOVERNMENT, CENTRALIZATION, DECENTRALIZATION, TERRITORIAL OR EXTERRITORIAL?

USA: The United States of America should be renamed: The oppressed States and minorities of America. – But it has also oppressed and exploited majorities and is oppressing and exploiting minorities. How can one fully express these realities in a short name? Start a prize competition? For me it is all summed up in the terms “territorialism” and intolerance for tolerant actions, which should be replaced by panarchism or tolerance for all tolerant actions and exterritorial autonomy or experimental freedom for all dissenters. - JZ, 25.11.94, 14.8.08, 1.4.11. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW CHOICES, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM IN EVERY SPHERE

USA: we eventually became a nation of the government, by the government and for the government.” - Claire Wolfe, 101 Things to Do ‘til the Revolution, Breakout Productions, Port Townsend, Washington, 1999, rev. ed., ISBN 1-89.3626-13-X, p.80. - TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENT, NATIONALISM, PEOPLE, SUBJECTS, POPULATIONS, PEOPLE TREATED AS PROPERTY, STATISM

USE, Production for use?” - The free market offers production for use – for maximum usefulness, as judged by the user – and, therefore, for maximum and quite rightful profits. – JZ, 11.9.87. – PROFIT, FREE MARKET, FREE ENTERPRISE, PRODUCTION FOR USE

USE: Production for Use!” – It means, in practice, largely that whatever production is not prevented or greatly reduced, by the economic interventionism of such ideologues, ignorant of or prejudiced against the free market and individual rights and liberties, especially economic ones, and without any inclination to learn anything in this sphere, is primarily for the use by the ruling class and only secondarily for the maintenance of its victims. – Only free and profit-seeking capitalistic or cooperative production aims at serving mass-markets or free consumers. And it has been much more successful in this than any statist system has been. – JZ, 26.7.92. Mostly statism meant, in practice, fewer and these often inferior products and all-over less consumer satisfaction and a much lower standard of living, due to statist and centralized planning, direction, controls and interventionism. What do such people think businesses are in the market for? Production only of useless goods that no consumer wants? As if they could thus make any profits. The economic ignorance of many of the leftists is almost unbelievable. But they do have their slogans against liberty and with them they often made a successful career for themselves, while making the lives of the masses miserable. – JZ, 14.8.08. As Felix Riemkasten satirically stated: “Nothing against socialism! It has made the career of many a good man!” – Are public servants, as such, good people? – JZ, 29.4.14. - PROFIT, BUSINESS, FREE ENTERPRISE, COMPETITION, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY, STATISM, STATE SOCIALISM, INTERVENTIONISM, RESTRICTIONS OR PROHIBITIONS OF FREE MARKET RELATIONSHIPS

USEFULNESS: A useless life is an early death.” – J. W. Goethe, Iphigenia auf Tauris, I, 1787. – Usefulness requires a careful definition by each and for himself. – JZ, 10.7.86. - While each is supposed to be a purpose in himself, if he has himself no purpose or pursues no purpose but his own pleasure, what value has he then to mankind that goes beyond the value of any other animal? Then he might as well never have existed. That would have made no difference to his species, to mankind, but only to his family, friends and lovers. He would just be a number in a multitude, a person, but not a personality, someone who would not really count, at least not for the enlightenment and progress of mankind. Admittedly, this is also largely a utilitarian judgment but also one from a moral point of view. Useless lives there have been all too many. As territorial voters they can even help to bring about great wrongs and damages. – JZ, 14.8.08, 29.4.14. – AIM & PURPOSE OF LIFE, OF MAN, OF A HUMAN BEING, SUBJECTIVE VALUE THEORY, STATIST VOTING

USERS: Users or Abusers is not a bad term for rulers. They are addicted to power and use as, or, rather, abuse us, for their addition. – JZ, 27.5.92. – RULERS, GOVERNMENTS, POWER, ABUSERS, POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRATS, PUBLIC SERVANTS, CIVIL SERVICE, PEOPLE AS PROPERTY, TAXATION, CONSCRIPTION, RULERS

USSR: The totalitarian Soviet regime, like the totalitarian Hitler regime and e.g. the Roman Empire, as well as many other dictatorship and even the English Empire and the American Empire with their constitutional monarchism or representative but still authoritarian and all too legalistic democracies, are excellent study cases for what should have been done, to achieve full liberties and rights in them, instead of the actions taken and laws passed and the institutions that were established and maintained. Thus although some of them have disappeared in the meantime, there are still others and liberation options for them ought to be considered, as long as they do not involved us in another invasive war. What should have been done, in the case of the Soviet Union, will have to be thoroughly discussed for a considerable time. Likewise what should be done now, towards its remaining territorial power and the abuse of that power, e.g. in the most recent case of a war with Georgia. Here only some hints towards my personal opinion of what should have been done to end the Soviet Union long before it collapsed because of its numerous flaws. (1) Denationalizing and privatizing all their government assets, in advance through the issue of suitable capital certificates, which would also finance the enlightenment process and the actual revolution or military insurrection or simply the collapse of such a regime, in all its totalitarian aspects. Some details on this are set out in my by now digitized and enlarged PEACE PLANS 19 C. (Online as part of a disc reproduced at  - (2) Full monetary freedom and free banking, as opposed to its and the West’s Central Banking systems. The rightfulness and benefits of this change towards freedom, should be demonstrated in the West, which has so far also subscribed to the central banking system recommended by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and is, at least to that extent, also communistic and State socialistic. What has been wrongly described as flaws of capitalism are actually the flaws of State socialism existing in the mixed economies, which are far from being fully developed free market economies. - (3) Secession of dissenters from the territorial State and their free re-association in exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers, including even various communistic and State socialistic ones, should be freely practised in the West, to provide an attractive model for almost every kind of dissenters in States like the Soviet Union was. It misruled over 120 ethnic minorities, no to speak of all the religions and other dissenting groups. Only the possibly incurable power addicts, the territorial totalitarians, a small minority, would not be pleased by and attracted to such a model. - (4) Recognizing exterritorially autonomous governments in exile for all refugees and deserters from any dictatorial, tyrannical or totalitarian regime – in the West, conceding them there and now already all the individual rights and liberties that they do want to practise among themselves and setting thus also examples of how they would rule or administer their voluntary members in the population of the territory of their home countries, after they have been liberated from their wrongful territorial regime. Any infighting among opponents of any despotic regime could and should thus be avoided. All would dissenters would get the government or society of their own individual choice. There does not exist any model and practice that is more anti-totalitarian and liberating than that panarchism (polyarchism, meta-utopia, competing governance systems and societies). Advocacy for individual secessionism was at one stage, when it was somewhat popular in the Soviet Union, punished with the death penalty. - (5) Preparation and publication of an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties, including all economic rights as well and that means also all monetary rights and liberties. - (6) A proclamation of quite rightful war and peace aims towards any country’s population, which is despotically ruled, like that of the Soviet Regime, should a country be attacked by that regime or any comparable one. Such a proclamation, like that of individual rights and liberties, could be more valuable than many well armed, trained and motivated divisions of soldiers. While it would recognize e.g. anarchies for anarchists and libertarian limited government societies for volunteers, it would also recognized Welfare State societies and mixed economies for their adherents, majority democratic direct or representative democracies for their followers and even various communist and State socialist societies, with their own centralized planning and controls. In other words, it would concede to all their various remaining true believers the “freedom” or “right” to control and victimize their remaining volunteers - as long as these are individually prepared to put up with this. None of these ideologues should be forced into desperate fighting for their supposed ideal. They could have it, without fighting and without internal resistance - for their own remaining volunteers, i.e. under the best possible conditions for the realization of their supposed “ideal”. Experimental freedom, at their own cost and risk (panarchism or polyarchism) is no longer to be denied to any group of dissenters. With the one exception of the true believers in nuclear strength and nuclear power. They might be confined to use the nuclear reactor and power of the sun alone or to emigrate to the Moon or Mars, to use their supposedly ideal power source there. All nuclear weapons are to be destroyed – even one-sidedly, as anti-people “weapons”, and this by the people themselves, suitably organized and trained for this purpose. Based on a complete liberation and revolution program the West could have afforded to go ahead unilaterally with nuclear disarmament. Here these few hints must suffice. Many more can be found in my two libertarian peace books. -JZ, n.d. & 15.8.08, 1.4.11. - - PROGRAM FOR A LIBERTARIAN REVOLUTION, LIBERATION PLATFORM, HOW TO OVERTHROW TOTALITARIAN OR DICTATORIAL REGIMES, A HANDBOOK FOR LIBERTARIAN REVOLUTIONARIES & LIBERATORS?

USSR: There is freedom of speech in the USSR – you can say anything you want to – ONCE!Dangerous Button, No. 81. – JOKES, SOVIET UNION, CENSORSHIP, DICTATORSHIPS, TOTALITARIANISM, RUSSIA UNDER THE SOVIETS

USURPATION: All present legislation is usurpation. – JZ, 3.12.76, free after Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland. – Full title of his letter: “A Letter to Grover Cleveland on His False Inaugural Address, The Usurpations and Crimes of Lawmakers and Judges, and the Consequent Poverty, Ignorance, and Servitude of the People.” – Spooner, Works I. - LEGISLATION, LAWS, TERRITORIALISM.

USURPATION: I may do what you may not do.” – Quoted by Kurt H. Zube in his letter to Augstein.

