John Zube


Quotes, Notes, Comments & Slogans
for Individual Liberty & Rights
against Popular Statist Errors & Prejudices

Index - M3

(2013 - 2014)



MONETARY FREEDOM: If sound money would be competitively issued it would seek out ready for sale goods, services and labor, upon which it is based. While under monetary despotism, with its monopoly money and its legal tender power (Only permitted money, with compulsory acceptance and a forced value) people are first forced to hunt for this monopoly money, with their labor goods and services and are not always successful in this hunt. (If it is very scarce, then with it they can buy goods and services at emergency sales prices. If it is over-issued then they can force it upon their creditors at its fictitious nominal value. - JZ, 6.1.11.) The private monies, competitively and successfully issued (i.e., also readily accepted by others) by people offering labor, services and goods ready for sale, all of the kind that are wanted by others, could thereby assure themselves of corresponding sales within a short time - for this kind of money would have no other value to its holders. Like tickets, it would have to be returned to the issuer to be redeemed in whatever he has to offer in his labor, services and goods. The more of the local providers of labor, services and goods would associate to issue a common currency, the easier it would be for their members to find local acceptors for their common private currency. But, like a shopping centre, they would have to offer the proper mix of goods and services. And since such mixtures are already and almost everywhere, in densely settled areas, organized and offered in their shopping centers, the natural thing would be to allow the shopping centers to issue their own currency as an additional and competitive local currency. If a sound value standard were used in it, then at least in this respect it would be superior to the monopoly money of most governments. Their readiness-to accept- foundation for their own currency would then be quite obvious. Their large readiness to accept, their cover and redemption capability, would be on public display in all local shops. It could also be partly seen in window shopping after shopping hours. It is also known that their shelves could be very fast restocked should they, temporarily, run out of some items. The shop currencies of shopping centers would certainly keep their circulation in correspondence with their goods and service offers. If their goods and services as well as their notes are marked in stable value units, then their issues would be sound and stand at par in local circulation, due to the goods and services backing them and immediately or soon wanted by the consumers. If any over-issue occurred, then a small discount of them would happen at first. If that persisted or were even increased, then refusals to accept any more of this currency would become more and more general. Until this discount disappears again all further issues should be stopped by the issuer - in his own interest. The more stable it is, the more widely it will be accepted. Thus he might rather tend to under-issue it than over-issue it and watch closely for the first small local discount anywhere. He might then even use other means of payment that he had obtained to buy up these discounted notes at par. Although outlawed as a rule, now and then such shop currency issues have taken place for a while. Then the laws and institutions of monetary despotism shut them down again. If all such potential issuers acted together, just before an election, well informed and organized, eliminating with their sound shop currency inflation or deflation and with them also mass unemployment, then the despotic laws against such self-help measure might be soon repealed. – Even a mere village or town helping itself in this way would be widely reported, maybe even world-wide. But it might be wise to hold off publicity as far as this is possible, until such a self-help action has existed already for a considerable period, in order to have it soundly proven for a period, not just for hours, days or even a few weeks only. Then it would become all the harder to suppress it, once it does become general public knowledge. – Ideally all such transactions should be public. But with the fear of further taxes imposed by the tax authorities many to most people would rather want to keep them secret. – Taxation is the power to destroy – in many spheres. - JZ, 7.10.08, 6.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: If standardized clearing notes in handy denominations and redeemable, at their stated values, in export goods, can be freely used to pay for imports that are freed of custom barriers, foreign exchange controls, quotas, licensing etc., then exports would, obviously be assured to the same extent and imports could grow without limits and would still be balanced by corresponding exports. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – BALANCE OF TRADE & TRAINING – See especially the writings of Prof. Edgard Milhaud and Ulrich von Beckerath on this. - & CLEARING FREEDOM IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

MONETARY FREEDOM: If the government’s monetary system does not permit you to pay or being paid with the government’s money, or not to a mutually satisfactory extent, then you should be free to pay or be paid with your own or self-chosen privately or cooperatively issued money tokens and clearing certificates. These should be quite justly and correctly based, directly or indirectly, on the own goods, service and labor supply capacity and readiness, under any self-chosen or mutually agreed-upon value standard reckoning. All this under correct issue, acceptance, transfer and reflux techniques. (Also under full publicity for the details of such issues, at least once this freedom has been attained and is widely enough practised. - JZ, 6.1.11.) This would put you almost into the position as if you could pay directly with your goods, services or labor in kind, for all your requirements. – JZ, 16.10.03, 23.10.07. - FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: If the use of several concurrent currencies is to be seriously considered for immediate application in a limited area, it is evidently desirable to investigate the consequences of a general application of the principle on which this proposal is based. If we are to contemplate abolishing the exclusive use within each national territory of a single national currency issued by the government and to admit on equal footing the currencies issued by other governments, the question at once arises whether it would not be equally desirable to do away altogether with the monopoly of government supplying money and to allow private enterprise to supply the public with other media of exchange it may prefer.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.20.

MONETARY FREEDOM: If you desire inflation, deflation, stagflation or stagnation, mass unemployment, many sales difficulties and bankruptcies or economic crises and impoverishment of all too many people, just continue with the monetary despotism of central banking, with its legal tender power and issue monopoly for its exclusive national currency, its paper money with a paper value standard. However, if you favor full employment at market rated wages, paid in sound currencies, sound credit and debt relationships, the optimization of the ability to pay, earning and paying wages and salaries, making consumer purchases, achieving sales of consumer goods and services, making the payments of other credits and debts easy, sound and honest, and if you want the immigration restrictions abolished and to make immigrants and refugees welcome, under free migration, under booming business-, agricultural- and industrial conditions, freedom for free trade, rapid development and an unrestricted production and a just spread of wealth among productive people, in accordance with their productivity, then consider full monetary and financial freedom as a just and efficient prerequisite. They provide opportunities for almost everyone’s ability and readiness to work productively and to provide labor, goods and services. – JZ, n.d., & 24.10.07, 6.1.11, 2.11.13. -  VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: If you don’t catch on to monetary freedom then monetary despotism will continue to exploit you. – JZ, 22.2.03. VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: If you give up your monetary rights and liberties you will lose other rights and liberties as well. – JZ, 22.2.03. - RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: If you were unemployed would you be willing to accept a job in which you would be paid only in shop currency acceptable in the local shopping center? If you are still employed, what percentage of your wages or salary would you be willing to accept in form of a local shop currency that stands at par with its nominal value? How much e.g. in petrol-, gas-, electricity-, bus-, train-, postage or even plane-fare money (if you are a frequent flyer) or water-supply and sewage service money, or in the rent money issued by local landlords or in local government money to pay your rates with? Prepare your mind for the day when monetary freedom becomes a reality, perhaps even with your help. – JZ, 21.12.92, 7.10.08.

MONETARY FREEDOM: If, in stead of arguing with one another, the various money reform groups would come out openly for freedom in banking, then each could go ahead with their plans with voluntary cooperators. Each one's money would circulate among those who considered the plan sound and workable. But no one would be compelled to accept any other money than he wished. The better ideas and systems would win out, having been proven sound by actual operation. There might be failures at first, no doubt. But it is by free trial and error, with only experimenters and free cooperators getting "burned", that satisfaction is fully achieved. This is the method of liberty. Many of those, who now turn to governmental schemes for lessening man's plight, may soon find themselves hog-tied by government force and violence, as has been the lot of several peoples in the Eastern hemisphere. - Money grew out of the need to ret rid of the inconveniences of barter. Money is that wealth or media that is (*) generally acceptable in the exchange of goods and services. (**) - Money is of two kinds; commodity money and credit money.” - Laurance Labadie, in THE STORM, 4 & 5, 1977. - (*) locally - (**) Or only in private and voluntary payment communities, as he suggested above. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: If, through freedom for such issues, all ready-for-sale consumer goods, services and labor can be freely and monetarily represented through corresponding “ticket-money”, goods- and service vouchers, in convenient monetary denominations, also using sound value standards, then, free pricing for goods, services and labor with such sound value standards, and to the extent that such certificates are freely accepted at par, because their “redemption” values are wanted immediately or soon enough, all such issues could be fully redeemed in the goods, services and labor of their issuers and thus disappear out of circulation again, without having driven up the price level. (Apart from ending emergency sales pricing.) They would merely have, as sound exchange media, mediated or cleared the exchange of existing goods, services and labor. Such issues are obviously rightful and harmless – jut like barter is. Their issues could be continuously renewed, very cheaply, just like other tickets for other performances, as required. Neither an oversupply nor an undersupply of such ticket money is to be feared. There exists then no monopoly for such issues and no forced acceptance and forced value for them - as exists now - for the monopoly paper money of the government. These ticket monies would only be offered and accepted to the extent that they are wanted or needed. The whole process would be self-managed, market rated, market balanced, voluntary, harmonious, just, without inflation or deflation or stagflation effects, self-limiting, controlled by the individuals and the publicity involved. They would offer a way to fully realize free enterprise, free exchange, free trading, free contracts, freely determined wages and salaries, the free pricing for goods and services. Only under monetary despotism - with its issue monopoly, metallic redemption obligation, right to demand payment in gold or monopolistic legal tender money, with legal tender power (compulsory acceptance and a forced value) - can any serious monetary troubles arise and persist for all too long. – JZ, 2.12.99, 6.10.08, 6.1.11, 2.1113.

MONETARY FREEDOM: In 1964, minimum-wage was 5 silver quarters per hour. Today (2/27/2013), those 5 quarters are worth $ 26.21 in melt value. – We don’t need to fix the minimum wage, we need to fix the money. - David T. Beito shared Laissez Faire Capitalism's photo. - John Zube: Money is not to be "fixed" but decontrolled, demonopolized - by full monetary and clearing freedom, including freedom to issue money tokens and clearing certificates and accounts and free choice in value standards, whether weights of silver, gold or any other agreed-upon value standard. Under that condition, in the proper formulation of Gresham's Law, only the good monies would survive. The bad ones would either be altogether refused or discounted, with reckoning in sound value standards being continued. Freedom of contract, association and experimentation should be applied in this sphere as well. – Facebook, 5.3.13, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: In a natural economy each producer produces his own money. The issue of money is not a function of the State. The economic body can make MUCH money much more easily than all the restraints in the world.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce. - Say probably had this idea and practice in mind when he worded his famous "law", namely that good and services produce their own currency. - JZ, 29.8.02. – However, since most products are produce away from their consumers and distributed by local shops, the local distributors of goods and providers of services are more suitable issuers than the producers. – The goods warrants of mass producers are more suitable to pay e.g. imports with, from other districts, countries or continents and, thereby achieve corresponding exports for their goods. - JZ, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: In a small Swiss city sits an international organization so obscure and secretive ... Control of the institution, the Bank for International Settlements, lies with some of the world's most powerful and least visible men: the heads of 32 central banks, officials able to shift billions of dollars and alter the course of economies at the stroke of a pen." - Keith Bradsher of the NEW YORK TIMES, August 5, 1995. – Free clearing does not need monopolies or secrecy but complete free enterprise and maximum publicity. However, tax laws and foreign exchange laws, interfering with property rights and free exchange, do often make secrecy a necessity, just like people under threat of robbery or theft try, quite rightfully, to conceal their assets from private criminals as far as they can. Good luck to any financier or capitalist who manages to conceal some of his assets from the official robbers. He will almost certainly, in most cases, make better use of these funds than the politicians and bureaucrats would, if they could get their dirty fingers on them. – The more free clearing and free exchange there is, the less politicians, bureaucrats and territorial institutions and laws - the better for the world. – Multinationals, with private investments in many countries, would do their very best to try to prevent wars between these countries or, rather, their governments. – Foreign investments should even be considered obligatory, in the interest of progress and peace, and should become untouchable by the own and the foreign government, as long as we still allow territorial governments to exist. - JZ, 5.1.08. - FINANCIAL DESPOTISM, FINANCIAL FREEDOM, WORLD BANK, BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT, CONSPIRACY THEORIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: In addition to land monopoly and patent-copyright monopoly, Tucker denounced the banking-monopoly privileges granted by the government. Being opposed to governmental compulsion, he objected to the prohibition of any voluntary currency or arrangements that the people might make for and among themselves. Free banking and free money meant free trade carried into finance, unlimited competition (*) in the business of making money, and as a result the utter rout of inferior and usurious currencies by the virtues of the cheapest and the best. While Tucker rejected the claim that one has a moral right to engage in usury, he did not advocate any method of abolishing it save the removal of all restrictions preventing the free action of natural principles. "To attempt to suppress usury by [the?] state is outrageous because tyrannical, and foolish because ineffectual." - Carl Watner on Tucker in REASON 4/79. - (*) and thereby self-limiting competition as in the provision of other goods and services. - JZ, 22.3.97. – BENJAMIN R. TUCKER & USURY

MONETARY FREEDOM: In effect, Professor Hayek is arguing that money is no different from other commodities and that it would be better supplied by competition from private issuers than by a monopoly of government.” - Arthur Seldon, in Hayek's Denationalisation of Money.

MONETARY FREEDOM: In order to take from government the power to manipulate the currency and credit there is one simple constitutional right which must be conferred on all citizens: the right to hold assets in the currency and credit instruments of their own choice, with absolutely no restriction upon what that currency or those credit instruments may be.” - H. S. Ferns, The Disease of Governments, p.121. - Not only financial freedom in form of investments in various foreign currencies and securities, should be expanded, but freedom to issue any financial securities - that are not fraudulent and any exchange media that are optional and honest and to use or agree upon any value standard. - Why have so many voices for monetary freedom have had almost no effect on the mass media, public opinion and most academic economists so far? - Their false views on money do not have legal tender power but their authority is still unquestioned by popular opinion. The priests of the monetary religion of the people do still rule - with stupid slogans like e.g.: "Buy-Australian!" - JZ, 21.3.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: In order to understand the case for monetary freedom better, let us consider a hypothetical case: Assume that the government would, in its boundless "wisdom", and during a future crisis, withdraw or restrict its money and its credit and clearing channels not only to some extent but completely and, nevertheless, would continue to insist upon its monopolies in this sphere, - as e.g. unionists are often inclined to do. - Should we then stop producing and exchanging, thus making our living and supporting ourselves? Should we meekly accept the indirect death sentence which this could apply - and starve to death? - Or should we attempt to help ourselves, keeping up production, division of labor and monetary exchange - by means of alternative (privately or cooperatively issued) money tokens and private clearing arrangements? - Please do consider this hypothetical case seriously. You will remember some strikes of bank employees, also of postal workers etc. Even Doctors and policemen have gone on strike. Thus such a hypothetical case might be initiated by trade unionists or the State. - We should keep in mind Lenin's take-over of the Central Bank in Petersburg, as one of the first measures of his counter-revolution. Afterwards, the leaders of the numerically stronger opposition parties had to come crawling to him to be able to pay the wages of their secretaries and armed supporters. – They had not thought about their monetary freedom alternatives, either. In a more recent case, during the East German uprising of 1953, the insurrectionists were, to a large extent, defeated because the woman in charge of the East German Central Bank did block all wage payments in the insurrectionist areas. It was a logical and powerful step. The workers soon ran out of cash and food. Within a few days, "General Hunger" was fighting for the Soviet-sponsored regime. The same ruthless logic was used by the East German police in order to break unrest and hunger strikes of their victims in prison: They cut off the water supply to their cells! - Should we not expect more and other such ruthless steps at least from some people, movements and States? Remember what the Cambodian Communists did: They evacuated a whole city (Phnong Peng) and tried to wipe out everyone, down to school kids, who could read and write and anyone who wore glasses and was thus suspected of such “ambitions”. From such people you can expect almost any negative and atrocious action. - Indeed, it is unlikely that either an ALP or LP government of Australia would ever act as madly as that - but please do remember that they do also subscribe to the communist monetary system, as recommended by Marx and Engels, and with its aid made up to a million of Australian workers unemployed and thousands of businessmen bankrupt. Moreover, they showed that they are foolish enough to play around with price and wage controls after 4000 years of experience with such measures provided only failures. - Shall we just accept such actions, of whatever degree, as the legal actions of our governments, and suffer correspondingly, or should we consider acting illegally, at one stage, helping ourselves in something like a monetary revolution? - Please, do really give this some thought. Perhaps we are already to close to such a situation - or would only a 40% unemployment rate, as happened once in Saigon or an 80% unemployment rate, as happened in Elizabethville in the Congo, justify resistance and self-help actions? - Inflation does also cause mass unemployment. At what stage of it should we actively resist and end it by issuing sound alternative exchange media, using value standards of our choice? Should we wait until a 100% or even 1000% inflation p.a. occurs? - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. – MONETARY REVOLUTION, HYPOTHETICAL CASE, GENERAL STRIKE

MONETARY FREEDOM: In sum, the belief that the creation and management of a monetary system ought to be the prerogative of the State - i.e., of the politicians in power - is not only false but harmful. For the real solution is just the opposite. It is to get government, as far as possible, out of the monetary sphere.” – Henry Hazlitt, THE FREEMAN, 11/75, p.670. - Why are so many old arguments not settled at all but indefinitely adjourned, for years, decades and even centuries? One extreme case, the "free- will" debate, has been going on for over 2,000 years. Should we not by now get rather impatient and systematically tackle such controversies? In this case, flow chart discussions, collections of definitions, encyclopedias of the best refutations of popular errors myths and prejudices, (*) could greatly help - and so could the Internet, if it were sufficiently mobilized for such discussions. It is a difficult riddle to solve that the money system has not been thoroughly explored, with all the old myths exploded, for all people, except government crooks and dishonest debtors, have a vested interest in sound money. Even the debtors would benefit greatly from the avoidance of any deflation and through their increased ability to pay their debts. - JZ, 21.3.97, 6.1.11. - (*) As well as the digital “argument mapping” of Paul Monk et al. – JZ

MONETARY FREEDOM: Individualists insist on freedom of demand and supply in goods and services because it is beyond the power of any body of men to decide what shall be produced, how much, when and where. It seems therefore reasonable that since every exchange of goods and services involves the use of money, exchangers should be free to use any money that both parties are willing to use. Only thus can we be sure that money will appear where and whenever it is needed for exchange.” - Henry Meulen THE- INDIVIDUALIST, 10/77. – It will still have to  be produced or issued. And for this freedom is required. It will not just “appear” as required, as seems to have been one of Say’s assumptions at least in the popular version of Say’s Law. That applies only to the various degrees to which already produced and exclusive rare metal currencies are either hoarded or circulated. – JZ, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Individualize the sales problem by individualizing money issues, as far as is possible, desirable and practicable - and the sales problem for labor, services and goods would largely disappear. Each would indirectly promote his sales through spending his standardized IOUs for what he needs. - A time limit for the circulation period of this private money would do away with the risk of such media being excessively hoarded. They would have to stream back soon - for redemption into goods and services. – Collectivized, forced and exclusive or Legal Tender exchange media, by a monopoly issuer, which everyone in a country, not only the issuer, would have to accept at face value, would not necessarily stream back to the one who spent them and would thus not be similarly sales-promoting. - Everyone would depend only on his own monetary policies and those of his associates, not upon those of many other  people in his country, with whose monetary policies, institutions and choices he might strongly disagree. - JZ, file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files, 6.1.11, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Introduce new currencies at once, not gradually. –The other important requirement of government action, if the transition to the new order is to be successful, is that all the required liberties be conceded at once, and no tentative and timid attempts be made to introduce the new order gradually, or to reserve powers of control ‘in case anything goes wrong’.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.93/94. - Let the introduction happen through volunteers, experimenting with their preferred, exchange medium, clearing credit and value standard systems, freely competing with the old system, upheld only among its remaining volunteers. The contrast will be all the more persuasive in favor of the most successful new systems tried by volunteers. Only the laws of monetary and financial despotism need immediate repeal. Then people will adopt their monetary freedom options as gradually or suddenly as they want to, always only at the own risk and expense. – JZ, 4.10.08, 2.11.13. – PANARCHISM, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, GRADUALISM?

MONETARY FREEDOM: Issue and accept your own sound money and clearing tokens and refuse to accept the bad money of governments altogether or at their face value. Price out all your goods, services, labor and credit or debt contracts in a value standards that you trust, the value standard of your own choice, but payable in any acceptable means of exchange, valued in accordance with the value standard you have chosen. – Then many problems that territorial governments were and are quite unable to solve with their kinds of monetary despotism, will soon become solved. – JZ, 27.2.07, 25.10.07. - FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: It allows putting demand for one's own goods and services into circulation - by using one's goods and services as a cover and redemption medium for the issue of exchange media of one's own, with which one buys the goods and services of others and thereby enables them to buy one's own goods and services. Morally this is as rightful as barter or swap or clearing transactions are. But economically this monetary settlement is much easier to achieve in an economy based largely upon division of labor and free exchange. No exchange is free when exchange media cannot be freely issued, chosen, rated, refused or accepted and when the choice of value standards is not free, either. Under monetary freedom one can "monetize" or "liquidify" one's readiness to sell goods, services and labor, with one's own typified and standardized notes, goods-, service-, labor- warrants, vouchers and certificates, in convenient money denominations, using a sound and acceptable value standard, whose acceptance is optional and market-rated by others. One would only bind oneself to accept them at any time from anyone at par with their nominal value, for everything one has for sale or in repayment of due credits. One’s ticket money is then redeemed in wanted goods or services or with the payment receipt for the repayment of a due other debt. – One might say that such issues do have an immediate or short-term debt foundation. Such issues could be undertaken by individuals, under a perfect clearing system. In its absence voluntary associations could be formed that would make their exchange media and value standards more widely acceptable, at least locally. Among the most suitable issuers for such notes would be shopping centers. Under full monetary freedom other types of optional money and clearing facilities could, naturally, be provided, too, by and for all those who do like them. - JZ, old MONETARY FREEDOM NEWSLETTER notes & 30.5.97, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: it is an industry left to the towns. That there should be an inspector to supervise its manufacture admit, but the role of the state extends no farther than that.” – Proudhon, Federal Principle, p. 46. – At least here he did quite clearly favor decentralization. Why did he not similarly and quite clearly stand up for free and decentralized “Banks of the People”? Or did he do so, somewhere, perhaps in his still unpublished writings? – JZ, 20.9.98, 27.9.08, 2.11.13. – In a Google search for Proudhon and his Bank of the People, centralized or decentralized? I just got 1.16 million results, which I haven’t got the time and energy to explore. Generally, he favored decentralization. But was he a centralist in this respect? His attempt to set one up failed. Would he have welcomed competition if he had succeeded? – JZ, 2.11.13. - FREE COINAGE, DECENTRALIZATION, FREE COINAGE, PROUDHON’S “BANK OF THE PEOPLE

MONETARY FREEDOM: It is essential that we be permitted to make contracts with each other payable in gold, or in the dollar value of gold. Whether this is permissible now under our present laws is a grave question. But there is no doubt that in a free society contracts made in gold should be just as permissible as contracts made in any other commodity. This - plus the ownership of gold - would act as a brake on the insatiable appetite of government for more and more printed paper money. It would be a most important aid in the fight against inflation.” - Lawrence Fertig, THE -FREEMAN, 3/75. - Legal tender as a pre-condition for inflation is not even mentioned here! - JZ, 21.3.97.  Neither is the note issue monopoly which also permits inflation in an economy dependent upon monetary exchanges. Nor die he consider free choice of value standards as a basic libertarian monetary reform requirement. – JZ, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: It is my thesis that the public would select from a number of competing private currencies a better money than government provides.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.55. - GRESHAM'S LAW

MONETARY FREEDOM: It is not important whether one uses e.g. wood, plastic, steel, paper or electronic options to express and indicate one’s exchange media, clearing certificates, clearing accounts and whatever one wants to use as value standard but it matters very much that one is quite free to use them, as an issuer and a recipient. No forced, fraud or coercion should be used in this sphere, especially not a statist monopoly. – JZ, 27.10.00. – As guarantors of national currencies all central banks have, to my knowledge, revealed themselves as failures, at least during the last few decades. – Only towards their issuers should all competing monies always have legal or juridical tender power at their nominal value. - JZ, 4.10.08. - FREE BANKING, PAPER MONEY, COINS, TOKEN MONEY, LEGAL TENDER, FREE MARKET MONIES, FREE CHOICE AMONG VALUE STANDARDS

MONETARY FREEDOM: It is State interference with the money supply that causes the alternation of boom and slump - the succession of boom and slump that provides the chief target of criticism in the socialist attack on capitalism.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 6/75. - DESPOTISM & BOOMS & SLUMPS, SOCIALISM & CAPITALISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: It is true that many of the monetary freedom and free banking steps proposed would, if realized, have led to inflation, in terms of their note issues, unsoundly issued. For instance the proposals of Spooner, Proudhon, Tucker and others, that would have mobilized even long-term securities and capital assets as "securities" for note issues. But they could not have led to a general inflation but merely to the depreciation of these flawed issues, to the extent that they could and would happen without legal tender. In the absence of legal tender, such private issues would have become somewhat depreciated, before being generally refused, but they could not have inflated a price level and wage level that is marked out in stable value units. - Centralized note issue does not get the notes where and when they are needed, to a sufficient extent. It does not consider as worthy of credit all those people whose credit is only locally established and known. Branch banks, subject to regulations from a center, cannot completely make up for this inability. - Central banking is inherently as flawed as central baking and milk production for a whole large country. – JZ, n.d. & 6.1.11. - CENTRAL BANKING, CHANNELS OF CIRCULATION FOR VARIOUS CURRENCIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning. Henry Ford – Once enough people understand monetary freedom and financial freedom and do and apply their options, then a peaceful revolution would soon occur, one which would tend to end, very fast and without sacrifices but rather profitably for most people, all the wrongs and evils of monetary and financial despotism. – JZ, 21.4.13, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: It makes quite a difference for debtors and for their creditors as well, whether the debtors are free to pay their debts, capital and interest, in their own clearing certificates, redeemable only in their own goods, services and labor, up to e.g. the gold weight value of their debt obligation, however much their IOU’s may have to be discounted by their creditors for this purpose, or whether they are forced to pay it e.g. in rare metal coins or banknotes redeemable in rare metal coins or in the legal tender monopoly money of a central bank. It is lastly always only their own ability to offer goods, services and labor in exchange that enables the debtors to pay any of their debts. So they might as well be allowed to mobilize these fundamental assets of theirs directly, to their own benefit and that of their creditors, instead of leaving both dependent upon the supply of any exclusive rare metal coin currency or any paper monopoly money of a central bank. A debtor can always offer whatever values he almost always has to offer to his creditors, in form of his own debt or clearing certificates or IOUs, readily accepted by him for his goods, services and labor at their face value. He can never be certain that others will supply him sufficiently with other means of exchange, wished, or hoped for by his creditor or expected by them, to enable him to pay all his debts. Thus his creditor’s legalized "right" to demand cash of him should be replaced by his right to demand clearing and settlement of him in any form that is fair to both sides, even if this would require a large discount of the debtor’s IOU’s or clearing certificates to achieve for the creditor the full value of the debt that is owed to him, measured in a mutually acceptable and agreed upon value standard. At present creditors are always betting that debtors will be sufficiently supplied with monopoly money to repay their debts with it and they do often lose this bet. All dealings with such cash amount actually to dealings in futures, like dealings in wheat not yet grown and harvested or in fish not yet caught and are, correspondingly risky. – Such alternative exchange media or emergency money or clearing-certificates might not only help the debtor and his creditor but all the others, who would make use of them for their requirements, before these notes are finally presented to the debtor to be redeemed by him in his goods, services and labor. – Many debtors could also combine to issue a common kind of clearing certificate that all of them would readily accept in payment for what they have to offer for sale. Such clearing certificates would be more readily accepted by creditors and this at a lower discount rate, possibly even at par with their nominal value, just like e.g. the sound shop currency of a local shopping centre would be. All the commercial debtors, between them would also have an extensive and varied enough shop foundations to offer. They might even take the initiative, before any of them gets into trouble, to prevent any shortage of exchange media from occurring, by setting up their own issuing centers for their IOU’s and clearing certificates, thus providing a local currency before anyone else does. – No one should be made dependent upon a monopoly money or an exclusive and forced currency for all his transactions. - JZ, 28.1.98, 29.9.08,6.1.11. – FOR DEBTORS, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CLEARING ONE’S DEBTS WITH ASSIGNMENTS UPON ONE’S GOODS & SERVICES, IN CONVENIENT MONEY DENOMINATIONS – FREELY MARKET-RATED

MONETARY FREEDOM: It means free choice for all value standards, exchange media, clearing and credit arrangements - for their issuers or producers as well as for all their potential acceptors. – JZ, 3.4.00, 6.10.08. - However, the final acceptor, the issuer, must always accept his notes etc. as par with their nominal value. - JZ, 6.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: It seems that a suitable organization and publicity and propaganda agency is still needed for the mobilization of all unemployed and willing labor power, skills and knowledge, and for all ready for sale and still wanted or needed consumer goods and services - through competitively issued, freely rated and refusable clearing certificates or shop currencies, with all of them only redeemable in ready for sale consumer goods and services, so that inflation, deflation, stagflation and their involuntary unemployment and underemployment, sales difficulties and involuntary poverty would largely disappear. Only the issuers would always have to accept them at their nominal value. Only towards them should they be “legal tender”. Thus and through stable value reckoning in them and in all prices, wages, fees etc., an inflation of such exchange media or clearing certificates would be made impossible. - So far not only the politicians and bureaucrats but also the unemployed and the retailers and most money reformers have shown all too little interest in this alternative. It, its possibilities and natural limitations as well as historical and present precedents for it should be made sufficiently explored and published or made easily accessible and this with the best refutations so far found of all the numerous and usual errors, myths, prejudices, wrong premises and conclusions that stand in the way of this reform. All books and articles on the subject as well as their discussions should be made readily accessible at least in electronic form. I suppose that a single DVD could come to offer as much information (the equivalent of the pages of up to 15,000 books), and this in combination with an inbuilt search engine or one that is offered free online. Not only could the rise of new dictatorships be greatly reduced in this way but also the successful defence opportunities against them could be greatly increased. With that system millions of deserters and refugees from dictatorships could be welcomed with open arms, very rapidly integrated in the process of free production and exchange, to their own great advantage and that of their new country, while the dictatorships would be correspondingly weakened. It is not impossible that even the majority of the conscripts of a dictatorship could thus be induce to change sides. Mao Tse Tung proved that even to a totalitarian dictator like him, under certain conditions the soldiers of his enemies would desert in droves. The chances for genuinely free and tolerant societies are much larger to thus weaken their enemies (foreign despotic governments) and to increase their own economic political and military strength, especially if they combined the full economic freedom options and opportunities with all the panarchistic ones for all kinds of societies of volunteers. – Who cares what kind of societies of volunteers the deserters and refugees would establish among themselves, as long as they are not longer conscripted or taxed to help dictators fight against us? - JZ, 28.9.08, 6.1.11. - DEFENCE, MILITARY STRENGTH, CONSCRIPTION, DESERTION, REFUGEES, PANARCHISM, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, FULL EMPLOYMENT