USURPATION: Locke: Alas, my lord, it is the habit of rulers to claim more responsibilities than are properly theirs, in order to claim more power than is properly theirs.” – Maurice Cranston, Political Dialogues, p. 25. – RULERS, RESPONSIBILITY, STATISM, POWER, TERRITORIALISM

USURPATION: We should not forget, that government is, abstractly taken, an evil, an usurpation upon the private judgment and individual conscience of mankind.” – William Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice. – TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, GOVERNMENTALISM, RULERS

USURY: By their laws against usury they have increased usury.” – Henry Thomas Buckle, History of Civilization in England, VIII. – And by their laws against free banking. – JZ, 11.8.08.

USURY: The reason given for usury laws is, that they protect the poor from the extortions of the rich. But this reason is a false one – for there is no more extortion in loaning capital to the best bidder, than in selling a horse, or renting a house to the best bidder. The true and fair price of capital, as of everything else, is that price which it will bring in fair and open market. …” - Lysander Spooner, Poverty … Economical Propositions, p.12. - But this implies that the supply of capital is already free. It is not free, due e.g. to restrictions of the capital market, through taxes and the results of monetary despotism, which interfere with the supply and use of capital e.g. during inflations, deflations and stagflations. Governments even pursue an interest-rate policy! – JZ, 11.8.08. – “Interest rate policy” is an especially wrongful and harmful kind of price control and was and is a large factor in the current financial crisis. – Much of the housing in the USA was built through Building and Loan Associations, which paid very high interest to their savers and charged high interest for their loans. Thus those who saved up half the building costs got their home practically interest-free. What they had first gained in interest they had then to pay in interest once they got their loan. - JZ, 26.10.08. – Those, who had a strong economic incentive, e.g. through high rents, to get their loan immediately, even at the high interest due upon it, got it immediately. Others, with low incomes and low rents, could wait until, with high interest rates earned, they had got the whole building costs saved up. Anyhow, without building and zoning restrictions etc. even the poor could put up some kind of shack or even tent only, or get a used caravan to live in temporarily. – Housing shortages and homeless people are systematically, although unintentionally, produced by governmental “policies”. - JZ - INTEREST, HOUSING, HOMELESS PEOPLE, INTEREST RATE “POLCIES”

USURY: Usury is the high price people pay voluntarily whenever and wherever capital or cash are short. – JZ, 5/73.

USURY: Usury’ is now, thanks first to Aristotle and still more to his medieval successors, such a bad word that we may at first fail to realize to what he is objecting. It is not only to those very high rates of fixed interest, which would nowadays be condemned as usurious. Nor even is it only to all fixed interest as such; which, as we shall soon see, was the prime target of those medieval successors. No, Aristotle’s objection here is to any money return upon any money investment. It is, he thinks, against nature for money to breed money. (*) - The moment Aristotle’s point is appreciated, it becomes quite clear that both his objection and his supporting reason are superstitious and muddled. For a sum of money is the convertible equivalent of any of the goods or collections of goods which it might buy. There can, therefore, be nothing obnoxiously unnatural about receiving a money return upon an investment in money, unless it would be equally obnoxious and unnatural to ask for some return either in money or in kind for the use of the goods themselves.” – Anthony Flew, The Politics of Procrustes, p. 152. - (*) But, e.g., money in form of cattle, goats, sheep or pigs does breed more such capital and so does capital in form of tools or machines productively used. – JZ, 14.8.08.

USURY: Whoever says that usury is sinful – has no money, that you may freely believe.” – Luther, Allerlei kurze Sprueche. – (“Wer sagt, dass Wucher Suende sei, der hat kein Geld, das glaube frei.”) - Why does he not have any money or not enough? He is also of the opinion that others should make money cheaply available to him, although it is scarce. Moreover, he is disinclined to ponder why money, redeemable in wanted goods and services, should be in short supply, while goods and services can be produced and offered in almost unlimited quantities – provided there are ready buyers for them. After all, money is just that, a convenient means of exchange. It could even be completely replaced by clearing or the mutual setting off of debts and credits. For each debt there is a corresponding credit. Naturally, only immediately or very soon due debts and credits can be thus offset. Why isn’t this tool competitively supplied, by those having goods and services to offer, using a sound value standard in denominating their money issues and in pricing their goods and services? It is easier to complain about the consequences of the money monopoly than to ponder its abolition and the result of its abolition. – JZ, 14.8.08. – Q., FREE BANKING, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM.

UTILITARIANISM: Could the greatest happiness for the largest number justify cannibalism towards the few? – JZ, 10.9.88. – Perhaps only if we sacrificed our great mis-leaders – by eating them. – But I think it to be much more civilized and peaceful to secede from them and their establishments. And to redistribute the public assets that they hold in our names - and mismanage also all too much - among their former and their present subjects, - JZ, 14.8.08. – JOKES

UTILITARIANISM: Freedom provides the greatest good for the greatest number.” - Michael Cloud, Secrets of Libertarian Persuasion, The Advocates for Self-Government, 2004, - p.106. -

UTILITARIANISM: Hobbes and Bentham, who equate right with interest, reduce all to licence and calculation. – John Bowle, Political Opinion in the 19th Century, p.160. – MORALITY, ETHICS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

UTILITARIANISM: How can there be a definite limit to the supreme power if an indefinite general happiness, left to its judgment, is to be its aim? Are the princes to be the fathers of the people, however great be the danger that they will also become its despots?" - G. H. von Berg - GOVERNMENTS, POWER, DECISION-MAKING, HAPPINESS, GENERAL INTEREST, PUBLIC INTEREST, COMMON GOOD

UTILITARIANISM: I personally subscribe to the principle that our ethical measuring rod should be that which benefits the greatest number, provided that it doesn't include extermination or torture of, or denial of rights to individuals who do not conform.” - A. E. van Vogt, The Voyage of the Space Beagle, p.184. -GREATEST NUMBER, FIRST PRINCIPLE, ETHICS, MORALITY, JUSTICE, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

UTILITARIANISM: Is “The Greatest Good For The Greatest Number” A Moral Principle? “The greatest good for the greatest number” is one of the most vicious slogans ever foisted on humanity. This slogan has no concrete, specific meaning. There is no way to interpret it benevolently, but a great many ways in which it can be used to justify the most vicious actions. - What is the definition of “the good” in this slogan? None, except: whatever is good for the greatest number. Who, in any particular issue, decides what is good for the greatest number? Why, the greatest number. - If you consider this moral, you would have to approve of the following examples, which are exact applications of this slogan in practice: fifty-one percent of humanity enslaving the other forty-nine; nine hungry cannibals eating the tenth one; a lynching mob murdering a man whom they consider dangerous to the community.” - Ayn Rand, Textbook of Americanism, in: “The Ayn Rand Column”, revised edition, 1998, p.90, Second Renaissance Books, New Milford, Connecticut, – THE GREATEST GOOD FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER? MARJORITARIANISM,

UTILITARIANISM: It is true that Bentham was a pronounced individualist in his economic philosophy, but his espousal of laissez faire was always based upon the grounds of utility. Thus it was only a matter of time until the utilitarian position, with no underlying principle to guide it, would be led by its calculus of pleasure and pain toward egalitarian economics as a means of reducing pain and increasing pleasure. The connection between the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and the Fabian socialism, which came to dominate English society several generations later, is far more immediate and direct than is generally recognized. Bentham and the Fabians were all too willing to regard men as little more than animals requiring a keeper. – Sorry, source not noted. Underlining by me. JZ – Majoritarianism, welfare and happiness considerations cannot substitute for rights and liberties. – “For the good of the whole” is the usual pretence, as if one wrong to one were not also a wrong to the whole society of which the one is a part. – JZ, 24.7.92, 14.8.08. – PEOPLE AS PROPERTY

UTILITARIANISM: It might be useful to you, in the short run, if my rights and liberties are suppressed by you, but not to me and in the long run not even to you. For instance, a slave worker tends to be much less productive than a free contract worker. – JZ, 10.9.88, 14.8.08.