MONETARY FREEDOM: It was undoubtedly supposed that these coins, on account of their portableness, and on account of their amount and quality being accurately known, would be bought and sold, to a considerable extent, from hand to hand, as a currency, that is, in exchange for other commodities. But there is no evidence of any intention, on the part of the constitution, to preclude the people from the enjoyment of their natural right freely to buy and sell, from hand to hand, any other articles of property, which the parties might agree upon – whether those articles should be notes of hand, certificates of stock, bills of exchange, drafts, orders, checks, or whatever else might happen to be convenient for such purposes.” - The more important object of the coins probably was to provide an article or subject of “tender in payment of debts: that should be uniform throughout the country, and of nearly equal value in every part of it. It was of very great importance to the promotion of free commercial intercourse between the citizens of the different states (which was one of the greatest objects the constitution was intended so secure), that the subject of “tender” should be uniform throughout the country – otherwise contracts, made in one state, might not be strictly, or even tolerably, enforced in the other states. (*) And hence it is provided that “no state shall make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts.” - Lysander Spooner, Law Relating to Credit … p.26. – While legal tender paper money with legal tender power is certainly also uniform throughout the country, it is certainly not the same as gold or silver coins as a legal tender. – (*) As if the parties could not agree upon either a certain fixed rate of exchange for the paper currencies of different States used by them or could not agree upon the freely floating exchange rate of a certain day as binding for them. - JZ, 5.10.08. – The common value standard could e.g. be simply a gold- or a silver weight unit and any other exchange media than gold or silver coin would only be accepted at their currency gold- or silver weight value. Free markets for rare metals would provide these details. – JZ, 2.11.13. - FREE BANKING, GOLD COINS, CONSTITUTIONALISM, GOLD STANDARD, BANK NOTES, GOODS- & SERVICE WARRANTS

MONETARY FREEDOM: It would allow needs and wants to appear as effective monetary demand. (*) It would be a more accurate description to speak of allowing the ability and readiness to provide goods and services to appear, through effective private monetization, under freedom of note issue and free clearing, as effective monetary demand for the goods and services of others, always reckoning in sound and self-chosen value standards, for the own notes, goods and services as well as for the goods and services of others. – (*) “Bedarf als Nachfrage.” – U. von Beckerath. - Bedarf darf als Nachfrage erscheinen. - JZ, 9.6.04, 30.10.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: It would mean, among other things, new, additional and sound money issues that can neither be inflated nor deflated, like the government’s forced and exclusive currency can be. How can anyone, after all the bad experiences had with governmental currencies, still be in favor of them? This remains a riddle to me. – Whoever thinks that additional money issues would inevitably depreciate money, has not understood e.g. the Quantity Theory or Gresham’s Law, properly defined, Legal Tender, the Real Bills Doctrine and the Banking Principle, the clearing process and free market rating for currencies, sound value standards and the right to refuse acceptance of depreciated money tokens, the various foundations for sound monies and the reflux theory and practice. - JZ, 30.9.06, 25.10.07, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: It would raise retail sales and employment by allowing retailers to pay and even grant short-term loans, mainly for wage and salary payments, with goods- and service vouchers and purchasing certificates in money denominations, i.e. means of payment that would inevitably stream back to them for what they have to offer. The issuers could and would also use, if free to do so, better standards of value than governments have usually used. Not being legal tender or a monopoly money, their issues could not inflate a currency and with it all prices. Their prices would continue to be marked in stable value units and only the issuers would have to accept their issues at par with their nominal values, for goods and services also priced out in stable value units. They could issue as much as they can, as long as their notes are accepted a part, i.e. until their circulation sphere is saturated, thereby eliminating deflationary effects in their payment sphere. At worst, when they made a mistake in their issues, their notes could suffer a small discount in general local circulation - but the issuers would still have to accept them at par, thus withdrawing the excess notes rapidly from circulation and, with them, removing this discount or disagio. - JZ, 11.12.82, 20.12.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: It would therefore now be possible, if it were permitted, to have a variety of essentially different monies. They could represent not merely different quantities of the same metal, but also different abstract units fluctuating in their value relatively to one another. In the same way, we could have currencies circulating concurrently.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.25. - This was his rather late entry into the German, Swiss and Jewish School of monetary freedom advocates, of which he remained almost completely unaware! – JZ, 20.1.08. - Such practices have long existed, although mostly only on a limited scale and were, nevertheless, largely ignored by scholars like Hayek. During depressions and inflations in this century alone there were more issues of emergency monies, not only by public authorities but also by private or cooperative issuers, than anyone has so far been able to document fully. Some catalogues of coin and money collectors come close to such documentation but most of their authors would deny that their listings are already complete. - JZ, 21.3.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Knapp said that money would be the creation of a rightful order. Alas, we do not yet have a rightful system of order, at least not in this sphere, and this in spite of, nay, because of an abundance of wrongful and nonsensical legislation in this sphere. - JZ, 31.1.83.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Large department stores, shopping centers, supermarkets and chain stores like Woolworth, Coles, Franklins, Payless and Westfield shopping centers could, at least to a limited extent, issue their own shop currencies and get them locally accepted at par. But the single shopping centers, supermarkets etc. would be wise to combine, even with local specialty shops, to issue a common currency and to issue this currency soundly mainly only in short term credits for wage and salary payment, not only to current employees but also newly employed people who were before unemployed or under-employed. Obviously, they could, thereby assure and increase their sales – as long as their goods and services are competitive and market-priced. Their currency could become a widely accepted local currency, one that could neither be over-supplied or under-supplied, since it could not be forced into circulation and more could be issued, as needed. – The limits for their issues would be indicated by the first small discount for them in local circulation, against whatever value standard they adopt for them, hopefully a better one than the government’s paper value standard, more and more depreciated over the last few decades, for by now for almost a whole century. – All contrary laws should be repealed or ignored. – Politicians would be complete fools if they tried to enforce the laws of monetary despotism against such issues – when it becomes clear that these issues are not inflationary but promote the local economy and reduce or even abolish local unemployment. Then they would be sure to lose the next election. – JZ, 10.1.99, 25.9.08, 6.1.11. - SHOP CURRENCIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Leave all creative activities, including the medium of exchange - money - to the wisdom of the market. Do this or our country will end up with a five-cent thousand-dollar bill.” - L. E. Read, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. – How many or how few years will pass until a US $ 1,000 will have only the purchasing power of the 5 cents of 1909 or of a current 5 cents? – JZ, 16.2.09, 6.1.11. – Q.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Leave the decisions about money to the market. Limit the government to its proper function of policing the market and punishing traders who cheat or rob or willfully injure other peaceful persons.” - L. E. Read, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. - Why would anyone assume that the government can and will fulfill this task better than any others that have been surrendered to it? - JZ, 22.3.97. – See: MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Leonard E. Read saw monetary freedom only in very general terms, as an experimental freedom process that would, ultimately, provide the best kinds of money. – JZ, 10.8.07. – He was right, as far as he went. But to solve the money problem one has to get into many of its details, in theory and in practice. Otherwise, the same old mistakes will be uncritically repeated, over and over again, for all too long. – JZ, 29.10.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let buyers and sellers choose what to use for money; let governments prevents fraud.” - Leonard E. Read, The Love of Liberty, p. viii. & chapter 6. - Let the worst fraud of all pretend that he could and would prevent fraud? - - Since governments were the worst defrauders in this sphere it would be tragicomic to entrust them with this -role. - JZ, 21.3.97. - CENTRAL BANKING, GOVERNMANT PAPER MONEY

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let each choose or be his own monetary quack or crank or expert - but only at his own expense and risk and that of his voluntary followers. So far we were all the victims of the coercive money cranks of the governments, who forced their central bank monopolies and powers and their forced and exclusive legal tender paper monies upon us and who manipulated them not only into inflations but deflations and stagflations, without allowing us to opt out from under them and to become monetarily emancipated. This is one of the many important “votes” that they have deprived us of in their republics or democracies, supposedly based upon THE right to vote. - JZ, 2.2.90, 29.4.97. - EXPERTS, SELF-HELP, MONEY QUACKS & TOLERANCE, VOTING

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let goods and services providers also provide their own exchange media and clearing certificates - and they will almost always be sold: there would be neither sales difficulties for goods nor for services (unemployment).Then they would also choose for themselves and their customers better value standards than our territorial governments provide us with. - JZ, 1985, file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files. Compare: SAY'S LAW, FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let the good money drive out the bad. - As it would, inevitably, under competitive issue for private money tokens subject to a free market rate. - JZ, n.d. – For who would readily accept inferior or deteriorated kinds of money when better kinds are available? – JZ, 20.1.08.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let those who exchange goods and services (and that, one way or another, is nearly all of us) choose and use as money the most trustworthy marketable item available.” - Ralph Bradford, THE FREEMAN, Aug. 74. - Even that should not become an exclusive currency, even if it is favored by 99 % of the people. Each marketable item favored by some can serve to conduct or promote their exchanges, at least until they adopt something they think is even better. Neither experts nor laws nor majority votes should be authorized to decide these matters for them. Freedom of contract. Freedom to exchange. Monetary freedom. Not just the monetary freedom option that some people think would be the best for all. - JZ, 21.3.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let us agree to disagree and I beg you only to at least consider the options and preconditions for monetary freedom and tolerance for various tolerantly practised monetary systems, including various short-term account keeping, clearing and short-term credit systems, all desired by and pleasing their supporters, at least for a while, while they can stand them, if they still do have flaws. In the latter case one might be willing to give them a theoretical warning and free advice but one should in no way continue to support their suppression. - JZ, 3/97. - & MUTUAL TOLERANCE FOR TOLERANT ACTIONS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Let’s establish the conditions under which good monies would drive out all bad or inferior monies – and would supply all of the able and willing workers, tradesmen, professionals, businessmen and manufacturers and farmers with earned incomes in form of sound local currencies. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Like conventional and government monies, private note issues, coin issues, clearing certificates etc., competitively issued as optional local currencies, should be "issued" in convenient small, medium and large quantity "denominations. It should also include different value or value standard systems, based on ideas, proposals, opinions and arguments offered, resisted or refused and, finally, widely enough accepted, locally, at least by some people. At last, possibly not fast, a free market rating will appear for every exchange medium or method, for every value standard, too, indicating their pari-stand or discount or the extent of their refusals. We would also achieve the acceptance or refusal to accept at all, or without qualifications, any monetary view, opinion, economic "law", rule, system or institution or process, any suggested value standard, at least in limited circles of their voluntary users or victims. And all the opinions offered in exchange will have to consistently stand up to their own value standards - and to those of many others. All the opinions offered for exchange and all their value systems should be provided as far as possible on a special free market for them, one that is also well publicized and has as many more or less informed voluntary participants as can be gained for it. In this free exchange or information exchange and clearing house system, in this free market for current, popular or unpopular opinions on money, ultimately, the good ones will drive out the bad ones, since no such opinion will have an exclusive currency status and legal tender (compulsory acceptance and compulsory value). Each can be freely refused or discounted. And when a sufficient record is kept of all the refuted ones and how they were best refuted, then it will become harder and harder and ultimately almost impossible, to issue any of them again, except by and to fools. Can one drive such an analogy further? Please do so and send me your better statements! - JZ, 11.4.97. – Compare the proposed “Handbook on Monetary Freedom” on monetary freedom ideas, proposals, facts, precedents and experiences with it. – All information on it should become combined in one electronic reference work. – JZ, n.d., & 6.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Make goods, services and labor easier transferable and even assure their sale via standardized and typified goods- service-, labor-warrants and clearing certificates (or corresponding accounts, on paper or digital ones), in monetary denominations that are competitively issued and offered in payment, but are refusable and discountable in general circulation and are using an agreed-upon and freely chosen value standard. They are to be valid only for a limited, stated and rather short period and possess only contractual legal tender (i.e. compulsory acceptance at compulsory face value) exclusively towards their issuers and their debtors. In the absence of general legal tender they cannot inflate the general price level and they can be issued to overcome any shortage of means of exchange and thereby any deflationary sales difficulties for goods, services and labor. Within their circulation period they must be used, like tickets, redeemed in goods, services and labor of the issuers or cleared on their accounts. – Their free market rating and refusability in general circulation will keep their issues and their reflux in balance. They cannot cause an inflation but they can overcome a deflation under full freedom of issue for them. – Given their chance, they would drive out inferior exchange media and value standards. – For them there can never be too much in goods, services and labor waiting for an exchange. For these goods, service and labor capacities could then become freely “monetized” and finally redeemed in the note or money issues based upon them. - What more can one ask for in this sphere? – Say’s Law would finally be realized. The market would create its own free and sound exchange media, as required, for all desired exchanges. - If you can express this principle and practice more concisely and clearly, please, do so and let me know! Your formulation might then help, significantly, to bring about a monetary freedom revolution. - JZ, 28.11.01, 18.10.07, 6.1.11, 2.11.13 - - OR FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: Man without monetary rights and liberties will not become what man could and should be. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07. & MAN