UTILITARIANISM: Kant indeed was one of the first to raise what is now the classic objection to utilitarianism: that it is incompatible with justice. For one can imagine the utilitarian principle being used to justify the most obviously unjust, and therefore immoral, conduct. Slavery, for example, could be justified on the grounds that the misery of a few slaves is more than compensated for by the happiness of the slaveholders. …” – Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant, The Philosophy of Right, p.40. - JUSTICE, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, SLAVERY

UTILITARIANISM: Of what use is a newborn baby? Ascribed to an Anglo-Saxon philosopher in Philip K. Dick, “The Man in the High Castle”, p.72. – Indeed, one cannot even use it for pet food, that much must be admitted, but, at least for mankind it is more useful than the keeping of animal pets. – It also costs much in the long run and at first causes much sleeplessness for the parents. – Lucky for the babies, they do satisfy some of our animal instincts, especially the parental ones – How many of the newborn would survive if they had to depend alone upon the present state of morality and rationality among most adults? That mentality has certainly not served to save many millions of the unborn babies. - JZ, 14.8.08. - ABORTION, BABIES

UTILITARIANISM: The issue is not: for what purpose is it proper to enslave man? Die issue is: is it proper to enslave men or not?” - Ayn Rand, Textbook of Americanism, in: “The Ayn Rand Column”, revised edition, 1998, p.94, Second Renaissance Books, New Milford, Connecticut, – & COLLECTIVISM

UTILITARIANISM: The moral aspect of utilitarianism is that the suffering of some is justified merely because it results in a greater “sum” of happiness for society as a whole. (*) Although we may or may not accept the factual claims of utilitarianism, the moral claim does not necessarily follow. (**) Utilitarianism is based on the idea that people enter society on a sort of gamble, hoping they will be in the greatest number rather than in the minority who might suffer. Regardless of whether or not we feel the average person would enter such a gamble voluntarily, it is difficult to justify how people, who do not wish to enter such a gamble, can be forced to do so, since ordinarily the result of a gamble is only considered fair if the gamble was voluntarily entered into.” – Theodore Cahn, Forced Integration, p.19. - - (*) Torture of a few to make a majority of people happy, who like to torture others or to observe torturers “at work”? - Think of the large crowds who watch what footballers or boxers do to each other! Think of the athletes, who torture themselves, in long training sessions, in the hope of winning gold medals not only for themselves but, they think, for their country! Would even the cannibalization of a few be justified, to make the majority of a cannibalistic society happy? (**) On some primitive religions, demanding some human sacrifices, there are reports that the victims felt honored and died happy. But, probably, they were drugged first. – In some panarchies there might be voluntary victims of this kind, not only involuntary ones like unborn children or children exposed to death by the elements, after birth or aborted before it. In our times all too many women, e.g. in Africa, still submit to sexual mutilation, just because it is customary, and in Pakistan women who have been gang raped are supposed to feel dishonored and to commit suicide as a result, while the rapists are not considered to have been dishonored by their actions! – What spleen, belief or “philosophy” wasn’t and, at least partly, is not customary with some humans still today? Some governments believed and still believe in degrees of torture for prisoners of war or of a civil war. – Think of the readiness of many governments to conscript young men and make them the first victims in wars, supposedly for the benefit of the State or “society”, in reality for the few and mostly old men in power. The drills and exercises of conscripts, to make “soldiers” out of them, are also amounting to a kind of torture. – Then there are the cases of captured terrorists, tortured to make them reveal a mass murder plot. – They do probably come closest to a justification of utilitarianism. Being prepared to inflict suffering on many others, they would deserve some suffering themselves, especially if that would prevent the suffering of others. Or do they have the rights of rational beings? – There are also many reports of soldiers who willingly sacrificed their own lives to save the lives of several of their comrades, e.g. by throwing themselves on a hand-grenade. – I can also admire pilots who did not bail out, while they could have parachuted to safety for themselves, but rather crashed with their plane outside a village or town than have it crash in a settlement. – I see a great respect for the rights of others in such actions. – JZ, 12.8.08, 29.4.14. – VOLUNTARISM & CHOICE VS. FORCED INTEGRATION, UNIFICATION, SOCIAL SYSTEMS, MAJORITY DESPOTISM, VOTING

UTILITARIANISM: To suppress some people’s rights and liberties, or even those of most people, pretending that it would be for their own good, is the most non-utilitarian action that can be imagined – apart from it being the most immoral one. – JZ, 10.9.88, 14.8.08. - The usefulness of many genuinely moral actions as well as the uselessness of many supposedly utilitarian actions are all too often neglected by utilitarians. - As a guide utilitarianism is as useless as is "happiness". - JZ, 1.4.11.

UTILITARIANISM: Under utilitarianism if slavery or torture of an innocent individual or a minority contribute to the greatest good for the greatest number, then slavery or torture are justified. As Jeremy Bentham, the father of modern utilitarianism, said “The principle of utility neither requires nor admits of any other regulator than itself.” – Theodore Cahn: Forced Integration, p.19. – SLAVERY, TORTURE, GREATEST GOOD

UTILITARIANISM: Under utilitarianism we cannot punish a rapist unless the benefit of the punishment outweighs the suffering for the rapist. And of course if punishing the innocent is more beneficial to society than punishing the guilty, then we should punish the innocent instead.” – Theodore Cahn, Forced Integration, p.19. –PUNISHMENT, RAPE, INNOCENTS, MORALITY

UTILITARIANISM: you can’t trust a utilitarian any further than you can throw him since, on his own terms, what he says must be occasioned by the effects of saying it rather than its truth.” – Bob Black, stating an deontologist argument against utilitarianism in NEW LIBERTARIAN 14, p.4. - Lies are often useful to the liars but mostly not to the people he lies to. – JZ, 29.4.14.

UTOPIAS: A club of utopists and an electronic information exchange for them should seriously discuss only those utopias, which subscribe to tolerance for tolerant actions and are intolerant only towards intolerant actions. Or those utopias, which are correspondingly changed. - This would require that they have freed themselves from territorialist notions and “models” and rather subscribe to the “meta-utopia” concept of Robert Nozick or the idea of “panarchy” first proclaimed by De Puydt in 1860 and to the individual secessionism advocated e.g. by Herbert Spencer in his 1850 “Social Statics” book, chapter 19. (Left out in some later editions!) – “To each the government or non-governmental society of his or her choice!” – JZ, n.d. & 13.8.08. – Panarchism might be defined as exterritorial utopism. – JZ, 30.6.13. – META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, TOLERANCE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM, UTOPISM

UTOPIAS: A map of the world that does not include Utopia is not worth even glancing at, for it leaves out the one country at which Humanity is always landing. And when Humanity lands there, it looks out, and, seeing a better country, sets sail. Progress is the realization of Utopia.” – Oscar Wilde, quoted in PROGRESS & in Arblaster/Lukes, The Great Society. – PROGRESS, FREEDOM, CHOICE

UTOPIAS: A whole world of diverse utopias exist. The only way to explore the value of all of them consists in full experimental freedom for the advocates of all of them, under personal law and full exterritorial autonomy, preceded by individual or group secessionism. However wrong or irrational or uneconomic their activities would be, they would be conducted only among them and as long as they wish to individually persist with them, at their risk and expense. It would be wrong to deny them this “pleasure” or self-selected suffering or sacrifices. – JZ, 21.2.13, 1.3.13. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, COMPETING GOVERNMENTS & SOCIETIES, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM IN EVERY SPHERE – FOR ALL – NO LONGER JUST FOR TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS & THEIR INVOLUNTARY VICTIMS

UTOPIAS: All utopias should be optional. – JZ, 7.12.90. – Then all utopias would be tolerable, for outsiders as well as insiders. – JZ, 11.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, TOLERANCE, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY VS. STATISM & TERRITORIALISM

UTOPIAS: And anarchists, too, see themselves as realists; even Kropotkin claims that the anarchist ideal is ‘not a utopia, constructed on the a priori method, after a few desiderata have been taken as postulates. It is derived … from an analysis of tendencies that are at work already …’ – One man’s realism is another man’s utopia. Indeed history may show the utopian to have been a realist. – Arblaster/Lukes, The Good Society, p.10. – Alas, one can be sufficiently tolerant towards the utopias of others only if one’s mind is no longer stuck in the model of territorialism but one has realized the possibilities of personal law and exterritorial autonomy for communities of volunteers. – JZ, 13.8.08. - REALISM, ANARCHISM, LIBERTARIANISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, SECESSIONISM

UTOPIAS: And Utopias fall flat because they depend on the false notion that every person would want the imaginary good state if only he understood it – the hell he would: he wants his own dream-country, maybe one that includes slavery and whips.” – Edgar Pangborn, The Company of Glory, p.57, in GALAXY Aug. 74. – In the book edition on p.36. - Why should he not get it – in his kind of club, society or community of volunteers? There are already some sado-masochistic clubs and numerous altruistic ones, who, rather than trying to make something out of their own lives, try only to improve the lives of others. – Admittedly, but only out of egoistic motives, I belong, somewhat, with the latter mob, too. - JZ, 13.8.08. – I want at least my children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren to come to enjoy a much more free, peaceful, just and prosperous world. – JZ, 29.4.14. - Compare: “To everyone the government of his dreams!” – K. H. Z. Solneman (K. H. Zube), in his Manifesto for Freedom & Peace: - PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, CHOICE, META-UTOPIA, TOLERANCE TERRITORIALISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAW

UTOPIAS: another and better world, than the one already existing for my eyes, brings about that I desire this better world, embrace it with all my instincts, strive for it and live only in it and become satisfied only through it.” – J. G. Fichte, Die Bestimmung des Menschen, Drittes Buch, Glaube, S.125. – (“… aber eine andere und bessere Welt, als die fuer mein sinnliches Auge vorhandene; es macht, dass ich diese bessere Welt begehre, sie mit allen meinen Trieben umfasse, und ersehne, nur in ihr lebe, und nur an ihr mich befriedige.”) – It does not have to be another or better world for all its population. It is enough if each group of dissenters has the choice to get the kind of society for its members which its members do prefer, whether it is objectively a better or a worse one does not matter, at least not for them. There is neither a moral nor a utilitarian reason why any kind of society, any system or belief should get a territorial monopoly for its practice for this whole planet. - JZ, 1.4.11. - FREE SOCIETY, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, VS. STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM VS. COMPULSION & MONOPOLISM

UTOPIAS: Beware of killing a thought which is new to you. For this thought could be the foundation of the Empire of God on Earth.” – G. B. Shaw, in the JZ rough re-translation of the German version: “Huetet euch davor, einen Gedanken zu toeten, der euch neu ist. Denn dieser Gedanke kann das Fundament fuer das Reich Gottes auf Erden sein.” – As far as I know, he only rarely expressed himself in such religious terms. – JZ, 13.8.08.