MONETARY FREEDOM: Many enterprises, now forced to borrow government monopoly money and to pay a high interest rate for it – if they can get it at all – could, if free to do so, rather issue their own kind of local currency. - JZ, 25.4.99. Alas, in all such cases this is not impossible but simply outlawed. And we put up with such despotism, as the expense of the unemployed, the businessmen, the consumers and the taxpayers. – JZ, 29.9.08.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Means of payment should not be pursued and struggled for - but issued instead, so extensively and so soundly that everyone who has goods and services for sale, that others are prepared to exchange for their goods and services, will have no difficulty to sell them for soundly issued exchange media - that are immediately redeemable by the issuers in their goods and- services. - JZ, n.d. & 22.3.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary crises, like deflations and inflations with their mass unemployment happen again and again only because the unemployed themselves, the employers, the retailers, and all others suffering under monetary despotism are ignorant of it, and its consequences and of its alternative, monetary freedom, disinterested in them and inclined to uphold with their popular errors, myths, prejudices and fallacies rather monetary despotism than push for full monetary and financial freedom. Insofar they supply the sanction of the victims. But politicians and government consultants make money and gain or retain power and influence by upholding monetary and financial despotism rather than their opposites. Thus the sanction of the victims and vested interests maintain monetary and financial despotism and their consequences. The territorial State model, all too fixed in most heads still, like slavery and monarchism once were and feudalism and its serfdom, also helps to uphold monetary despotism because under it monetary and financial freedom experiments among communities of volunteers are prohibited – together with all such exterritorially autonomous communities under personal laws. – Moreover, we have not yet compiled or agreed upon an as complete declaration of individual human rights and liberties, one which would also contain all monetary, financial and other economic rights and liberties as well as the panarchistic ones. – In that respect we are still in the Dark Ages and the Age of Enlightenment has not yet started. - JZ, 29.12.92, 7.10.08, 6.1.11. – MONETARY DESPOTISM, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary demand for consumer goods and services should correspond to, originate from and be based upon these goods and services and should be finally redeemed in them. That would happen automatically if they could be freely monetized by their owners, thus enabling them to pay their way, paying many to most of their bills almost directly with their capacity and willingness to supply ready for sale and wanted goods and services in exchange. To the extent that they could issue these goods- and service vouchers for their purchases and loans (especially short-term ones, for wage- and salary payments, they would at the same time assure the sales of their goods and services. Their notes in the hands of the local public would have no other use or value except through their reflux to them in payment, to be redeemed by their goods and services, i.e., their cover, redemption or convertibility fund. Naturally, these alternative exchange media and the goods and prices should be expressed in sound value standards and the exchange media and the value standard should not be legally imposed and exclusive but, instead, optional and market-rated ones. That would prevent inflation through over-issues and the right to issue them would prevent under-issues. No one but the issuer would be obliged to accept them at par. They would be refusable and discountable in general circulation. And prices market in stable value standards, e.g. gold ounces or grams, would not be increased even if one or the other of such competing exchange media could and would be severely over-issued. - JZ, 19.12.93, 30.4.97 - TO KEEP GOODS & SERVICES IN BALANCE WITH THE MONETARY DEMAND FOR THEM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom allows also central banking – but only for and among those, who do advocate it or consent to it, e.g. in their own private or cooperative payment communities. – JZ, 12.1.04. - CENTRAL BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom can make exchanges as unlimited as barter exchanges can be - but can do this without the inconveniences and difficulties of barter. Monetary exchanges merely facilitate barter, as a helpful and intermediate stage - by turning it into a form of anonymous and multilateral barter of goods and services, whose prices and values are cleared against each other, with the aid of suitable tokens and value standards and certificates or accounts for this purpose. The production of optional and sound money can be as unlimited as the production of goods for barter and the offer of labor for barter. It is ultimately redeemable mainly only in daily wanted consumer goods and labor, represents goods and labor, pays for goods and labors and thus facilitates the exchange of goods and labor. - The essence of any money function, except that of a value storage unit, is its clearing function, so much so, that theoretically all money tokens could be replaced by a comprehensive clearing system, made up of local, regional, national and international clearing facilities. The mutual setting-off or canceling of all credits and debt does not absolutely require money tokens but merely value standards or their symbols and figures on paper or corresponding electronic signals. All debts are equal to all credits. (Those not mutually cancelled, can be covered by insurance charges, in which premiums and pay-outs do again balance each other.) Over their periods even medium and long term debts and credits are cancelled out. But future goods cannot be easily exchanged for present goods, at least not with the means of currency, liquid and competitively issued cash, issued, with the best intentions but insufficient knowledge and experience, for this purpose but, only, via capital securities, bought with cash and, ultimately, sold for cash and returning, if sound, some cash interest in the meantime. - If one realized the barter and clearing nature of money then one will see that the "Quantity Theory of money" has only a rather limited validity, e.g. for exclusive legal tender currency. Free money issues are self-limiting and their optional and sound standards prevent price and wage rises from the monetary side. Market-rated sound monies are not driven out by market-rated unsound monies. Only bad legal tender monies have the power to drive out sound alternative currencies. Under monetary freedom Gresham's Law is reversed: The good money drives out the bad. - JZ, 27.8.02. - & CLEARING & BARTER

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom cannot be realized under a public opinion that is close to a vacuum when it comes to knowledge of and interest in the potential of monetary freedom, while it is saturated with the WRONG assumptions, observations, opinions, arguments and hypotheses, explanations, predictions, hopes and promises of monetary despotism. - JZ, 20.4.93,-15.4.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom does not permit inflation but does allow the issue of as much private currency as the market requires for its equilibrium, i.e. to bring about all desired and possible exchanges at market rates. - JZ, 25.10.76, 31.7.78, -21.3.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom is for money systems what panarchism is for political, economic and social systems. – JZ, 11.10.97, 28.9.08. – PANARCHISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom is for the monetary exchange economy what panarchism is for politics. Monetary despotism is for economics what political despotism is in territorial politics. – JZ, 30.7.98. – MONETARY DESPOTISM, PANARCHISM, COMPETITION, FREE CHOICE

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary Freedom is in my eyes providing something like an Archimedean Leverage option, or could provide it, if fully known and used. That requires, from my point of view, its full and permanent publication upon demand, of all its texts, in any desired selection. I have postponed many of the related jobs for all too long, too. - JZ, to Robert Carnaghan, 5/94. - AN ARCHIMEDEAN LEVERAGE?

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom is the key to full liberties and rights in many other spheres as well. – JZ, 22.3.03. – A man cannot always pay his way with monopoly money, unless he is a central banker or a government official. – JZ, 21.10.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom means that we could liquidify or monetize the goods, services and labor that we have ready for sale, which others want or need, and we could pay with the thus produced means of payment for the goods, services and labor of others that we want or need. We could also pay our already existing debts to others with our own means of exchange or clearing certificates. Quite free exchange is absolutely dependent on monetary and clearing freedom, for the internal as well as for the international trade and upon sound value standards. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07, 7.1.11, 2.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom must be correctly understood and practised to be enjoyed. – JZ, 22.2.03, 7.1.11. The mere free practice of old monetary errors and prejudices is not very enjoyable. – JZ, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom requires the repeal of all laws restricting money issues, clearing and credit as well as the value-standards used. - JZ, 74. - No more legalized coercion, monopoly and fraud in this sphere. A free market, with its clearing and note-exchanges, its publicity and competing juridical systems, can cope with private wrongful and flawed actions in this sphere. Optional and discountable competing exchange media, and exchange accounts, freely rated in sound and self-chosen value standards, can neither cause an inflation, a deflation or a stagflation. Only as much of them will be provided and accepted as are needed. They can be no more imposed or monopolized than tickets can be, shares or bonds. - An inflation, a deflation and stagflation are possible only under the note issue monopoly combined with legal tender, i.e. compulsory acceptance and a forced value for the monopoly money. - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom would mean that you could come to pay with your IOUs, like with ready cash – and could be paid with them like with cash. Thus you and all other users of it could come to clear your ready for sale goods, services and labor against each other. – JZ, 22.2.03, 7.1.11. & IOUs

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom would open up many other opportunities as well. – JZ, 22.2.03. – It would increase the ability to pay of all productive people. – JZ, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Monetary freedom would, indeed, prevent an economy from being saddled with inflation and its wrongs, harms and consequences, from the imposition of any depreciated and further depreciating government currency that is monopolistically and coercively issued to excess, but it would also provide cheap and sound money, in decentralized, free and competitive issues, until all legitimate demands of the economy for exchange media and clearing means are fully satisfied. It would assure that the saturation point would be reached while preventing that it would be exceeded by any issuers, to any large extent and for a long time. - - Private and competitive exchange media would be issued until all sales difficulties for wanted goods and services and labor would have disappeared, all signs of involuntary unemployment and depressions would have gone, i.e. until the market would be really free and functioning. Equilibrium would be established, i.e., everybody could then clear, at market prices, all the wanted goods and services that he has to offer (including labor) for the goods and services that he wants. - A really free market would have to include and be based on a free market for exchange media and value standards, and also all clearing facilities, a free market for money, in the form of free market monies. It would bring about permanent boom conditions. - Monetary freedom would allow to mobilize, without increasing the price level (by more than the abolition of emergency sales prices requires) all the ready for sale goods and consumer services that are wanted by others. – JZ, n.d. & 7.1.11, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Money is an exchange medium, i.e. a medium to facilitate – apart from clearing, of which it also constitutes a particular kind – all monetary exchanges of goods, services and labor and, within certain limitations (savings and investments are required) also the production, acquisition, accumulation and transfer of capital assets. Under certain imposed conditions, those of monetary despotism (monopolized issue, and legal tender power), it can be over-supplied or undersupplied and sometimes both phenomena can exist, in different spheres of the whole economy. (Inflations, deflations, stagflations.) - The central bank, with it power and monopoly, can always print more notes or stop issuing them or supply them in insufficient quantities. Other debtors are not allowed to help themselves in this way. And, naturally, they should not be allowed, either, to force their own means of payment upon others, least of all at their nominal value, when they are already depreciated. - Under fully free competition in the supply of sound exchange media, money and other clearing or payment options can and will be freely supplied, by self-help measures and organizations, in just the right quantities and qualities, wherever and whenever it is needed to mediate exchanges as easily as good money or non-cash payments can and, as a result, all monetary crises would then disappear. In the absence of legal tender and the issue monopoly, good monies will drive out the bad and inferior ones, as a result of natural and self-interested actions by issuers and potential acceptors. – Neither will be forced to use only over-supplied or undersupplied and all too badly mismanaged monopoly money. - JZ, 11.8.03, 24.10.07, 7.1.11. & MONETARY CRISES, STABILITY, DEVELOPMENT, GRESHAM’S LAW, SOUND VALUE STANDARD RECKONING UNDER FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Money is usually defined as THE generally acceptable medium of exchange, but there is no reason why, within a given community there should be only one kind of money that is generally (or at least locally widely) accepted. In the Austrian border town, in which I have been living for the past few years, shopkeepers and most other business people will usually accept D-Marks as readily as Austrian shillings, and only the law prevents German banks in Salzburg from doing their business in D-Marks in the same manner as they do 10 miles away on the German side of the border. The same is true of hundreds of other tourist centres in Austria frequented mainly by Germans. In most of them dollars will also be accepted nearly as readily as D-Marks. I believe the situation is not very different on both sides of long stretches of the border between the U.S. and Canada, and probably along many other frontiers.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.46. – For all locally issued currencies as opposed to any country-wide ones, the general acceptance applies only locally. Elsewhere they are only as acceptable as “foreign exchange” is, which can be freely converted in a free market for all currencies into the wanted currency. Even locally it may still be exposed to competition from one or even several other local currencies. – JZ, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Money issue and reflux of money could and should become as simple as is the issue and reflux of tickets to transport options, e.g. on trams, buses, railways, planes, or to cinema, concert, opera or theatre performances, to sports events, exhibitions etc. Essentially, they would be clearing certificates or clearing account credits, e.g. in form of goods warrants or service vouchers in money denominations. They might be railway- or bus- or telephone- or electricity- or gas-money and would, as a rule, not promise redemption in rare metals – unless this is specially agreed-upon. It also means free choice in value standards. Thus the most useful value standards will at least gradually, if not fast, become the most widely used ones, although they will not be granted a legal and territorial monopoly. The issuers will only oblige themselves with their competitively issued, optional discountable and refusable currencies. None of their note issues, coins, tokens or account credits will have legal tender power in general circulation - except towards their issuers and through special acceptance contracts towards some of their associates, especially their debtors. Through them all wanted exchanges of consumer goods and services could be easily mediated, as easily as tickets allocate seats in wanted performances. They would be the main means to avoid inflations, deflations and stagflations. They would drive out all inferior means of payment in the absence of the issue monopoly and legal tender power. [Gresham’s Law, properly understood.] They would essentially be merely clearing certificates for the exchange of goods and services, including labor. Their issue and acceptance should be as free as that of IOUs. However, while the financial despotism of compulsory taxation is being continued, the additional security of full publicity for all such issues and returns of issued monies to their issuers, cannot be assured. Under free market conditions and in the absence of legal tender power for it, over-issued tax foundation money would suffer a discount and would thus be widely refused – except by those who have due taxes to pay. - Compulsory taxation must become replaced by voluntary taxation or contribution schemes, insurance or protection subscriptions before full publicity for monetary freedom actions can be achieved. Under black market conditions the additional and desirable security of full relevant publicity and of an effective adjudication system cannot be achieved. The basic human rights and liberties involved have, probably, been most comprehensively stated by Ulrich von Beckerath, 1982-1969. I reproduced his drafts of monetary rights in my digitized anthology of private human rights drafts in PEACE PLANS 589/590. – It was digitized but not put effectively online as part of a CD placed at - JZ, 10.3.12, 15.1.13, 3.11.13. – MONEY ISSUE, TICKET MONEY, FREE MARKET MONEY, FREE BANKING, GOODS WARRANTS, SERVICE VOUCHERS, REDEEMABLE ONLY IN GOODS & SERVICES (INCLUDING LABOUR) AT THEIR STATED VALUE.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Money issuers, private, cooperative and competitive. That could be the title of an essay or brochure that would describe what kind of issuers would be possible in the future and were already practising a degree of monetary freedom in the past. E.g. petrol stations, gas suppliers, electricity works, water suppliers, local governments issuing rate money, bus- railway and airlines, shops, shop associations, large department stores, groups of unemployed. They and others would constitute at first the supply side and on the reflux of their money tokens to them also the demand side. The demand side would consist of all those who have wanted or even needed goods, services or labor ready for sale but since at present there is not sufficient monetary demand for them, they are unable to sell them or sell them fully: The unemployed, the under-employed, and the many who would take up at least part-time jobs if they became available. If they appeared first on the market as buyers, with their privately issued IOUs, redeemable in their ability and readiness to work productively, then they would thereby put purchasing power for their labor into the hands of their potential employers. Likewise, if the shops and shopping centers were free to monetize what they have to offer in wanted consumer goods and services, e.g. in short-term loans to potential employers, then they would solve their own sales problem, that of the employers (of goods produced for the market), and that of the unemployed.  The present chase for flawed, monopolized and coercive but uniformly imposed government money, usually either inflated, deflated or stagflated, would be replaced by a variety of sound private and optional means of exchange, all with sound value standards, chosen by the participants, chasing the goods, services and labor upon whose value they were issued and in which they will be redeemed. What prevents the issue of competitive alternative currencies? The legislation and institutions of monetary despotism, the currency and banking acts and the central banks which have legally monopolized the issue of money tokens and enforced the acceptance their country-wide monopoly money, which is economically inferior in many ways – but uniform and imposed upon a whole country's population, to the extent that it does not engage in underground exchanges, barter and clearing transactions that remain unknown to the authorities, especially the tax departments. Sufficient knowledge of monetary freedom practices of the past, widely enough spread, might lead to more such experiments and resistance against the money issue monopoly, lastly also at the political level. All those millions who suffer under monetary despotism, really the vast majority in most cases, have not yet been sufficiently enlightened and mobilized to stand up for their monetary rights and liberties and to use them to help themselves. If they showed the same interest that they show for sports, fashions, tourism and entertainment, we could have a peaceful but complete monetary freedom revolution within a week. Is it really too hard or even impossible to get the idea into the heads of most people that all of them could also be money producers, not only money users, at least as cooperative owners of a local note-issuing bank? Under perfect clearing, they could issue their own individual IOUs and through clearing they would stream back to them as payment to them, just like their personal cheques are streaming back to them to be deducted from the personal credit accounts. Economic, social and even political organization progress could be much faster and more assured, involuntary poverty would become rare (disabilities could be covered through sound insurance contracts) and wide-spread prosperity would be quite common - under full monetary and financial freedom, so far dreamed of only by a few. – JZ, 27.9.08, 7.1.11, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Money or clearing certificates by all and for all? By all able and willing to issue them and thus to oblige themselves to accept them for their goods, services or labor and also for all willing to accept them at par or at a market rated discount and able and willing to use them among themselves and, finally, against the issuers, at par, for the goods, services or labor of the issuers that they want for themselves or to pay with them their debts to him. – JZ, n.d., & 19.10.07, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Money should someday be depoliticized. The banking system should be truly independent of government. There should, as Professor Hayek has proposed, be choice in currency. The power to force the acceptance of worthless (*) paper as “legal tender” is an excessive power, too easily abused.” - Richard Cornuelle, Healing America, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, 1983, p. 107. – The introduction of as important liberties should not be postponed. At least communities of volunteers, willing to experiment with any degree of monetary freedom (alternative exchange media, clearing systems, value standards and credit and financial systems), should be free to do so, no longer subject to territorial government legislation. – (*) Not only quite worthless paper money but depreciated paper money, forced upon creditors as if it were still worth as much as when the debt was incurred. – JZ, 12.9.08, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Most people never think sufficiently about their monetary and financial freedom options and try to realize them. This happens in spite of the fact that most people strive or at least wish for wealth. Instead, they rather put up with the money of monetary despotism and try to attract and accumulate enough of this kind of money for their purposes, rather than trying to assure the sale of their goods, services and labor by issuing their own private money tokens, alone or, preferably, to make it easier, in combination with many other local people. (They also largely accept tax tribute levies and other forms of financial despotism as if they were unavoidable and natural catastrophes.) Then they would only have to find enough acceptors for their own currency and would have to redeem it - in their goods, services or labor - or debt payment receipts - always at the nominal value expressed on their notes. Then their goods, services and labor would almost sell themselves – to the extent that they got their own money accepted in payments for what they need or in repayments of short-term credits. Their goods, services or labor should also be priced out in a sound and self-chosen or locally widely enough acceptable value standard, naturally, with all their goods, labor and services offered at competitive free market prices. – Without the various monies and other clearing options of full monetary freedom, including their own money issues, clearing certificates and account transfers, the market is not free enough. Monetary freedom is much more important than is the freedom to vote for one or the other political candidate or party, most of them merely being representatives of monetary and financial despotism and practitioners or legislators of other wrongful, uneconomic and harmful territorial statist interventions. Full financial freedom, including e.g. voluntary taxation, is almost as important as is full monetary freedom. – Both could become much easier and faster realized probably through a well thought out and prepared as well as quite peaceful monetary and financial revolution than through the movements and activities required to achieve the repeal of all the laws sanctioning monetary and financial despotism. – JZ, 16.7.98, 26.9.08, 7.1.11, 3.11.13. - FINANCIAL FREEDOM, MONETARY & FINANCIAL REVOLUTION

MONETARY FREEDOM: Neither monetary nor financial freedom, peace, security, justice, wealth and progress will come through the laws of territorial governments and their other “actions”, policies, institutions, treaties and methods. – They haven’t even bothered so far, to declare all individual rights and liberties and quite rightful war- and peace aims. – They are usually run by ignorant and prejudiced power addicts, sharing the ignorance and prejudices of most of their territorial subjects. – Thus almost nothing right and economic is to be expected from most of them. - JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07, 3.11.13. - PEACE, SECURITY, JUSTICE, WEALTH, LAWS & TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENTALISM, LEADERSHIP, POLITICIANS, REPRESENTATIVES, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS, RULERS, LAWS, LEGISLATION

MONETARY FREEDOM: New enterprises and growth of already existing ones can be achieved much easier when, due to monetary freedom, the sale of their products or services becomes much easier. It is then no longer a struggle to obtain enough of a monopoly money, which is often under-issued or, alternatively, unsound through over-issues - but which remains, nevertheless, legally the exclusive and forced currency. As much sound currency could then be freely issued and would be accepted as is the equivalent to the ready for sale and wanted goods and services. Or all of one’s ready for sale goods and services could then be easily cleared against the goods and services one wants from others. – JZ, n.d., 26.6.07, 26.10.07, 7.1.11. - FREE ENTERPRISE & FREE BANKING VS. SALES DIFFICULTIES UNDER THE REGIME OF THE MONOPOLY MONEY OF MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: No compulsory acceptance at a forced value for any monopolistic money. Then the risks of inflation, deflation and stagflation and the involuntary unemployment, which accompany all forced and exclusive currencies, would be over. Good money would be competitively issued and voluntarily accepted and at any time preferred, by the payee to any bad monies offered. Bad money would thus driven out of circulation by good monies. The acceptance of the bad money would be refused or as much discounted as it deserves to be. Thus less and less of it could be issued. With bad money (a forced and exclusive currency) one can neither prevent inflation nor deflation. - In other words, let everyone who can and wishes to do so, issue his own exchange media and clearing certificates, based on whatever goods and services he has to offer, with both subject to voluntary acceptance, the exchange media subject to a free market rate against an accepted value standard that is also used in the pricing of the goods, services and labor of the issuers of the notes, IOUs or clearing certificates, token money, ticket money or purchasing vouchers in money denominations. All issuers, acceptors and users to be free to reckon and price in a standard of value of their choice, e.g. in grams of gold. Repeal all monopolies and all coercion in this sphere - all laws upon which monetary despotism is built. Then nobody, not even the government, not even with the worst intentions, could intentionally or by negligence cause an inflation, deflation or stagflation. Then all the sound exchange and clearing media that are required by the market could be easily and lawfully provided - and thus unemployment, depressions, deflations and inflations could be prevented. - JZ 1.9.75, 7.1.11. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files – FREE MARKET MONIES VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, GRESHAM’S LAW

MONETARY FREEDOM: No more legal tender laws and note issue monopolies but free market rating and optional acceptance for competitively issued banknotes, clearing certificates and other means of payment privately produced, offered as means of payment and freely accepted. No more compulsory acceptance and a forced value for a monopoly money. Everyone to have the right to refuse to accept or to discount all those monetary notes and certificates that he has not issued himself. – JZ, 27.2.07, 7.1.11. – The optimal expression of monetary freedom rights and liberties have still to be formulated and included in all bills of rights. – JZ, 25.10.07. - LEGAL TENDER, REFUSALS TO ACCEPT CERTAIN MONIES, RIGHT TO DISCOUNT MONEY THAT ONE HAS NOT ISSUED ONESELF, FREE MARKET MONIES VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: No unemployment and no inflation - long before next x-mas - if only we adopt monetary freedom. - JZ, 9/75.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Not: “Let's keep our money locally!" But: Let's issue our own local currency! - JZ, 5.2.83, 7.1.11. - I will keep on trying to formulate monetary freedom statements until I find or formulate, finally, one that is sufficiently convincing to other people to bring about a peaceful monetary revolution, one that establishes monetary freedom at least for its first free experimenters. As result of their successes, not interfered with and sufficiently publicized, it will soon spread generally. – JZ, 21.5.13, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Once a monetary enlightenment program is well thought out then it would also include a program for the financing of an uprising of genuine freedom fighters against any dictatorship anywhere in the world. Such a program could be translated and transmitted to such freedom fighters to give them a much better chance to succeed with their liberation attempts. Their freedom fight would tend to be even more and faster successful if one were also to succeed in persuading them to adopt the panarchistic platform as well. For their own current expenditures the revolutionaries could issue their own tax foundation money, accepted in all areas already liberated by them for existing taxes and a revolution tax. Their long-term program should include voluntary contribution schemes only - for communities of volunteers. To raise some funds they could anticipate the privatization of all of a dictatorship’s national or governmental assets, by issuing suitable security certificates and assure all its subjects their fair individual share in all government assets, less the expenditures involved in liberating them. This could provide a wide-spread financial interest of most of the subjects of a dictatorship to see it overthrown as soon as possible. In the already liberated areas full monetary and financial freedom should be introduced to overcome, as far as this is possible in revolutions and civil wars, all remaining economic crisis conditions. Primary institutions for the issue of sound alternative currencies would be associations of local shops. If rightful revolutionaries win in their armed struggle largely with the help of monetary and financial freedom steps and a panarchistic platform, then their successes would also promote these liberties, indirectly, in the rest of the world. – To that extent the success of quite rightful revolutionaries and freedom fighters anywhere in the world should also be our concern. We might get our liberties indirectly, through them, if they win and if we do help them to win. Provided, naturally, they are genuine freedom fighters and not just territorial nationalists of another brand or even religious fanatics or followers of just another warlord. – JZ, 5.10.08. - & FINANCIAL FREEDOM TO FINANCE RIGHTFUL REVOLUTIONS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Once American citizens are properly depressed over government waste through monetary manipulation, they may then get the message to Congress to let money be whatever the market says it is. Then, if government has need for resources, let them be taken directly and openly from owners - not through a mystifying monetary procedure.” - Paul Poirot, THE FREEMAN, 4/75. – Since governments, as long as compulsory taxation exists, have the option to issue and accept their own and quite sound tax foundation money, to the extent of about the tax take for the next three months, they should not be allowed to extract the monies of other payment spheres for this purpose. – JZ, 20.1.08. – Compulsory taxation is wrong even for limited governments, as long as they are still territorial governments and thus do have many involuntary members. X forms of taxation and contribution schemes as well as monetary and clearing options could be tolerantly practised by freely competing governance, societal and community systems, all only for their volunteers. TAX FOUNDATION MONEY ISSUES, PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, FINANCIAL FREEDOM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Once it is realized boom times will be permanent. We would not merely temporarily experience some limited boom periods and in between recessions to depressions. Temporary gold, silver, share or land booms, out of fear of further inflation, would also become be a thing of the past, as well as speculations in greatly and rapidly fluctuating "managed" foreign State currencies. We would also have to do without the numerous bargains now obtainable from forced sales and the boom times for bureaucrats, their measures, committees, boards, authorities and QUANGOs, and for politicians with their popular prejudices and misleading and false promises and the high burdens they can manage to impose upon the economy. Another "drawback", once monetary and financial freedom are universally introduced, will be the absence of refugee capital from other- countries, i.e., of capital forced to flee to the places where it is still treated somewhat respectfully and gratefully. Naturally, the country that first introduced monetary and financial freedom would get the full benefit of much of such capital. The fluctuations at the stock exchanges will be much less. Garage sales and shops dealing in second hand goods will almost disappear - as they had already almost disappeared in West Germany by 1991. So will beggars. Even drug use, drunkenness, gambling and crime will be reduced. Terrorism, dictatorships, civil wars, revolutions and international wars will become much less frequent or lasting. We would loose the "industrial reserve army", too. - Shall we mourn their passing? - JZ, 19.3.97, 28.8.02, 7.1.11. - FINANCIAL FREEDOM

MONETARY FREEDOM: One does not get rich by being free to issue one’s own money notes or clearing certificates – but one would contribute to create one of the preconditions for all people to become much better off than they are now. Let good money drive out the bad money. – JZ, 19.1.84, 6.10.08. – Let freely competing free market monies assure the sale of all wanted goods, services and labor that are ready for sale. They would be something like ticket monies for wanted performances and issued by those, who offer these performances. Without full monetary and financial freedom, i.e. voluntarism in this sphere as well, there is no full freedom of contract, association, exchange and experimentation. Property rights are incomplete without them. Even the largest and most productive factory and the largest supermarket have only a limited capital value while their products cannot be easily sold or only sold for unsound, inflated or artificially scarce monopoly money. – JZ, 3.11.13. – VS. THE MONETARY DESPOTISM OF GOVERNMENTAL MONOPOLY MONIES, WHICH ARE ALSO FORCED CURRENCIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: One might, with Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, even speak of a duty to utilize the own money-issue and clearing and credit capacities rather than parasitically using those provided by others for their purposes. – JZ, 16.10.96. – Or those despotically imposed by territorial governments in their interest. – JZ, 3.11.13. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE EXCHANGE

MONETARY FREEDOM: Only because there was active trading on the currency exchange would the issuing banks be warned to take the required action in time. Only because the frontiers were open to the movement of currency and capital would there be assurance of no collusion between local institutions to mismanage the local currency. And only because there were free commodity markets would stable average prices mean that the process of adapting supply to demand was functioning.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.94.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Only because they were under the sharp control of competition could the private banks be trusted to keep their money stable.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.94. - Under monetary freedom the potential issuers have also a self-interest to keep their note issues at par with their nominal value. - They are not only restrained by the degree of voluntary acceptance at par, by the discounting of their notes in general local circulation and by refusals to accept them at all. If, the issuers, in an extreme case, could issue further notes only at a 50% discount, they would still have to accept them at par in all their sales and debt payments due to them. So why should they continue to issue further notes under this condition? Moreover, if their notes got a temporary, although only small discount, in general local circulation, this would be rapidly noticed quite generally, locally and lead to wide-spread refusals of their notes when the issuers tried to issue more of them. - Notes by others, which kept at par with their value standard, would be preferred by all potential acceptors. With one exception: Those owing money to the issuer of notes standing below par would have an incentive to buy them up and pay their debts with them to the issuer, at their nominal value. - JZ, 7.1.11, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Only once you study and come to understand monetary rights and liberties and their practice, and learn how to realize them, will money, or, rather, its absence, or your inability or all too limited ability to pay with the government's monopoly money, cease to be a major negative factor in your life. – JZ, 22 .2.03, 21.10.07, 7.1.11. – The supply of exchange media and value standards should be as free and competitive as e.g. the supply of cutlery and dinnerware or as the production and supply of any other consumer goods and services, including wanted labor ability and willingness. Under full monetary freedom these could be efficiently and rightfully monetized to the extent that this is required to facilitate their sale. – Freedom to oblige oneself with one’s own IOUs, in monetary form, to supply whatever goods, services or labor one has to offer in return for one’s IOUs. Freedom to thus try to pay for what one wants or needs. Under perfect clearing that would be practicable. In its absence, one should sufficiently combine one’s offers with those of others, as e.g. the shops of a local shopping center could, by issuing a common local shop currency. - JZ, 3.11.13. - ABILITY TO PAY