UTOPIAS: But today the “utopians” are mostly the realists, while those, who call themselves realists simply do not have enough imagination.” - E. W. in a letter to DER TAGESSPIEGEL, 11.1.56. – The wrongful assumption here is that there is only one utopia, instead of a multitude of very diverse ones. Each could be optimally experimented with only among volunteers. – JZ, 12.8.08. – To each his own utopia - at his own risk and expense. - JZ, 1.4.11. – PANARCHISM,  POLYARCHISM, KNOWLEDGE, ENLIGHTENMENT, REALISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, IDEALISM, IDEOLOGIES, IMAGINATION

UTOPIAS: Comrade: Watch out for the utopian magician – he has an axe up his sleeve.” – Dagobert D. Runes, A Book of Contemplation, p.23. – Also in his “A Dictionary of Thought”, under “Comrade”. – Also in his “Treasury of Thought”, p.22. - Is that true for the liberty lovers among the utopians? Only the tyrants and authoritarians, the intolerant people, would have to be afraid of them. – Naturally, many of their surviving victims would also be thirsty for revenge. – However, their energies might be, largely, taken up by the great efforts required for their attempts to finally establish their kinds of utopias among themselves, as soon as they are free to do so. To the extent that they are moral and rational beings, such efforts should have the highest priority for them, their families and friends. – Mere acts of revenge or retaliation would not help them to improve their condition. - JZ, 12.8.08, 1.4.11. – INTOLERANCE, TOTALITARIANISM, , TERRITORIALISM

UTOPIAS: Do you imagine // I should hate this life // Fleeing into deserts, // Because not all // Beautiful dreams matured to reality?” – Goethe, Prometheus, Autumn 1774. (JZ tr. of: “Waehnst du etwa // Ich sollte das Leben hassen, // In Wuesten fliehen, // Weil nicht alle // Bluetentraeume reiften?“) – Full experimental freedom for volunteers could even turn deserts into cultivated agricultural lands, gardens or forests. – The best solutions will tend to be found and realized only under full experimental freedom. - JZ, 29.4.14.

UTOPIAS: Earth would tread the path Utopia had trod. She too would weave law, duty and education into a larger sanity than man had ever known. Men also would presently laugh at the things they had feared, and brush aside the impostures that had overawed them and the absurdities that had tormented and crippled their lives.” – H. G. Wells, Men Like Goods, first paperback issue, 1970, p.129/130. First published 1922. – Alas, H. G. Wells remained a State socialist and world statists. He could not imagine that people might wish to approach their own and very diverse ideals in a decentralized and competitive way, like they do as free entrepreneurs and free consumers on a free market. Secretly, he, too, saw himself as a lawmaker and ruler for the whole world and all its people instead of setting them free to do their own things for or to themselves. – JZ, 13.9.07. - TERRITORIALISM VS. INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & FREE CHOICES.

UTOPIAS: General ideal of human order. … Description of an imagined State in which the author offers his ideal of a just economic and social order as already realized and compares it with present conditions.” – Elster Lexikon, S.546.

UTOPIAS: Hope counts on God’s help; but the utopia counts on man’s achievements alone.“ – Ernst R. Hauschka. – (“Die Hoffnung rechnet mit Gottes Hilfe; die Utopie rechnet mit der menschlichen Leistung allein.“) - Or with man’s errors, spleens, prejudices and myths. – JZ, 12.8.08. – There are also many religiously motivated utopias. - JZ, 1.4.11. – To each his own form, as long as they want it, always at their own risk and expense. Nobody can rightly strive for more or should settle for less. – JZ, 29.4.14.

UTOPIAS: I don’t want a Utopia, just a chance.” – Joe Fulks, quoted by Pyrrho, p. 5 of THE CONNECTION 109. - The greatest utopia is the meta-utopia of Nozick or the panarchism of De Puydt, in which everybody will have the experimental freedom to try to put his principles, beliefs or ideology into practice among their like-minded volunteers, under full exterritorial autonomy. It might differ from others only by a single step or rule, which is significant to its volunteers. - JZ, 1.4.11. – PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, POLYARCHISM

UTOPIAS: I prefer that we vigorously pursue a future that may seem too good to be true than to continue to drift towards one that is too dreadful to contemplate.” – Theodor Taylor, former atom bomb designer, turned solar innovator. – In West Berlin I once contemplated trying to establish a club or tolerant utopists. Alas, I had no means to publicize that suggestions. The later numerous SF fan clubs were mostly dedicated to technical and scientific innovations only – if not even confined to mere fantasies. Numerous utopias were made available on microfilm. How many are now readily accessible digitized? – JZ, 12.8.08. – TOTALITARIANISM, TOLERANCE, TERRITORIALISM, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, WORLD STATE, FUTURISM

UTOPIAS: I view science fiction as a treasury of models - models of alternative political and social systems, sexual relationships, forms of technology, and so on. The more alternative models of which we are aware, the more flexible our responses can be to present-day situations.” - Alvin Toffler. - He left out alternative economic systems. – From the viewpoint of free market economics there is only one genuine economics and economic system, that of the free market. The others are, largely, only political and social utopias. However, just think of how many different business organizations and self-management schemes have been proposed and practised (*), likewise, how many varieties of monetary, value standard, clearing, insurance and savings and investment or credit systems, and how many varieties of capital securities there are. - JZ, 20.4.09. – (*) Max Borders pointed out the existence of the Self-Management Institute to me and Google offered me over 74 million search results for it, containing many practical examples. Thus some of my offspring will enjoy a working live without bosses. – JZ, 29.4.14. - IDEAS, MODELS, ALTERNATIVES, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, SCIENCE FICTION

UTOPIAS: I was also not discouraged by the seeming greatness of this enterprise, for I have always believed than a man of enough abilities can bring about great changes for mankind and can carry out great projects, once he has first drawn up a good plan, then avoids all amusements and other distractions, which could divert him from his aim, and making the execution of his plan his exclusive study and business.“ – Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Franklins Leben von ihm selbst beschrieben, Reclam Ausgabe, S.132. – Only in my re-translation of the German version: “Auch war ich nicht entmutigt durch die scheinbare Groesse der Unternehmung, da ich immer geglaubt habe, ein Mann von leidlichen Faehigkeiten koenne unter der Menschheit grosse Veraenderungen zustande bringen und grosse Dinge ausfuehren, wenn er erst einen guten Plan entwirft, dann alle Vergnuegungen und sonstigen Bechaeftigungen vermeidet, die seine Aufmerksamkeit ablenken koennen, und die Ausfuehrung dieses Planes zu seinem ausschliesslichen Studium und Geschaeft macht.“ – A man like him might thus succeed with many projects. But other poor mortals, like us, cannot always and quite successfully follow his example. We would largely depend, for our success, on e.g. an Ideas Archive and a Talent Centre, that would help us to properly explore and market our ideas and projects with the help of many others. – JZ, 13.8.08. – At least for large projects out chances to get enough collaborators would be greatly increase e.g. through a comprehensive projects list of them online, to bring demand and supply in this sphere together. – JZ, 29.4.14. -  SUCCESS, PRIVATE PLANNING & REALIZATION OF PROJECTS, INDIVIDUALISM, IDEAS ARCHIVE, TALENT CENTRE, LIBERTARIAN PROJECTS LIST, NEW DRAFT

UTOPIAS: If we do not add anything to the treasures of mankind, who gives us a right to use that collected before us?” – Grillparzer. – JZ, tr. of: “Wollen wir nichts hinzufuegen zu dem Schatze der Menschheit, wer gibt uns ein Recht, das vor uns Gesammelte zu gebrauchen?

UTOPIAS: inventors of utopia have no right to play with the lives and fruits of the labour of human beings just to be able to remake the Word according to their weird notions.” – D. M. Kulkarni, INDIAN LIBERTARIAN, 5/75. – However, they do have the rights to freely experiment with like-minded volunteers in the attempt to realize their visions or ideals at their own risk and expense, in all spheres. So far territorial States have suppressed this right as well and offered us only the all too flawed experiments of statism. – JZ, 29.4.14. - VISIONARIES, RIGHTS, INTOLERANCE, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, STATE SOCIALISM, WELFARE STATE, WARFARE STATES, MIXED ECONOMY

UTOPIAS: It is the beauty and the terror of a revolutionary age such as ours that theories are probably the most important “facts” altogether.” – Prof. Carl J. Friedrich, The New Belief in the Common Man, 1942-1949, p.49. – The best ideas and theories are those, which, if applied, would release the creative energies of all, in all spheres. – JZ, 29.4.14. – EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, META-UTOPIA, PERSONAL LAW, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEER,S PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, COMPETING GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS, IDEAS, FACTS, OPINIONS, THEORIES, BELIEFS, IDEOLOGIES, IDEAS ARCHIVE