MONETARY FREEDOM: Only the money of monetary freedom can be mastered by all. The money of monetary despotism is controlled by only a few and all others are mastered by it and these few. – JZ, 22.2.03. -VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Only the money of monetary freedom can make all people, making use of it, as free, secure and wealthy as they can be and want to be by their own efforts. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10. 07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Our initial mistake was to allow governments to issue paper money at all. Notes should be issued only by commercial banks, whose issues are checked daily by the Clearing-House; and these notes should be convertible into gold on demand at the issuing bank at the gold price ruling on the previous day in the bullion market. Freedom of note issue was working well when the government abolished it in 1844. What was not working well then, and what never has worked well, was a fixed gold price, and the 1844 Act did not change this.” - Henry Meulen, THE- INDIVIDUALIST, 12/75. - He had still fixed ideas on the fixed gold price and on convertibility by the issuer. - JZ, 22.3.97. His views on legal tender and its consequences and on the possibility of e.g. shop currencies, electricity monies, railway monies etc. left also much to be desired as did his views on competing governance and societies. And this happened in spite of his long-term correspondence with Ulrich von Beckerath, which I digitized as far as it was accessible to me. Otherwise he was and individualist anarchist in favor of free banking or monetary freedom. – But then either he not anyone else today had the benefit of a comprehensive handbook on free banking and monetary freedom. The whole subject is still almost as much muddled in most people’s minds as are their religions, ideologies and philosophies – by popular errors, prejudices, wrong premises, conclusions and numerous fallacies. – This mess can only be straightened out but providing all the required enlightenment tools, including all the texts, reference works, abstracts, reviews and discussions, relevant argument maps, databanks, links and indexes and by full experimental freedom in this sphere, too, for all kinds of voluntary payment communities. - JZ, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Our opposition to a common (state) currency relies on the principle that, just as producers should be free to make and exchange their products, so they should be free to choose the method of exchange.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/77, p.70.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Our wealth and our liberty are based on "plugging in" to a flowing, monetary current, which becomes increasingly easy to siphon off. We depend absolutely on the integrity of the medium and on free, uninhibited exchange.” – Leonard E. Read, Deeper than you Think, p.x. – That siphoning off would not be possible under full monetary and financial freedom, i.e. under the competitive supply and use of exchange media, clearing options and alternative value standards as well as under full financial freedom, including voluntary taxation systems for communities of volunteers. Even the best exchange medium and value standard or clearing or financial contribution system should not be legally and territorially imposed upon the population of any country. At least here Read had only one currency in mind. – JZ, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Paper currencies should be allowed to ‘float’ – that is, people should be allowed to exchange them at their market rates.” – Henry Hazlitt, THE FREEMAN, 1/74. – People should also be free to try to “issue” and “float” their own currencies, at par with the own nominal value of these notes, expressed in a sound value standard. These private or cooperative issuers should be the only ones who would always have to accept them at their nominal value. For all others they would be “foreign exchange” currencies, at a freely floating exchange rate and only if that exchange rate were relatively stable and their value standard would be acceptable to them and if they found these exchange media would be useful enough to them, would they, usually, be willing to accept them, at least in some transactions and to some extent. – No private issuer or issuing association could, like the present territorial government, force all people of a country to accept all its notes at all or at a forced nominal value. – That is one of the main advantages of monetary freedom, not, essentially, a disadvantage. – Such issues could neither be inflated nor deflated. – Lack of uniformity and country-wide acceptability for a single monopoly money is a small price to pay for this advantage. – Private and country-wide or even internationally accepted currencies and clearing options are also among the monetary freedom possibilities. - JZ, 6.10.08, 3.11.13.  - FOREIGN CURRENCIES, MARKET RATING OF CURRENCIES, FREELY FLOATING EXCHANGE RATES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Pay with your ready for sale and wanted goods, services and labor?” - Under monetary freedom one could. By corresponding goods-, service- and labor vouchers, in monetary denominations and using a chosen rather than imposed value standard, with all competing issuers only obliging themselves in this way. - JZ, 22.2.03, 3.11.13. & ABILITY TO PAY, PAYING ONE’S DEBTS WITH THE OWN EXCHANGE MEDIA

MONETARY FREEDOM: Payments and means of payments to be free or a matter of choice for payers and payees. Wages, salaries, pensions, superannuation, rents, purchases, transport, petrol, interest, imports, etc., to be payable in means of payment and value standards which the contractors can agree upon - not in exclusive and forced currencies which are imposed upon them and with which all too many of them are insufficiently or otherwise unsatisfactorily supplied. - JZ 31.12.92, 7.1.11. – Most governmental monopoly monies are even continuously inflated. – JZ, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: People are already largely free to try to produce and to try to sell almost anything that people want or need. With the exception of e.g. exchange media and especially sound exchange media that would be voluntarily and readily accepted and used in their circulation channels. Thus they do find it hard and sometimes even impossible to sell their goods, services or labor for the only exchange medium they are permitted to use, namely the forced currency or monopoly money of the government. This exclusive currency is not an exclusive one in the sense of a luxurious one. It rather tends to be an inferior one, a “soft” or “weak” or mere “fiat” money. At best it could be a sound fiduciary or tax foundation money. But governments seem to have forgotten how to issue it in their own sound and limited ways as tax- or contribution-anticipating clearing certificates, using a sound value standard and issued only in free competition with other kinds of currencies. On the other hand it is a “strong” currency through the monopoly and the coercion involved, and a money that is “hard”, especially for the creditors, when it can be forced upon them as full value money, although it has been much depreciated. Its legally imposed legal tender power gives it a forced acceptance and a forced value for the whole population of a territory and all its internal transactions. It is, usually, more or less mismanaged, over-supplied in its inflations, under-supplied in its deflations and so badly run that it leads often even to a combination of the two in a “stagflation”. Nevertheless, the advocates of national uniform currencies and central banking still manage to pretend that this is an ideal system or the best of all possible ones. Anyhow, it represses competition against it in its sphere of power. Luckily, its legal tender power ends at the borders and in extreme cases of inflation, finally, in a general refusal to accept it, however belatedly. Most of its possible wrongs and harm, alas, has already done by then. Prevention is the best “cure” - here as well. – JZ, 20.11.97, 28.9.08, 7.1.11, 3.11.13. - UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDER-EMPLOYMENT & SALES DIFFICULTIES, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, LEGAL TENDER.

MONETARY FREEDOM: People would learn to trust the new money only if they were confident it was completely exempt from any government controls.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.94. - Alas, this is only a future ideal. Today even some of the advocates of monetary freedom have not yet quite liberated themselves of all governmental and interventionist notions and be it only that of an exclusive currency of gold coins and redeemable gold certificates. – JZ, n.d. & 20.1.08. - & CONFIDENCE & GOVERNMENT CONTROLS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Personal and political liberty cannot be upheld without monetary freedom.” – Ulrich von Beckerath, to Koegler’s proposal, 18.7.50. – (“Persoenliche und politische Freiheit sind nicht aufrecht zu erhalten ohne monetaere Freiheit.”)

MONETARY FREEDOM: Presently, unlimited numbers of ideas, talents, services and goods, labor offers seek all too limited purchasing power and finance, expressed only in monopolized exchange media and their legal tender “value standards” and are allowed only all too much regulated financial transactions, already greatly reduced via compulsory taxation. That set-up can and should be reversed, towards unlimited progress, easier sales and full employment through sound and competitively issued currencies, and under complete financial freedom, stable value reckoning and pricing for free market currencies and all the things and services, including labor, they would buy. – JZ, 29.3.06, 31.10.07, 3.11.13. - FINANCIAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION

MONETARY FREEDOM: Primitive and simple to quite sound local currency monies and clearing certificates one can provide for oneself, at least to some extent. In some important ways these are better and safer than the "advanced" monies for whose supply one depends on privileged institutions. - JZ, 10.7.91. - ABILITY TO PAY, ABILITY TO CLEAR, CLEARING, CENTRAL BANKING, PRIMITIVE MONEY, GOOD WARRANTS, SERVICE VOUCHERS, SHOP FOUNDATION MONEY, DEBT FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, LOCAL CURRENCIES, ADVANCED MONEY SYSTEMS & MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Private issues would, as a rule, have a smaller circulation area, a smaller circle of acceptors and also a shorter circulation or oscillation period than legal tender and monopoly currencies that are forced upon a whole country. Consequently, the dishonest acquisition of a certain quantity of them and their reappearance would be much more, easier and faster noticeable than for legal tender. The same applies to forgeries. They are not as easily marketable, either. Especially when issues are in series, and numbered, valid only for short periods, 3 to 12 -months at most and upon return to the issuing centre cancelled and replaced by other numbered series. When all series and numbers are recorded upon issue and reflux, then the criminal disappearance and reappearance of many of such notes would tend to be fast detected. And so would double numbering in case of forgeries. Years ago I enquired into the Australian shop currency system, used in consumer credits. At least by then forgeries had never occurred. That may have been a special case, though, for the consumer, receiving these private cash notes in a consumer credit, usable only in the store granting the consumer credit or in its associated branches, would mostly spend them themselves and immediately for whatever goods and services they wanted, leaving no opportunity for forgers. However, there exist now very small machines that can rapidly check a whole stack of notes for forgeries, even before a cashier accepts them in payment. Private notes, freshly printed and only circulating very shortly, would pass much easier and faster through these electronic forgery checking machines than much-used legal tender paper money. – JZ, n.d. - & THE RISK OF ROBBERIES, THEFT, EMBEZZLEMENT & FORGERY

MONETARY FREEDOM: Private payment communities, with their own exchange media, clearing certificates and clearing accounts and also alternative sound value standards should not merely be allowed but, rather, become the rule. Monetary despotism, by suppressing free competition in this sphere, has set the worst possible examples. A monopoly currency, supplied with legal tender power, it can be and is being inflated, deflated and stag-flated the can cause one economic crisis after the other. Competitive issuers and users of sound alternative value standards and market-rated against them, and also being refusable by all but the issuers, could not do that. On the contrary: They and they only could rapidly end and prevent any crisis coming from the monetary side. They would also provide the basis for full financial freedom, e.g. with value preserving clauses. – JZ, 8.2.09, 7.1.11, 3.11.13. – CRISES, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARY ACCEPTANCE & MARKET RATING OF EXCHANGE MEDIA, CLEARING CERTIFICATES & CLEARING ACCOUNTS, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Producers and traders could by rights and in practice issue notes as local currency, alone or in association, only upon the goods and services, which they have to offer - ready for sale at market prices. All their issues would thus be self-limiting and self-liquidating, balancing the goods and service offers with the monetary demand for them. - No third party is morally authorized to monetize their goods and services without their consent or can sufficiently and elastically supply them with exchange media that are an exclusive currency and have a forced value. All attempts to do so end in catastrophic economic crises. - The supply of sound exchange media and of sound value standards should, in the interests of everyone, be as free and competitive as that of toothbrushes, bicycles and socks. Then neither an over-supply nor an under-supply will occur and anyone can acquire or produce just as many of them as he needs for his purposes and this at the qualities that he prefers. - JZ, 17.11.93, 24.4.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Properly founded, and competitively issued, market rated and refusable (by all but the issuers and by contract their debtors) and then streaming back - bank notes, goods- and service warrants etc. do also constitute a kind of clearing certificates even when formally they are not issued and expressed in this form. Naturally, they operate best with a sound and freely chosen value standard. When money tokens are monopolized and forced into circulation then they are much more “requisitioning certificates” than genuine means of payment. Moreover, then they tend to become under-supplied or over-supplied and the market is never or only for very short periods sufficiently and healthily saturated with them. – JZ, 21.9.90, 21.10.07. - FREE CLEARING

MONETARY FREEDOM: Ready-for-sale consumer goods and services as well as willing and able labor are ideal covers and redemption goods and services for private and competitive local currency money issues. Issuers, by thus paying their way, would inevitably sell to that extent whatever they have to offer and is wanted by their potential customers. – JZ, 21.12.92, 7.10.08. – SALES ASSURANCE THROUGH REFLUX OF THE OWN CURRENCY ISSUED IN ONE’S SPENDING OR IN SHORT TERM LOANS, COVER FOR LOCAL CURRENCY, REDEMPTION FOR LOCAL CURRENCY IN GOODS & SERVICES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Reduce or remove the power of politicians over the supply of money.” - Arthur Seldon, introducing F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.4/5.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Remove protection of official currency from competition. Secondly, I had regarded fixed rates of exchange as necessary for the same reason for which I now plead for completely free markets for all kinds of currency, namely that it was required to impose a very necessary discipline or restraint on the agencies issuing money. Neither I, nor apparently anybody else, then thought of the much more effective discipline that would operate if the providers of money were deprived of the power of shielding the money they issued against the rivalry of competing currencies.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.82. - Actually, Hayek was a late-comer with his monetary freedom ideas. He had numerous predecessors that he did not know of or did not appreciate. All the relevant writings were and are not readily accessible, not even to him. - JZ, 21.3.97. - & FREE EXCHANGE RATES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Repeal Legal Tender and the monopoly of the Central Banks. - JZ, n.d., ca. 1975.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Security, wealth, justice, peace and freedom all depend upon at least degrees of if not full monetary freedom. Monetary despotism only assures their opposites. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Seeing the addiction to system gambling, snowball or chain letter system (pyramid schemes or multi-level- marketing), welfare statism, doubtful guaranties and insurance schemes, the little interest that exists in monetary and credit- and clearing theories and practices, the frauds that numerous finance companies and banks do get away with and what we allow our politicians to engage in, at our expense, even in the future, under full monetary and financial freedom, a lot of fraud and deception will go on, although usually on a much smaller scale and confined largely to voluntary or foolish victims. - JZ, 29.3.82, 21.3.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Service- and goods-supply-readiness-money, issued only upon demand, by shops and shop associations, especially the demand for it expressed by productive labor, ready to work for it, if paid in this way. – JZ, 11.6.99.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Should we really try to manage without all the information that at present can readily be expressed and accessed only on microfiche? Should we intellectually cripple ourselves to that extent? Should we rather continue to all too patiently suffer under inflations, world-wide, and massive unemployment, than pick up effective and fast cures for both when they are expressed presently and largely only in this microfiche collection? Why, if we are print on paper addicts, don't we get the relevant sections of micro-fiched monetary freedom texts, chosen by us, printed out on paper, at our expense, at libraries or micrographic agencies? Why, if we are computer fans, don't we get this information scanned into disks and onto the Internet, from these microfiche (or originals available to us), through one or the other agency that offers such scanning service? I assert that this collection also offers the only rightful and practicable way to prevent nuclear war and- further conventional wars. But, who cares, if it is offered only on microfiche? - JZ 11.4.97. - Even if the world should perish in consequence: We will not change our reading and publishing habits! - JZ, 5.9.02. My attempt to induce enough freedom lovers to make use of their microfilm reading and publishing options failed. Thus I discontinued my mirofiched PEACE-PLANS series back in 2002, with issue number 1779. Only a fraction of these microfilmed issues have so far been scanned in by me. - On the other hand, many others have scanned in many libertarian texts already. But, to my knowledge, all monetary and financial freedom texts are not yet offered digitized. - JZ, 7.1.11. – This could now be done even more cheaply and comprehensively online and on discs than before with microfilm. – JZ, 3.11.13. -MICRO-FICHE OFFERED BY LIBERTARIAN MICROFICHE PUBLISHING, FREE BANKING OR MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM WRITINGS ONLINE & ON DISCS

MONETARY FREEDOM: so revolutionary … to demand that the individual and his activity not be made dependent upon the supply of the economy or of his sector with sufficient means of exchange. No one went so far to declare: Whether the economy is sufficiently supplied with exchange media should be decided by the individual. - Everyone has the right to offer his services and his property to others in the way that he presents them with goods warrants, typified and in monetary denominations, in order to pay with them and to accept them upon their reflux to himself as ready cash. - At the same time everyone has also the right to refuse to accept any goods warrants offered to him, without having to declare his reasons for such refusals, provided only, that by his silence he has not given the impression to others, that he would accept them.” - From the micro-fiched papers of Ulrich von Beckerath, in the PEACE PLANS series, page 1406, tr. by JZ

MONETARY FREEDOM: Some essentials of it: Freedom to issue honest and non-coercive exchange media - limited by freedom to refuse their acceptance or to discount or market rate them - Freedom to clear. - Repeal of legal tender and of all privileges of the central bank. - Pricing of goods, wages and services and debts in gold weight units to be an option. (But, generally, free choice of value standards!) – JZ, n.d. & 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Some want monetary freedom for its own sake, the rights, liberties and opportunities involved and their beneficial consequences. Others advocate it mainly only because they expect a reduction, if not abolition of interest rates from it. Still others do advocate it only because they are, rightly or wrongly, convinced that in free competition their favorite money system would win. Would the latter remain tolerant when they find out that it would not? - Some of them are true believers, too and might turn into monetary despots themselves for the realization of their supposedly ideal money system. - JZ, 29.11.84, 4.5.97. - ADVOCATES, DIFFERENT MOTIVES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Sound, private, competing and market rated currencies cannot be based on goods still to be produced, service options still to provided, or on mere capital assets. Such future goods and services or capital assets require the issue of transferable and profitable capital certificates rather than currency issues. Nor should Lombard credits be granted with newly issued competing currencies, based merely upon for goods that are speculatively stored, i.e. temporarily kept off the market, in order to obtain later higher prices for them. Such credit notes would have no immediate utility at market prices. They cannot be immediately redeemed in the stockpiled goods, which are kept then intentionally kept out of the market. Currency certificates do not require gold or silver coin redemption but they do require the immediate redemption option in wanted consumer goods and services. – JZ, n.d. & 6.10.08, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Spooner begins “Constitutional Law Relative To Credit, Currency And Banking” (1843), with the statement that "The Constitution of the U.S., (Art. 1, Sec. 10), declares that 'No state shall pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts.' "On this basis alone, the courts should overthrow all governmental interference with currency, and allow a free banking system.” - Charles Chiveley, introduction to Spooner, Works, I/28. - FREEDOM OF CONTRACTS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Spooner's number one selling point was that, "The system would furnish, at all times, an abundant currency"... Free competition would increase the number of banks and, thereby, the amount of money in circulation. Almost until the 20th century, the U.S. suffered (as the colonies had) from a lack of money. There were never sufficient funds for all the needs of the country. Spooner's system was intended to remedy that need.” - Charles Chiveley, introduction to Lysander Spooner, Works I, p.25.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Such discounts or disagios against their sound value standards do have not only disadvantages for their final acceptors but also advantages. They induce the holders to return them as fast as they can to the issuers, where they have to be accepted at par. At the same time, they tend to induce the issuers to cease further issues for a while, even if they would still find a few people willing to accept their notes at par and not only at their current free local market discount. They want to maintain their future issue options, which require a sound enough reputation. That will be achieved when the par value of their notes is maintained or rapidly restored through their reflux to them. The first small local discount, perhaps only in wholesale trading, will serve as a warning signal to issuers and potential acceptors new issuers and to the already existing note holders. Legal tender notes do not provide such warning signals, apart from some foreign exchange rates and rates reported at rare metal markets. – JZ, n.d. & 30.10.07, 3.11.13. - DISCOUNTS OR DISAGIOS OF COMPETING CURRENCIES IN GENERAL LOCAL OR WIDER CIRCULATION & ON FREE GOLD MARKETS

MONETARY FREEDOM: The best defence against any despotic monetary religion is full monetary freedom, in theory and in practice. It would confine the effects of the religion of monetary despotism to its voluntary followers - as long as it can retain any under this condition. - JZ, 15.3.97. - & MONETARY RELIGION

MONETARY FREEDOM: The case for the gold standard is actually the case for market-originated commodity money, and the case against government-regulated fiat money. It is simply an extension of the case for free markets which respect the rights of man, and the case against controlled markets which violate the rights of man.” - Paul Stevens, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. - The rare metals are not the only suitable commodities or commodity mixes to redeem money in, even though most advocates of "the" gold standard can't perceive of anything else. Most people do not want to buy weight units of gold every day but every day they need or want some consumer goods and services. Any exchange medium or clearing system that makes it easy for them to pay for these goods and services, will suffice for them and would often even be preferred by them to payments in gold and silver, as historical experience has often shown. Their preferred tokens do not even have to be redeemable by the issuer in rare metals (as long as, in case one does want gold, one can buy with them gold on a free gold market, paying in one's other commodity tokens, i.e., if they reckon in gold weight units, usually at par with their -nominal gold weight unit value.). - JZ, 21.3.97. - & THE GOLD STANDARD

MONETARY FREEDOM: The circulation of more than one kind of money has been, historically, the rule rather than the exception ...” - Samuel Brittan, THE FINANCIAL TIMES, Nov. 20.75.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The commercial banks should issue their own notes. There is no more reason for the government to fix the volume of notes issued than to fix the volume of linen washed by housewives on Mondays.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 6/77, p.33.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The fact that freedom of note issue is useful to both buyers and sellers is enough to ensure that a suitable note will be introduced. It is useful to buyers because it enables a man more readily to convert his reputation into buying power; and it is useful to sellers because it provides for more automatic sales of their goods.” - Henry Meulen, THE- INDIVIDUALIST, 12/77, p 71. - Not so much his reputation but his shop foundation. His personal character and behavior may not deserve respect at all, while he offers wanted goods and services at market prices, and accepts his own notes at par for them. - That is the only kind of reputation he needs for this purpose. Otherwise he might be vice-ridden. - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The forced and exclusive currencies and extorted capital of politicians should both be replaced by the free and competing monies and capital of the people, by all their voluntary issue and clearing centers, free note-issuing banks and free financial institutions and their capital certificate issues and markets. – JZ, 30.7.98, 6.10.08, 3.11.13. – FREE BANKING VS. CENTRAL BANKING, FREE CAPITAL MARKETS VS. TAXATION & GOVERNMENT BUDGETS

MONETARY FREEDOM: The foundation of all freedom is freedom of exchange. The single most restraining influence on freedom of exchange is our socialist money system.” - E. C. Riegel in "Flight from Inflation." - & STATE SOCIALIST MONEY SYSTEM

MONETARY FREEDOM: The free market rating of competitively issued optional monies and freely chosen value standards will free us from both, the threat of inflation and that of deflation. – JZ, 29.9.05. Some mildly fluctuating market rates, while generally the par value will prevail, are a cheap price to pay for that achievement. – JZ, 30.10.07. - FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: The freedom of exchanging now is all on the one side: there is freedom enough in exchanging goods for money. The former is all ease, the latter is all difficulty; but whenever freedom of exchange shall really be established, in aggregate, it will be precisely as easy to convert goods into money as money into goods.” – John Gray, 1848, in Lectures on the Nature and Use of Money, p.219. – The middle part of his statement is still a bit unclear. While it is easy, under exclusive currencies to exchange them for goods and services, it is not so easy to exchange goods and services for an exclusive currency. The currency is produced by a monopolist while the goods and services are competitively produced and offered. Ideally, the producers of goods and services or their sellers should be the ones to issue a currency of their own, redeemable in their goods and services, in form of their own notes, goods warrants and service vouchers, in monetary denominations, all priced out in a good and readily and voluntarily accepted value standard, e.g. in gold- or silver weight units. Only then will their own goods and services almost sell themselves, to the extent that such issues are made - on a short-term credit-basis, e.g. in form of loans to employers to pay wages and salaries with. – Local shop currencies will be widely accepted, especially once it is realized that their value standard is more sound than that of State paper money. - JZ, 9.12.07. - GOODS SIDE & MONEY SIDE

MONETARY FREEDOM: The government, which severely taxes a businessman and employer without providing him with sufficient exchange media to allow a frictionless turnover of his goods and to make a profit and to pay part of this turnover and of his profits in taxes, does not allow him, either, to pay taxes and other expenditures with his own notes. It is thus, according to an old analogy, comparable to an inquisitor torturing a deaf and dumb person in the vain attempt to extract a confession out of him. – JZ, n.d.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The issue of money is not a state prerogative.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The issue of typified vouchers, goods-warrants and service certificates for the payment of wages is everywhere prohibited. So why do the unemployed presume that such issues are irrelevant to their situation and that it is quite normal and just that they are only allowed to sell their labor for government cash and this in form of an exclusive and forced currency? – JZ, 3.5.83, 6.10.08, 3.11.13. - UNEMPLOYMENT, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, WAGE PAYMENTS

MONETARY FREEDOM: The issuing banks, guided solely by their striving for gain, would thereby serve the public interest better than any institution has ever done or could do that supposedly aimed at it.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.78/79. - PROFIT & PUBLIC INTEREST, FREE VS. CENTRAL BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: The long term solution to inflation is, I am afraid, an unrealistic one given today's climate: get government completely out of the money business (*) and repeal the legal-tender laws. If the money business were returned to private minters and warehouses (banks not in any way connected to government), …” - Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.281. -  (*) Only that of monetary despotism! Which is hardly a proper business but, instead, a territorial imposition. However, it too, should be free to settle its claims and obligations, among its remaining volunteers, via clearing certificates or tax foundation money. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The medium of exchange should be governed by possible turnover and not the turnover by the available means of exchange.” - Ulrich von Beckerath, in PEACE PLANS 9, p. 83. (Available with others of his writings on ) – Put in bold print by me. – JZ, 16.2.09.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The monetary freedom rights include but are not limited by the following rights: 1.) The right to clear or mutually cancel all one's due debts against all one's due claims - in the technically most convenient form. - 2.) The right to issue money tokens, private banknotes, vouchers and clearing certificates, in money denominations, also coins, all without legal tender, i.e. without compulsory acceptance at face value. Instead, they are all to be subject to a free market rating - against the standard of value they use and other standards and tokens. - 3.) The right to refuse all exchange media issued by others - combined with the obligation to accept the own ones at any time at face value. (Everyone has to accept the own IOUs in payment against himself.) - 4.) The right to settle in local currency (using a mutually acceptable or agreed upon value standard) - unless some other payment has been contractually agreed upon. - 5.) The right to price one's goods and services and exchange media in any standard of value of one's choice, e.g. in gold weight for account or gold-clearing units. - 6.) The right to refuse payment of debts in gold or scarce legal tender and to clear them, instead, unless one has undertaken a futures contract to deliver such scarce commodities. (Even then a withdrawal premium should be agreed upon.) - As long as none of these rights are recognized, money shortages, unemployment and sales difficulties, inflations and stagflations are inevitable and predictable, for any monopoly and coercion leads to shortages and abuses. - JZ file: Unemployment incomplete comb of old files –– Compare the much longer and better declaration of monetary rights by Ulrich von Beckerath, e.g. in PEACE PLANS 589/590. – JZ, 7.2.09. – MONETARY RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: The monetization of commercial credit would be like a wagon way through the air.” - Adam Smith, in The Wealth of Nations, according to Dr. H.G. Pearce.


MONETARY FREEDOM: The money of monetary freedom consists of freely issued and floating IOU’s or “We OU’s” or “We OU-accounts” in convenient monetary denominations, using one or the other and self-selected or agreed-upon sound value standard that is trusted by the participants in an issue and its acceptors. They are circulating for a short time, often for a preset period of validity, clearly expressed on them, and then they are “redeemed” by their issuers, not in rare metals but through acceptance at par with their nominal value, from their issuers, at any time, for all the goods, services and labor, which they have ready for sale, all marked or priced out in the same value standard, and also for the payment of all other debts due to them. – JZ, 19.8.03, 31.10.07, 3.11.13. - FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: The money supply needs no regulation; it can be left to the free market in which individuals determine the demand for and supply of money.” – Dr. Hans F. Sennholz, THE FREEMAN, 9/73.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The monies of monetary freedom have free market rates, and voluntary acceptance, those of monetary despotism have legal tender power, i.e. enforced acceptance as means of payment and this at a forced and fictitious value. - JZ, 1.6.76, 21.3.97, 3.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The more perfectly a clearing system is developed the smaller can be the volume of exchange media that will be readily accepted in payment. Ultimately it could come down to a single issuer and acceptor or even none. That possibility is not considered in the quantity theory of money. Neither is legal tender for currencies or its absence. But at least under present conditions there will be less friction for the issue of private and competing exchange media and clearing certificates when a large enough number of potential local issuers combine to issue between them a common clearing certificate or shop currency which each of them would readily accept. Then more of the local potential earners and acceptors o them would also be prepared to accept them in payment and use them in their spending. – The essential aspect of competing local currencies and clearing certificates is that they do not promise redemption in any cash but merely ready acceptance in payments for goods, services and debts or in any clearing settlement. - JZ, 7.10.08, 7.1.11, 3.11.13. – CLEARING, CLEARING HOUSES, CLEARING CERTIFICATES.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The people turn to privately issued monies, and the private sector takes over from the government the function of issuing currency. This is truly an exciting possibility. As money is the basis of all economic activity, a free market in money could prove the basis of a truly free society.” - Mark Tier, REASON 10/78.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The possibility of free competition between a multiplicity of issuing institutions and the complete freedom of all movements of currency and capital across frontiers are equally essential to the success of the scheme. Any hesitant- approach by a GRADUAL relaxation of the existing monopoly of issue would be certain to make it fail.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.94. - Contrary to this I hold that even from a limited monetary freedom experiment, in a village or small town, monetary freedom could spread and become complete, based on its own inherent strengths and tendencies, if only it is not coercively suppressed. Moreover, one can make it as difficult as possible for a government to suppress it. The monetary freedom might e.g. be practised by people already up in arms against a government. It might also be practised during a galloping inflation or under mass unemployment shortly before an election and be so fully and rapidly effective, at least locally, that the going-out rulers and the coming-up politicians would not dare to suppress these experiments but would rather jump on this band wagon. Revolutionaries and freedom fighters might e.g. properly finance their revolution through their own monetary and financial issues. Free trade and free banking can also be practised on a limited scale in free trade industrial zones and duty free shops for a limited clientele. Numerous monetary freedom experiments have already happened and are still happening in spite of monetary despotism. But most are still full of theoretical and practical flaws and few of them have so far been fully recorded and correctly examined and evaluated. - JZ,-21.3.97, 7.1.11. – However, Hayek was right in demanding that the laws of monetary despotism, the ones granting a monopoly for its money issues, legal tender power for central banks or central banking systems, as well as regulating powers over other banks and financial markets, should be abolished forthwith. They have no moral standing at all, no more than any other obvious crime with victims. – JZ, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The reader may not yet feel reassured that, in the kind of competitive money system we are here contemplating, a general deflation will be as impossible as a general inflation. Experience seems indeed to have shown that, in conditions of severe uncertainty or alarm about the future, even very low rates of interest cannot prevent a shrinking of a bank's outstanding loans.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.76. - Not only the constitutional, legal and juridical situation determines monetary actions or non-actions or false actions but also the ignorance, prejudices, errors, false assumptions and lack of interest which most people reveal towards monetary questions and solutions, even when as a result, they experience catastrophic consequences of monetary despotism. The nominal existence of e.g. freedom of press, does not mean, either, that all will make use of it or that those who do so will do so most sensibly. - For decades I have tried in vain to initiate an extensive monetary freedom discussion and publishing effort by anarchists and libertarians. Even these radicals do mostly evade the issue. - I am guilty of it myself, having postponed the microfiche preparation of another batch of Beckerath papers for many years already and by having given other freedom texts precedence in my LMP efforts. - I have notes accumulated on monetary freedom for decades - but have as yet failed to keyboard all of them in. Regarding Hayek's question on deflation: Even among advocates of degrees of monetary freedom there exist all too often either no or not enough sound notions on correct monetary issue techniques and rules and precautions. And these somewhat interested people form only a small minority among a generally apathetic to antagonistic crowd. Thus we should not expect the instant demise of all deflations even should all constitutional, legal and juridical obstacles to monetary freedom be suddenly abolished. - JZ, 21.3.97. – Insufficiently informed monetary freedom experiments will certainly not spread monetary freedom as fast as informed ones. Some libertarians have even denied the very possibility of deflations or currency famines, denying historical experiences with exclusive rare metal currencies over many centuries, during which times the money prices were always depressed and never completely eliminated primitive barter transactions. They simply and dogmatically asserted that the price system would freely and sufficiently adopt to any quantity of money in circulation. If they were consistent in this belief then they would assert that from one to a thousand coins or banknotes in a country could mediate all its needed or wanted exchanges, although they could, obviously, not do this, even if they could move with something approaching the speed of light. Money as a tool for exchanges has to be handy to the people needing and wanting to exchange, just like hammers, screwdrivers, saws, rulers and volume measures have to be available to people needing them for their jobs. – JZ, 4.11.13. - DEFLATION

MONETARY FREEDOM: The subjective value theory, all economic and political freedom ideas, consumer sovereignty, free enterprise, freedom of contract, freedom of association and disassociation, productive cooperation, free trade, free pricing, free markets, freedom to experiment, freedom to make mistakes, freedom of information, freedom of expression, free competition, the law of supply and demand, laissez faire, - all these notions must be consistently applied to what is perhaps the most important aspect of any economy based upon the division of labor and free exchange: exchange media, value standards, banking, note issues, security issues, clearing as the underlying principle and most important practice. Consistently applied, in economics and politics, freedom principles will become irresistible through their successful practice. Those who do not fully comprehend the principles and their natural applications and consequences, will simply copy their successful practices. The spread of these principles and practices will be all the faster and more secure if they are practised only within volunteer communities. Even the best "faith" or scientifically backed convictions should not be imposed upon any dissenters. Leave all others to apply their insight or spleens to themselves - and benefit from or suffer the consequences. That is the road to wide-spread enlightenment. Guardianship should only be applied when obviously required to uphold the basic right of babies, infants and some adults. - JZ, 11.5.97, 7.1.11. - SUBJECTIVE VALUE THEORY, AUSTRIAN ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC FREEDOM, ETC.