UTOPIAS: It is, indeed, sweet, to ponder State constitutions which correspond to the demands of reason, especially with regard to rights, but impudent to propose them and punishable to rouse the people to abolish the existing one. Plato’s Atlantica, Morus’ Utopia, Harrington’s Oceana and Allais’ Severambia, have by and by been published, but never (excepting Cromwell’s perished miscarriage of a despotic republic) even attempted. These State-creations had the same fate as the creation of the world: No human being was present, nor could he be present in them, because then he would have had to be his own creator. To imagine a State as a product, as one thinks of it here, as being realized, at some time, however late it may be, as being completed, is a sweet dream. However, to always approach it, is not only thinkable, but, to the extent that it can coexist with the moral law, a duty, not of the citizens of the State but of the head of the State.” - Immanuel Kant, Anmerkung zu “Der Streit der Fakultaeten”, Abschnitt 9, S.229/30 in Populaere Schriften, Deutsche Bibliothek in Berlin, herausgegeben von E. Von Aster, n.d., written 1794. - I did not find an English translation in my library nor a hint to one in my still all too incomplete list of electronically offered libertarian books: - thus I had to try a rough translation myself. – He wrote under censorship and thus had to express himself very carefully and diplomatically. – He was really in favor of rightful revolutions but could not say this openly. – His own utopia was “Zum ewigen Frieden”, 1795 (“Towards Eternal Peace”). - JZ, 13.8.08. (“Es ist doch suess, sich Staatsverfassungen auszudenken, die den Forderungen der Vernunft {vornehmlich in rechlicher Absicht}) entsprechen: aber vermessen, sie vorzuschlagen, und strafbar, das Volk zur Abschaffung der jetzt betehenden aufzuwiegeln. - Plato’s Atlantica, Morus’ Utopia, Harrington’s Oceana und Allais’ Severambia sind nach und nach auf die Buehne gebracht, aber nie (Cromwell’s verunglueckte Missgeburt einer despotischen Republik ausgenommen) auch nur versucht worden. – Es ist mit diesen Staatsschoepfungen wie mit der Weltschoepfung zugegangen: kein Mensch war dabei zugegen, not konnte er bei einer solchen gegenwaertig sein, weil er sonst sein eigener Schoepfer haette sein muessen. Ein Staatsprodukt, wie man es hier denkt, als dereinst, so spaet es auch sei, vollendet zu hoffen, ist ein suesser Traum, aber sich ihm immer zu naehern, nicht allein denkbar, sondern, soweit es mit dem moralischen Gesetze betehen kann, Pflicht, nicht der Staatsburger, sondern des Staatsoberhauptes.“) - Panarchism allows each rational being the choice of his own kind of utopia for himself. - It does not grant any territorial monopoly to anyone. - JZ, 1.4.11. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, META-UTOPIA, PERSONAL LAW CHOICES, SECESSIONISM, COMPETING GOVERNANCE

UTOPIAS: Life is rough, life is tough. We are not here to promote a utopia.” – B. C., 21.11.75. - Aren’t we? – Kant considered the establishment of a free, just and peaceful society not only to be a right but a supreme duty for all rational beings. – Contrary to his opinion, when some of B. C.’s children were assaulted and the offenders remained immune to legal prosecution, he came close to try to execute these criminals with victims. I helped to talk him out of it, saying, that thereby his children would be likely to lose their father and their mother her husband, for all too many years. These realities should outweigh the feeling of achieved revenge, that he could gain by such an action. – Much later at least some of these offenders were caught and convicted. – Alas, I didn’t succeed either, in persuading my children and grand-children to learn enough about effective unarmed self-defence. - JZ, 13.8.08. – Compare the motto of a former Liberal Prime Minister of Australia, Malcolm Fraser: “Life wasn’t meant to be easy!” Whereupon some of his opponents said: “Nor was it his job to make it any harder.” – M. F. was a fan of Ayn Rand but that did not make him an effective leader for Australia towards liberty. – JZ, n.d. - POVERTY, MISERY, NEED, SUPPRESSION

UTOPIAS: Nobody has the right to leave this world in as bad a condition as he found it.” – Edward Bok, Publisher of “The Ladies’ Home Journal”. – (JZ retr. of: “Niemand hat ein Recht, die Welt so schlecht zu verlassen, wie er sie vorgefunden hat.”) - There is something like a duty, already stressed by Immanuel Kant, to work towards a free, peaceful and just society. - JZ, 1.4.11.

UTOPIAS: Oh century! Oh sciences! – It is a pleasure to live, although not yet time to retire. – The studies are flourishing, the minds are active. You, barbarism, take a stick and prepare for your banishment.” – Ulrich von Hutten, 1488-1523. – He was a bit too optimistic. – Should we once again repeat all the mistakes made in the intervening centuries? – JZ, 13.8.08. – COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, PROTECTIONISM, INTERVENTIONISM VS. SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA

UTOPIAS: Only then, Sir, when you have made your kingdom into the happiest in the World – does it become your duty to subdue the world. – Friedrich Schiller, Don Carlos, III/10. – JZ tr. of: “Dann, Sire, wenn Sie zum gluecklichsten der Welt Ihr eignes Koenigreich gemacht – dann ist es Ihre Pflicht, die Welt zu unterwerfen.” – Even if that first aim were achieved, the conquest of the rest of the world, to make it, likewise, happy, would neither be justified nor rational. – Anyhow, really ideal examples would tend to spread, peacefully, by voluntary acceptance. - Ulrich von Beckerath mentioned the story of King Wen in China, who ruled so well that subjects of neighboring kingdoms petitioned him to rule them as well. He was wise and realistic enough to reply that he was so busy to rule or, rather avoid misruling his own kingdom, that he could not spare the time and energy to thus rule them as well. He rather advised them to seek another ruler, willing and able to provide the same service – to them. King Wen also “defeated” armies sent to conquer his kingdom by welcoming the foreign conscripts, who defected to him as liberated citizens, not treating them as enemies and prisoners of war. Thereby he largely dissolved these armies, rather than slaughtering them. Mere legend or is there some real history behind such stories? The full story of rightful and dutiful desertions may still have to be written. – U. v. B. also described the rapid growth of the tribe of Abraham in a similar way: After A. had abolished child sacrifices and family feuds, many people from other tribes simply defected to him. - Who of our present rulers knows his own limitations, that of his ministers, his bureaucrats, his party, his ideology, sufficiently? Who would, like this real or mythical King Wen, similarly decline a territorial expansion of his power? Who has been militarily as clever? Alas, in my time, only a totalitarian like Mao Tse Tung! And this system was never applied against him! – To be able to do so one should, naturally, be able and willing to offer something very much better than he did and that quite obviously. This should not have been difficult. – In our time the ideal of “panarchism” has at least the potential to “conquer” the world, quite peacefully. - JZ, 13.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, DESERTION, FRATERNIZATION, POW TREATMENT, RIGHTFUL WAR & PEACE AIMS DECLARED IN TIME, LIBERATION, DEFENCE, MILITARY INSURRECTIONS AGAINST DESPOTIC REGIMES, GOVERNMENTS- & SOCIETIES-IN-EXILE

UTOPIAS: Our wishes and our presentiment of the abilities that lie within us, are harbingers of that what we will be able to achieve. What we can and want to do appear to our imagination before us and outside of us and in the future. We feel a longing for that which we, in quietness, already possess.“ – Goethe, Dichtung und Wahrheit, Wert und Wuerde, S.22. – JZ tr. of: “Unsere Wuensche sind Vorgefuehle der Faehigkeiten, die in uns liegen, Vorboten desjenigen, was wir zu leisten imstande sein werden. Was wir koennen und moechten, stellt sich unsere Einbildungskraft ausser uns und in der Zukunft dar; wir fuehlen eine Sehnsucht nach dem, was wir schon im Stillen besitzen.“ – FUTURISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, AN ANCIENT & LONG LASTING TRADITION, ALAS, MORE & MORE SUPPRESSED BY STATISM & TERRITORIALISM, DESERTION, POW TREATMENT, TYRANNICIDE RATHER THAN ORGANIZED MASS MURDER OF SUBJECTS, RIGHTFUL WAR- & PEACE AIMS DECLARED, TRUSTORTHILY, AS THE MAIN „WEAPONS“, GOVERNMETNS-IN-EXILE, LIBERATION, LIBERTARIAN REVOLUTION

UTOPIAS: Panarchies call for negative as well as positive utopias. – JZ, 20.6.92. – Not only in science, technology and the arts can one learn much from one’s prejudices, mistakes, errors, wrong assumptions and conclusions, if one applies them quite freely, in a tolerant practice among volunteers. Both the insiders as well as the outside observers would benefit from them, although not as much as from quite successful experiments. – JZ, 12.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, DISTOPIAS – ONLY FOR THEIR VOLUNTEERS, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW CHOICES, SECESSIONISM, ASSOCIATIONISM, CONTRACTARIANISM

UTOPIAS: People are willing to devise and praise Utopias but not to live in them.” – David Pryce-Jones, THE TIMES, 20.3.72. – All people are different. It takes all kinds to make a world. Mostly those, who do want to join or establish one for themselves, going beyond mere private life-style changes, are simply not allowedto do so – by territorial legislaton. – E.g., those, who do not want to pay taxes but are willing to pay their own way, or those cosmopolitans, who favor free migration, free trade and free investments. - Let those, who wish to do so, establish or join them. If, really, almost nobody would wish to join them, then governments would not have to be afraid of them and would have thus no motive to outlaw them. But they do have good reasons to be afraid of competition. They might lose many to most to all of their subjects to one or the other utopia, as soon as they lose their territorial monopoly. Good solutions are not impossible but merely outlawed. Under personal law, exterritorial autonomy for secessionists and freedom of experimentation for all, in all spheres, the statist utopias could then be continued by them, indefinitely, for their remaining volunteers, without opposition, as a sinecure for their rulers – as long as they still have some followers. Why does that model, so far, have not sufficient attractiveness for them? For most merely their ignorance of historical precedents is involved or popular errors, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions. It is different for the relatively few, who are power addicts and as such, sometimes, even power-mad. Obviously, they still want to rule over dissenters, not only aggressors and criminals. – They consider their subjects as their property and what is now pretending to be political science has not yet seriously considered the rightful and rational alternative to itself. - If all such statements were exposed to the world, electronically and all kinds of criticism and restatements were made by many people, sufficiently published and discussed, then some really worthwhile formulas might, gradually, result. As long as they are only developed by lone individuals like me, in sporadic efforts, not much is to be expected from them. – We should, quite seriously, try to mobilize the wisdom of all of mankind, in all spheres. Only thus would there be a real chance to turn man, very gradually, into superman or some kind of worthwhile God – gradually, over a very long development period, or only with external technological aids. E.g., we have now had radios, telephones and television already for a long time and now the Internet for many years. – Already some of us, obviously, survived only with the aid of modern science and technology. But man’s nature is still largely the same. Especially the popular errors, prejudices, false assumptions and conclusions in the social sciences are still predominant, even when much contrary information is already offered online. There are almost a million references offered on personal law. When it comes to self-management I found with Google recently even over 74 million references. While the number of polyarchists and panarchists is still all too small, more than ever before do exist and more such writings than ever before are permanently published online. – With the digital options now existing the process of enlightenment could become very much accelerated, as I tried to prove in a 2010 book, still only called NEW DRAFT, not yet online, not copyrighted and so far only offered by me as a zipped email attachment, 306 KBs, free of charge, upon request. - Others may have more and better ideas to offer but I am still unaware of them, although I have been looking for them for most of my life. A review of it by Gian Piero de Bellies is online at - JZ, 21.9.85, 14.1.93, 12.8.08, 12.8.08, 26.10.08, 29.4.14. – - SECESSIONISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, “POLITICAL SCIENCE”, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, PEOPLE AS PROPERTY, RULERS & SUBJECTS, ABSOLUTISM IN ITS MODERN FORM

UTOPIAS: Popper argues similarly that ‘the Utopian method, which chooses an ideal state of society as the aim which all our political actions should serve, is likely to produce violence’ and that ‘the Utopian engineers who design and execute the Utopian blueprint’ must ‘become omniscient as well as omnipotent. They become gods.’“ – Arblaster/Lukes, The Good Society, on Karl Popper. – While this is largely true for territorial utopias, it is not true for most exterritorial ones of volunteers. – JZ, 13.8.08, 1.4.11. - PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, COMPETING GOVERNANCE, TOLERANCE VS. INTOLERANCE, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM, SECESSIONISM

UTOPIAS: Pound … does not believe, like most Utopians, that reform of the world is merely a matter of getting his own politico-economic ideas generally accepted.” – Robert Anton Wilson, The Illuminati Papers, p.108. – If utopians do not subscribe to the “meta-utopia” as proposed by Nozick, they subscribe to a war against the rest of the human race, in favor of their particular utopia. – JZ, 7.4.84. - Most utopians should become realistic and tolerant enough not to want anything more than the right to demonstrate their utopia among themselves, and, thereby, hopefully, becoming so  successful with it that they would convert most of the world’s population to accept or copy their kind of utopia. That is a tolerant and tolerable, rightful and rational approach, in accordance with panarchistic ideas. It allows all kinds of utopias for the diverse utopians.– The flawed and false utopias would thus be refuted in the best possible way, at the expense and risk of their advocates only. – JZ, 12.8.08, 29.4.14. META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, TOLERANCE, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM VS. STATISM, COMPULSION, MONOPOLISM, INTOLERANCE, FANATICISM, FUNDAMENTALISM, TERRITORIALISM

UTOPIAS: Should really only stupidity, the lazy thoughtlessness, which patiently suffers the present, because it resembles the past, should it be the only justified force in history of mankind?” – Theodor Hertzka, Reise nach Freiland, S.133. - (JZ tr. of: ‘Soll wirklich nur die Dummheit, die traege Gedankenlosigkeit, die geduldig das Heute traegt, weil es dem Gestern gleicht, soll sie die einzig berechtigte Kraft in der menschlichen Geschichte sein?“) – While I micro-fiched both the German and the English editions, also of his prior work “Freiland” (Freeland & Travel to Freeland), I have not yet got around to digitize them. Did anyone else do this job? (I just looked with Google in vain for these two libertarian utopias. – JZ, 29.4.14.) Hertzka’s writings cured a 16 year old Ulrich von Beckerath of his initial Marxism. It showed him that the best of socialism, namely cooperative or voluntary socialism, could also be realized without coercion. B., as a later anarchist, developed the Hertzka system further, made it even more voluntaristic. – Alas, these two libertarian utopias remain largely forgotten. - JZ, 13.8.08. - TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW & ORDER, THE ESTABLISHMENT, VOLUNTARISM, INDIVIDUALISM, SECESSIONISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAW, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, TOLERANCE FOR ALL TOLERANT ACTIONS, MEGA-UTOPIA, POLYARCHISM, TRADITIONALISM, CUSTOMS, CONSERVATISM, STATISM ETC. COULD BE CONTINUED – AMONG THEIR VOLUNTEERS. ONLY THE DISTOPIA OR TERRITORIAL MONOPOLISM, COERCION & COLLECTIVISM MUST BE ENDED. THEODOR HERTZKA, OPEN COOPERATIVES, FREELAND

UTOPIAS: Such a lively throng I would like to see. Standing upon free ground, with a free people. To this moment I could say: Please stay, you are so beautiful! The trace of my earthly endeavors would then not go under for ages. In anticipation of such a high fortune, I now appreciate my greatest moment.“ – Goethe, Faust II, in my rough translation of: “Solch ein Gewimmel moecht is sehn, // Auf freiem Grund mit freiem Volke stehn. // Zum Augenblicke duerft ich sagen: // Verweile doch, du bist so schoen! // Es kann die Spur von meinen Erdentagen // Nicht in Aeonen untergehn. - // Im Vorgefuehl von solchem hohen Glueck // Geniess ich jetzt den hoechsten Augenblick.“ - GOETHE

UTOPIAS: Technology and domination will bring about social and ecological disaster. Technology and freedom can provide the basis for a post-scarcity abundance in which human society can flourish undistorted by the age-old anxiety of survival. Utopia is necessary. – Times change and with them their possibilities. - TIMES CHANGE AND WITH THEM THEIR DEMANDS.” – RED & BLACK, 4/73. - Underlining by JZ

UTOPIAS: The idea that there is … one best society for everyone to live in seems to me to be an incredible one … No one should attempt to describe a Utopia unless he’s recently re-read, for example, the works of Shakespeare, Tolstoy, Jane Austen, Rabelais and Dostoyevsky to remind himself of how different people are.” – Robert Nozick, “Anarchy, State and Utopia.” – META-UTOPIA, TO EACH THE KIND OF UTOPIA OF THE OWN CHOICE, AT THE OWN RISK & EXPENSE

UTOPIAS: The most awful tyranny is that of the proximate Utopia where the last sins are currently being eliminated and where, tomorrow, there will be no more sins because all the sinners will have been wiped out.” – Thomas Merton, introduction to selected texts from Mohandas K. Gandhi’s Non-Violence in Peace and War, 1948. – Did Gandhi ever write in favor of total non-violent resistance against totalitarians? – Or did he have only the English territorial authoritarianism in mind? – JZ, 12.8.08. – Did he ever consider personal law alternatives for his own followers and for his opponents? – As a lawyer he SHOULD have been at least somewhat familiar with personal law. – JZ, 29.4.14. - NON-VIOLENCE, RESISTANCE, GANDHI, PERSONAL LAW, TOTALITARIANISM, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM

UTOPIAS: The opposite of civilization is not barbarism but Utopia. Utopia can let no man be his own worst enemy, take the risk of going uninsured, gamble on the horses, or on his own future, go to hell in his own way. It has to concern itself more with the connection of the parts than with the separateness of the parts. It has to know where everyone is; it has to bunch us up to keep track of us. It can’t protect us unless it directs us.” – Robert Frost, Interviews, July 1954, p.146. - Apparently, he knew only territorial and intolerant utopias and not any freedom and justice-loving tolerant ones, although e.g. in the U.S.A. thousands of peaceful utopias and intentional communities were realized, for a while, by volunteers, at their own expense and risk. Is it not terrible when a freedom-loving man like him never came across the pro-freedom utopias, because they were and are not sufficiently published, abstracted and reviewed? – JZ, 13.8.08.

UTOPIAS: The pace of events is so fast that unless we can find some way to keep our sights on tomorrow, we can not expect to be in touch with today.” – Dean Rusk, quoted in L. J. Peter, The Peter Plan, p. IX. – Another famous territorialist, who did not realize how much his territorialism prevented him from realizing the present and future potentials, demonstrated by free experimentation for all – among volunteers and at their risk and expense, thus exploring xyz possibilities at the same time in the same country and even more world-wide. – No one should even try to keep in touch with and to try to understand and control everything and every development, like territorial rulers are inclined to do. They have still to realize their natural limitations and to stop putting their limits on the free, rightful and tolerant activities and experiments of numerous dissenters. – Everyone to become free to do his own things, alone or with like-minded other volunteers, always at the own risk and expense. That is self-evident to somewhat enlightened people and should be made self-evident to all. After all, in so many other spheres, mostly minor ones, it is already to widely used that it is taken for granted. - JZ, 13.8.08. – DOING THE OWN THINGS, TOLERANCE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM, CHOICE, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY, HOBBIES, PRIVATE ASSOCIATIONS & ACTIVITES OF GREAT DIVERSITY

UTOPIAS: The philosophers have merely differently interpreted the world. But our task is to change it.” – Karl Marx, in Spring 1845, in his theses on Feuerbach, according to Reiche, Freiheit, S.144. (“Die Philosophen haben die Welt nur verschieden interpretiert; es kommt aber darauf an, sie zu veraendern.“) - Alas, he did not understand the world, especially economics and its free market relationships, sufficiently, to be able to change it in a rightful, rational and positive way. His statist and authoritarian way, with the help of some other totalitarians, fanatics and fundamentalists, has cost mankind more than 200 million lives during the last century and many more largely wasted lives and enormous suffering, destruction and misery. – His utopianism was mass-murderous and impoverishing. - JZ, 13.8.08. - Largely, because it, too, was territorial rather than exterritorial and for volunteers only. - JZ, 1.4.11, 29.4.14.

UTOPIAS: The problem with Utopia is that it can only ever be approached across a sea of blood and you never arrive.” - Philo Voluntaryist Rex, on Facebook, 14.5.13, quoting: Peter Hitchens - Almost any utopia is possible, at least for a while, among its believers and at their expense and risk. Only the territorially imposed utopias are always wrong as such. - John Zube - VOLUNTARISM VS. TERRITORIALISM

UTOPIAS: The social order? … Obviously one kind is less evil than all the others. Perhaps there may even be a perfect one. Only remember, … that the best social order is not susceptible to being arbitrarily constructed, nor even to being scientifically constructed, … Do not be so arrogant as to imagine that you can invent an ideal social order, because with that invention you may destroy your beloved ‘people’. - Solzhenitsyn, August 1914, 1971, p.429. – Experimental freedom for volunteers, full freedom of association, contract, free enterprise, laissez faire and consumer sovereignty, a free market in this sphere as well, instead of any territorial imposition upon whole populations. – JZ, 23.12.13. - SOCIAL ORDER, IDEAL SOCIETY, PERFECTION, COERCIVE IDEALISM & UTOPISM, PERSONAL LAW, META-UTOPIA, VOLUNTARISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, LAISSEZ FAIRE, SECESSIONISM, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY IN EVERY SPHERE

UTOPIAS: The Utopia: One Utopia for all is the worst utopia. – JZ, 23.3.91. –– Any utopia is a rightful utopia only for those, who do agree with it and as long as they do, individually. – JZ, 10.1.93. - Even if, objectively, it would be the best of all utopias so far proposed or experimented with. It, too, should not be imposed upon dissenters. – To my knowledge, the liberty lovers have not even bothered, so far, to list together, abstract, review and permanently publish all pro-freedom utopias. Why not? There are, after all, not very many of them. - JZ, 12.8.08. – PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, META-UTOPIA, POLYARCHISM, COMPETING GOVERNANCE, VOLUNTARISM, FUTURISM, SCIENCE FICTION, BIBLIOGRAPHY

UTOPIAS: The utopian dreams are often merely premature truths.“ – A. de Lamartine, Die Geschichte der Girondisten. – („Die utopischen Traeume sind oft nur vorzeitige Wahrheiten.“) – Not often enough. They are more likely to embody the usual popular errors, myths and prejudices. – JZ, 12.8.08. – Alas, that applies even to most science fiction. I would like to see a list of all the popular errors and prejudices that are still taken for granted in most science fiction stories and books, together with their best refutations. Then each existing SF book or story should be evaluated with that list, by adding to its title the number of its flaws and their refutation in that kind of list. With its help future SF writings could be much improved and become thus much more a literature to enlighten readers. – JZ, 29.4.14.

UTOPIAS: the well-known French development specialist René Dumont. After many years of experience he wrote his book L’Utopie ou la mort (Utopia or Death; Paris, 1973), in which he concludes: ‘Yes, the Chinese experiment seems the society most likely to offer an assured future.’ It is based on the Cultural Revolution principle of ‘independent industrial systems’ (kung-yeh-ti-hsi). Numerous small and medium-sized local factories were started after 1959, and more particularly after 1966. They are proud to model themselves on the much admired workers of Tachai, to stand on their own feet, and to be wholly or almost wholly independent of outside help.” – Robert Jungk, The Everyman Project, p.116. - They practised, perhaps, all but free enterprise, free exchange, free pricing, free trade, free banking and free migration and private property rights, free contracts and free markets and free investments and freedom from taxes! - What kind of „development specialist“ Dumont was can be seen from the immense failure of that „great experiment“, one territorially imposed upon all Chinese people. - Some people live all their lives in already somewhat free markets and still do not recognize the nature of a free market and of free market economic developments, e.g., the interdependence of free markets and all their free enterprises and free traders, blinded by their territorial supposed “ideals”. – The Red Chinese “Great Step Forward” was really just another step backwards, territorially enforced! – However, Jungk’s book makes at least some good points. – But here he is terribly. misinformed - JZ, 13.8.08, 1.4.11. – Look up some of the over 74 million references that Google offers on the Self-Management Institute! – JZ, 29.4.14.

UTOPIAS: The whole world lies before us like a great quarry before a builder. Everything except us is merely an element. I may even say that even all that is in us. However, deep within us lies this creative force, that is able to create what should be and does not let us rest and delay until we have realized it outside of our selves, or within our lives, in one or the other way.” – Goethe. – JZ tr. attempt of: “Das ganze Weltenwesen liegt vor uns wie ein grosser Steinbruch vor dem Baumeister. Alles ausser uns it nur Element, ja ich darf wohl sage, auch alles an uns. Aber tief in us liegt diese schoepferische Kraft, die das zu schaffen vermag, was sein soll und uns nicht ruhen und rasten laesst, bis wir es ausser uns oder an uns auf eine oder die andere Weise dargestellt haben.“ – However, we ought to be tolerant towards all others who do, quite tolerantly, work on their own and different "building" projects. - JZ, 1.4.11. – As Leonard E. Read often stated: „Release all creative energies!“ – No one’s supposed ideal should be forced upon any dissenters. It should spread onlly by ist power of attraction. – JZ, 29.4.14. - CREATIVITY, REFORM URGE, WORKING TOWARDS CHANGE FOR THE BETTER, TOLERANT RATHER THAN INTOLERANT WORLD IMPROVEMENT ATTEMPTS, VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDM FOR ALL, UNDER PERSONAL LAW, META-UTOPIA, COMPETING GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS, POLYARCHISM, PANARCHISM

UTOPIAS: There exists no more unrealistic blindness towards facts than the neglect of ideas.” – Dr. G. Blume, an editorial writer for DER TAGESSPIEGEL, 1950. – (“Es gibt keine unrealistischere Tatsachenblindheit als die Vernachlaessigung der Idee.”) – Alas, this large West Berlin newspaper was also great in this kind of neglect. – Probably, it still is. No article or letter to the editor was accepted for publication that did not agree with the limited knowledge, prejudices and ideology of the editors. As the main newspaper with some intellectual aspirations in West Berlin, it thus shut excluded some of the best West-Berlin minds. - For new just, freedom- and peace promoting ideas, practised only among volunteers, ideas one cannot rely on the mass media. – JZ, 13.8.08. – At least by now they can be offered on websites, blogs and discs, affordably. Alas a proper market for all ideas, refutations and talents has not yet been established although by now it could be done more easily, cheaply, faster and without risk than ever before. – I offer free of charge 3 digitized books on the subject, not copyrighted. – At least 2 of them are offered on, perhaps also the one in PEACE PLANS 20. If not, I could send the latter as an email attachment. The greatest obstacle is the popular opinion that a free market for ideas and talents does already exist. The bitter experiences of anarchists and libertarians should have taught them otherwise. - JZ, 29.4.14. - IDEAS, IDEAS ARCHIVE, SUPER-COMPUTER PROJECT, PEACE PLANS 20

UTOPIAS: There is no past that one may desire back. There is only always something new that resulted from the enlarged elements of the past. The genuine longing must always be productive, to establish something new and better.” – Goethe, an Kanzler Mueller, 1823, in “Wert und Wuerde”, S.39. – JZ tr. of: “Es gibt kein Vergangenes, das man zuruecksehnen duerfte, es gibt nur ein ewig Neues, das sich aus den erweiterten Elementen des Vergangenen gestaltet, und die echte Sehnsucht muss stets produktiv sein, ein neues Besseres erschaffen.“ – In the same work, p. 58, he also stated: „Men are annoyed that the truthful seems so simple. They should consider that they will have trouble enough to realize it in practice for their own advantage.“ – JZ tr. of: “Die Menschen verdriessts, dass das Wahre so einfach ist; sie sollten bedenken, dass sie noch Muehe genut haben werden, es praktisch zu ihrem Nutzen anzuwenden.“ - GOLDEN AGE, PARADISE DREAMS, CHANGE, OVER-SIMPLIFICATIONS, GENERALIZATIONS, PRIMITIVE NOTIONS, PROGRESS, INNOVATIONS, REFORMS, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM & VOLUNTARISM FOR THEM, IDEAS ARCHIVE, TALENT CENTRE, PERSONAL LAW OPTION, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

UTOPIAS: Too many utopias are based on the own needs and wants, to be fulfilled at the expense of others, rather than on the own genuine and wanted services, freely traded for those of others. – JZ, 5.7.92.

UTOPIAS: Utopia is necessary.” – BLACK & RED, No.5. – As if there could be only one utopia, instead of the multitude that does exist or has been proposed. – Each of them is rightful and “necessary”, at least for a while, but only for the believers in it and thus anyone should be quite free to engage in any of them, while others remain free to abstain from it, ignore it or free to merely observe it and to argue against it. – However, to speed up progress, we do need free experimentation with many utopias or other innovations, but always only at the expense and risk of voluntary experimenters. Only to that extent can utopias be rightful and necessary. – JZ, 12.8.08.

UTOPIAS: Utopia is the only place to be. This world is not yet good enough. – JZ, 16.11.76. – To each his own, naturally! – JZ, 7.12.76.

UTOPIAS: Utopia is where you find it.” – Edmund Cooper, Tomorrow Came, Panther Books, 1963, p.59. – Or where you establish it. – JZ, 13.8.08, 1.4.11. – CHOICE, FREEDOM, TOLERANCE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY

UTOPIAS: Utopia means, literally, “nowhere”. This idea is thrown at voluntaryists and anarchists as an argument that their vision for society could never exist. Because Utopia is and will always be “nowhere”, then the Utopians re those who champion a vision for society that can never exist. Stateless, anarchistic societies have existed before, proving their compatibility with human nature, and proving that they are not utopian. In contrast, a successful state, successful in the sense that it has achieved  it’s purported goals of creating fair law, preserving order, and ensuring justice and security, has never existed and will never exist for philosophical and economic reasons. What has existed is a state successful in the sense that it has achieved conquest, plunder, class warfare, economic dependency, and every other means of expropriating wealth from others. That state does exist; hundreds of them exist and have existed, in fact. What we may conclude, then, is that neither parasitic-statism nor anarchism are utopian; leaving us with the only alternative, that which never was and can never be as a matter of incompatibility with the laws of economics and of huyman nature: the good and noble State. Now what’s the point in championing that? – Skyer J. Collins. – Quoted by, yesterday, Facebook, 29.4.14. – Jim Carigan, sharing’s photo - STATE, ANARCHISM, LIBERTARIANISM, VOLUNTARISM

UTOPIAS: Utopia: 1985 wages, 1932 prices, 1910 taxes. – Quoted in THE CONNECTION. - JOKES

UTOPIAS: Utopia: A more or less complete alternative to the present State and society, described as existing somewhere or at some time, either as a supposed or proposed ideal or as an anti-utopia (distopia), a dangerous possibility to be warned against. The ideal for some people is considered to be a disaster or trivial for many other people. Very few utopists, so far, envisioned a panarchy or meta-utopia with opportunities for all kinds of utopias, all only among volunteers. – JZ, 13.5.82. – And this in spite of the long experience with e.g. monasteries, private clubs like sports clubs, nudist clubs, numerous diverse enterprises and forms or organizing trading, the great variety of hobbies, crafts and entertainments, arts, literature, movies, theatres, operas, life-style preferences, etc., all peacefully coexisting, the great precedent of religious liberty, that of historical personal law societies and of numerous utopian colonies and intentional communities in many countries, especially the U.S.A. None so blind as he who will not see. – JZ, 13.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, META-UTOPIA, COMPETING GOVERNANCE, VOLUNTARISM, PERSONAL LAW, PRECEDENTS, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY ALSO FOR GOVERNMENTAL SERVICES & FREE ENTERPRISE COMPETITION FOR THEM

UTOPIAS: Utopia: No promise or hope of tomorrow’s better world is worth the price of today’s liberty.” – Dagobert D. Runes, A Book of Contemplation, p.137. – Also in his A Dictionary of Thought. - No map guide is complete without containing maps of all utopias as well. – At least one ought to learn from them what to stay clear of. – JZ, 26.7.92. - Today’s remaining liberty is still all too small – but all the more precious because of this fact. It is also fully needed to achieve, finally, full freedom, justice and peace as well as rapid progress. – If one considers the exterritorial autonomy options for voluntary communities under personal law, instead of merely the limited territorialist monopoly options, then no liberty would have to be sacrificed. Alas, most people still think only in the intolerant terms of territorialism, - JZ, 13.8.08, 1.4.11. – And this in spite of the fact that e.g. searching with Google for “personal law” I just got almost 1 million references and for “personal law in India” even 322 million results. But has India become the teacher of the world in this respect or are notions of compulsory division into castes and of territorial statism still predominant there? – JZ, 29.4.14. - LIBERTY, PANARCHISM, PARADISE PROMISE FOR THE FUTURE, TERRITORIALISM, INTOLERANCE, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, INDIA, CASTES, STATISM

UTOPIAS: Utopian alternatives will not stand up to analysis. – Prof. Coray. – As if he had read and understood all of them. – To my knowledge he has not considered e.g. the libertarian aspects of Theodor Hertzka’s “Freeland” and “Travel to Freeland”, de Puydt’s essay on Panarchy and a few others. I only admit that pro-freedom utopias, displaying significant economic knowledge, are still all too rare and flooded by statist and territorialist ones. – Serious thinking about utopias is, according to Immanuel Kant, what provides dignity to any philosophy. - JZ, 13.7.08.

UTOPIAS: utopianism, as Anatole France said, is the principle of all progress. It is the poeticization of all practicalities, the idealization of everyday activities. It is not a rational process: it is an imaginative process. The Utopia fades the moment we attempt to actualize it. But it is necessary; it is even a biological necessity, an antidote to societal lethargy. Society exists to transcend itself, …” - Herbert Read, Anarchy and Order, p.23. - Underlining by me. – JZ

UTOPIAS: Utopias as impositions should always be distinguished from utopias representing voluntary actions, institutions and proposals, i.e. those, meant only for volunteers. And this requires personal law and exterritorial autonomy. – JZ, 3.12.81, 13.8.08. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, TOLERANCE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR ALL, VOLUNTARISM

UTOPIAS: Utopias now appear much more realizable than one used to think. We are now faced with a very different new worry: How to prevent their realization!” - Nicholas Berdiaeff, quoted in: ANALOG, 6/87, p.163. - Rather, how to confine them to volunteers under personal law only. What is territorially close to impossible is exterritorially quite naturally and inevitable. - JZ 23. 9. 02. - IDEALS, REFORMS, FULL EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, FREEDOM OF CONTRACT & ASSOCIATION & VOLUNTARISM IN EVERY SPHERE VS. STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

UTOPIAS: We are not going to have utopia on earth.” – Walter Williams. – Certainly not a single, centralist, collectivist and territorial utopia for all people but, rather, xyz utopias for all the numerous different kinds of faiths and convictions, as long as there are any believers for them left. – JZ, 19.10.91. – At present most of us are stuck in the territorialist statist utopia, at best merely a democratic one. – JZ, 26.10.08. - PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, TOLERANCE FOR TOLERANT ACTIONS & EXPERIMENTS, VOLUNTARISM, ASSOCIATIONISM, FREEDOM, META-UTOPIA, COMPETING GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS

UTOPIAS: What in the human world creates the new realities was always the impossible.” – Gustav Landauer, Die Revolution. – (JZ tr. of: “Was in der Menschenwelt die neuen Wirklichkeiten schafft, ist immer das Unmoegliche gewesen.”) – What was supposed to be impossible or impracticable or too idealistic. - JZ, 1.4.11. - IDEAS ARCHIVE, TALENT CENTRE.

UTOPIAS: When such minds are not active – what a loss for my State!” – Friedrich Schiller, Don Carlos, III/10. - (“Wenn solche Koepfe feiern, wie viel Verlust fuer meinen Staat!“) – „One stroke of the pen – and newly created is this world.” – (“Ein Federzug von dieser Hand und neu erschaffen wird die Erde.”) – F. S., ibid.


UTOPIAS: Yet, as I showed in my first novel, The Probability Broach, all that’s necessary to achieve a kind of practical open-ended utopia is to understand that civilization is a machine whose purpose, like that of any machine, is to give back just a bit more than we put into it. In a technological society, that would be possible a thousand times over if it weren’t for groups like the IRS whose function is to deny the average individual the benefits of the industrial revolution.” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.72. – - Territorial monopolism and coercion is even worse in its results than taxation and it includes all the wrongs and harms of compulsory taxation, monetary despotism, Warfare State powers, nuclear “armament”. – JZ, 27.9.07, 29.4.14. - & CIVILIZATION AS A PRODUCTIVE TOOL OR MACHINE, INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, TAXATION & GOVERNMENT

UTOPIAS: You can’t get along without Eden.” – Mallarmé, Prose, p.314. – Well, according to the Bible, we had to get along without it, since we were thrown out of it. – However, the dreams of and thoughts about a better world are one of the best characteristics of mankind, as long as the believers remain tolerant and are tolerated in all their tolerant actions towards the realization of their ideals. – JZ, 12.8.08. – PARADISE, EDEN, CASTLES IN THE AIR, FREEDOM OF ACTION & EXPERIMENTATION, PERSONAL LAW CHOICES, SECESSIONISM, ASSOCIATIONISM, VOLUNTARISM, META-UTOPIA, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, CONTRACTARIANISM



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