MONETARY FREEDOM: The under-supply as well as the over-supply for forced and exclusive currencies are not insurable risks. In other words, we cannot insure ourselves against inflation and deflation. We must de-legitimize these risks and make them economically impossible. These aspects of legalized monetary despotism must be abolished via law repeals or by successfully ignoring such laws and introducing full monetary freedom in a monetary revolution, which would achieve freedom to issue and to accept or refuse market-rated and optional exchange media and free choice among value standards and clearing options. Legal tender must become confined for all the means of exchange to their nominal value towards their issuers only. – JZ, 13.2.07, 25.10.07, 7.1.11. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, LEGAL TENDER

MONETARY FREEDOM: There are many people who would rather like to see you remain dependent upon their kind of monopoly money than become monetarily emancipated from them. – JZ, 22.2.03. - MONETARY EMANCIPATION, THE ABILITY TO PAY OR CLEAR ONE’S DEBTS WITH THE OWN EXCHANGE MEDIA VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONOPOLISM, PRIVILEGES

MONETARY FREEDOM: There are relatively many advocates of concrete or commodity value standards, combined with concrete or commodity means of payment, that are also proposed as exclusive ones, and, likewise, advocates of abstract value standards and of various more or less despotic reform attempts of money and currency (exchange media and value standards). All would be rightful only if freely chosen by volunteers for their own payment communities. All could, with some good will, be exchanged for each other in a free market, at market rates. Alas, tolerance is missing in this sphere as well. The established system is intolerantly, nay even despotically, upheld and the vast majority of dissenters merely aim at another form of monetary despotism - to be forced upon the adherents of the old form of monetary despotism and upon all other monetary reformers as well. Advocates of full monetary freedom, who do pay more than lip service to it, by subscribing to all general principles and practices of it, are still extremely rare. Presently, I know of no one else in Australia but myself. - Thousands may exist - but they are more or less hidden, not organized, not pulled together by a periodical, newsletter, by meetings or correspondence. - At the same time, there are tens of thousands who participate in very limited monetary freedom and free clearing experiments like LETS. But even they show no interest in their full monetary freedom options. Thus they are more like e.g. religious sectarians than advocates of religious liberty. Moreover, like most sectarians, they are usually not much better in their ideas, dogmas and cures than the old churches were, which-they attempt to replace. - The problem is: How can one give value, in the eyes of the market, to the ideas and literature of monetary freedom? How can one give an exchange value to full monetary freedom views and literature? How can the good and truthful money and currency, exchange media and value standard, clearing and credit ideas, drive out the bad and false theories and practices, which by law, ignorance, habits, custom, prejudice, lack of interest or of serious thinking on the subject, have been given almost legal tender power in all opinion exchanges on such subjects? How can one freely trade and spread monetary freedom views under present conditions? - To me some of the obvious steps are to provide more-and more such literature upon demand, cheaply, at least in an alternative medium like microfiche (or floppy disks, or text-only CD-ROMs, online or via email attachments ), etc.. Likewise, a full bibliography, library and information service, abstract and review compilation and an on-going and well recorded published and retrievable discussion on microfiche, discs and online. Also an up to date association directory is required and an address list, listing their special preferences and interests. Furthermore, ideas archives and charted surveys, tables and comparable studies, including digitized arguments maps, ought to be offered of the different means of payment and value standard and clearing systems advocated, with their good sides and remaining flaws indicated. All the options to start new monetary experiments with a chance for success, ought to be fully discussed and listed. Historical records of all monetary freedom experiments ought to be compiled. Collectors of notes and coins ought to be contacted and be made familiar with correct monetary theories. Useful plans for a monetary revolution ought to be prepared and contacts made with all other revolutionaries, all those among them who are already fighting somewhere for significant liberties, showing them how monetary freedom could facilitate their struggles. Somehow or the other the millions of unemployed should be interested in cause and cure for unemployment, even if, for this purpose, one would have to draft a million leaflets before one would design one that would be a hit with them. - I still hold that the most advanced advocate and pioneer of full monetary freedom was ULRICH VON BECKERATH, 1882-1969, whose works I have reproduced in several languages and of whose correspondence I have also already reproduced and digitized most of that in my possession,  with some more to follow. - JZ, 28.4.97. - Mainly only his correspondence with Egon Kortmann. – Alas, only his correspondence with Henry Meulen is in English. - JZ, 4.11.13. - -

MONETARY FREEDOM: There certainly can be and has been money, even very satisfactory money, without government doing anything about it, though it has rarely been allowed to exist for long.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.31.

MONETARY FREEDOM: There exists now perhaps a better chance than ever before to get all the arguments and texts for it together and to publish them widely and cheaply and to introduce them in all public discussions where they are needed most. Interest in this option and readiness to work on it are needed more than money to finance such efforts. - There is now more old and new literature available on this than ever before and more people are interested in such questions than ever before. The trend towards deregulation and denationalization or for re-privatization is strong. The new information recording, communication and publishing options make it possible to cheaply gather and spread all relevant information. (However, with cheap scanners the scanning and the proof-reading required are still a time and energy consuming chore for lone individuals, none of whom has access to all the texts. An association of such scanners and proof-readers is not yet established. The tie-ins of monetary despotism with all major social, economic and political problems and monetary freedom as their solution, could and should be stressed. Even the nuclear and biological and chemical warfare threats may require monetary freedom for their abolition. Panarchism could probably not be realized without it. Budget difficulties, economic crises, inflations, deflations, stagflations and their unemployment troubles exist for all territorial governments - and all their victims. The trend towards tax strikes is strong. Numerous revolutionary and resistance attempts need perhaps only sound financing, including monetary freedom options, to succeed or succeed faster and with no or little bloodshed. International trading barriers and migration barriers are more and more seen as evils to be broken down and without introducing monetary freedom these aims can probably not be achieved. The freeing of the international exchange rates between exclusive national currencies ought to be followed by the freeing of the internal ones and full competition for alternative national and local currencies and all other kinds of free market monies and free market rating for all of them. - JZ, 7.4.97, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: There is no good reason why an exchange medium or a value standard should be a monopoly good (or why they should be compulsory) and every economic and moral reason to leave their production and usage free, i.e. confine them to individual acceptance, discounting or refusal. – Only their issuers should always have to accept their own issues as if they were legal tender money, for each of them should have to fully recognize the IOUs they had issued, in whatever form that was done, at least within the period of their clearly indicated validity. Think of them as tickets to promised performances. - JZ, 16.5.78, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: There is only one answer to monetary chaos and monetary despotism: full monetary freedom. - JZ, 5.3.75.

MONETARY FREEDOM: There is only one way to prevent inflation and that is to have a currency out of the reach of politicians.” - Anthony Fisher, The Case for Freedom, p.61. - INFLATION & POLITICIANS

MONETARY FREEDOM: There neither would exist a definable quantity of money of a nation or region, nor would it be desirable that the individual issuers of the several currencies should aim at anything but to make as large as possible the aggregate value of their currency that the public was prepared to hold at the given value of the unit.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, 79. – The holding ability and willingness for currency is less important, apart from current cash holdings, than its acceptability for current and near future spending. For secure long-term savings rare metals are better and capital securities can also earn interest or dividends. – JZ, 4.11.13. - MONEY SUPPLY & QUANTITY THEORY UNDER IT

MONETARY FREEDOM: There were many other discussion in LIBERTY relating to the value of money and the nature of capital and interest, which generally reduced themselves to the claim that any (*) increase in the supply of money (which would be the result of a regime of free banking) would confer a social benefit and would lead to the disappearance of interest.” (**) - Carl Watner, JLS, Fall 77, p.314. - - (*) Any increase - that would be possible in the absence of legal tender, with its compulsory value and enforced acceptance, i.e. when potential acceptors are free to refuse to accept or discount a money not issued by themselves - would be self-limiting to the amounts required at any time and place. - (**) Only the interest charges for turn-over credits would then be greatly reduced. Only the scarcity value of sound money tokens would tend to disappear. Just like tickets they would then be issued to the volumes required. Interest rates for capital loans would not be greatly reduced, if at all, until capital becomes really abundant. – With the monetary sales problems for the products of capital investments being solved, the returns to capital could, at least temporarily, be much higher, until abundant capital is saved and invested. Even in Tucker's LIBERTY all the related issues had not been fully clarified. - JZ, 21.12.07, 4.11.13. - However, all the discussions in LIBERTY on this subject should and could now be offered cheaply in a single digitized file, together with critical comments. - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: They found that there wasn't any honest freedom without honest money.” - Laurence Noonan, Eternal Love, THE FREEMAN, May 60. - Perhaps he should have clarified this to: Free competition between honest currencies and against all dishonest or flawed ones. Not only one kind of money will be involved under full freedom, although one kind of money might come to be most widely used locally. - JZ, 21.12.07. – Money must not only be honest but competitively issued, and refusable and discountable by all but its issuers. – JZ, 16.2.09. - & HONEST MONEY

MONETARY FREEDOM: This plank is ok as far as it goes, but it should call for full monetary freedom, that is, that every person or group, bank, corp., assoc., etc. should be allowed to issue any kind of money they please, in the form of commodities, coins, paper bills, electronic transfers, or anything anyone chooses to try, but without the coercive force of legal tender. Let people acting voluntarily in the free market choose for themselves what they are willing to accept and use chooses to try , but without the coercive force of legal tender. Let people acting voluntarily in the free market choose for themselves what they are willing to accept and use as money. Government should have no part in the creation of money.” - Jim Stumm, in THE CONNECTION, 12.9.76, on the 1976 LP Platform: 2) Trade & the Economy, # 3, Money. - He, too, overlooked that as long as governments may still tax their subjects they should at least issue a corresponding circulation of tax foundation money, so that they would not act parasitically on private or cooperative currencies issued for other payment communities and their requirements. - The history of sound tax foundation money, as far as anything can be sound that is connected with compulsory taxation, should not be ignored. - Alas, so far, no monograph or dissertation on this history and its future possibilities as contribution money has appeared or come to my notice. - Holzhauer's book on Cash Payments in Occupied Territories and Beckerath's third monetary freedom book (PEACE PLANS No.11) on compensation money, issued by public insurance companies (*), do come, possibly, closest to such a work. - JZ, 21.12.07. – (It’s also online at ) - TAX FOUNDATION MONEY, CONTRIBUTION-MONEY, LEGAL TENDER, FREEDOM FOR THE ISSUE OF NOTES, COINS & TOKENS, SHOP FOUNDAITON MONEY, FREE MARKET MONIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Those offering ready for sale goods and services should be free to monetize them themselves, in suitable associations, to the extent that people are willing to accept such competing monies or local currencies. Then and thus they could not only ease the sales problem but also bid for willing and productive labor of many local unemployed and under-employed people, via short term loans to employers, who would be able to pay them in this money and, thus, also, and to that extent, they would assure sale for themselves, for goods consumed with these shop currencies would lead to more orders for their goods, too. – JZ, 24.12.00. – They should also be free to use other and better and voluntarily accepted value standards in pricing what they have to offer and in denominating the nominal value of their notes and clearing certificates. – JZ, 4.10.08. - FREE BANKING, GOODS- & SERVICE WARRANTS TO PROMOTE SALES & EMPLOYMENT & TO PAY ONE’S BILLS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Throw off your communist monetary notions and institutions. Replace them by those of monetary freedom. - JZ, 11.11.01, 31.10.02. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, COMMUNIST MONEY NOTIONS, CENTRAL BANKING, FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: To each his own monetary religion, church, dogma, ritual and priesthood, at his own expense and risk. Tolerance towards all tolerant experiments of this kind among their believers. Sooner or later the successful experiments would win more and more converts at the expense of the unsuccessful ones. This is as it should be. The good monies would drive out the bad, even among those without knowledge of the theories, techniques and practices involved in producing good money and maintaining its quality. - JZ, 12.8.91, 26.4.97, 8.9.02. - & RELIGIOUS LIBERTY

MONETARY FREEDOM: To each his own monetary theory and practice. - J. Z. 11.7.91. - The monetary theories and practices preferred by some should never be forced upon others. - JZ, 22.4.97. - See TOLERANCE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY, FREE CHOICE OF EXCHANGE MEDIA & VALUE STANDARDS, FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE TRADE, FREE EXCHANGE

MONETARY FREEDOM: To each his own monetary, clearing, value standards and financial system, always at his own risk and expense, together with like-minded volunteers, with free market rating or freely floating exchange rates in the general economy for all that they have to offer, at least outside their own communities, if not also within them. – However, if volunteers are foolish enough to want to continue a kind of monetary and financial despotism among themselves only, they should not be prevented from doing so. Their actions and the consequences of these actions will be punishment enough. – JZ, 21.1.04, 26.10.07. - FREE BANKING, TOLERANCE, FREE COMPETITION IN EVERY VALUE PRODUCING & EXCHANGE SPHERE

MONETARY FREEDOM: To each his own or self-chosen exchange medium and value standard, clearing, credit and financing system. Which means, in practice, xyz different private payment communities freely competing with each other for customers. Today all the different banks, credit and clearing institutions and finance companies are all too much tied down to or dependent upon the government’s monopolistic and legal tender paper currency, into which all their accounts are ultimately redeemable. – JZ, 26.9.00, 7.10.08.

MONETARY FREEDOM: To each the exchange medium, value standard, clearing and finance system of his or her individual choice – no matter how absurd or utopian it appears to be to others. – JZ, 4.10.98. - FREE BANKING, FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT, PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE FOR ALL TOLERANT ACTIONS, VOLUNTARISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: To each the medium of exchange and value standard of his or her dreams, choice of contracts, to the extent that he or she find like-minded people. – JZ, 11.10.97, 28.9.08.

MONETARY FREEDOM: To end unemployment we must have monetary freedom. When monetary freedom is legal, known, appreciated and practised, mass unemployment can no longer occur or persist. - JZ, n.d., 21.3.97, 7.1.11. & FULL EMPLOYMENT

MONETARY FREEDOM: To provide a sound and honest currency is not impossible, it's merely illegal. - JZ, 29.7.75. - Not only one but several sound and honest currencies can be privately or cooperatively provided and peacefully coexist in free market competition with each other - as long and to the extent that their voluntary users find them useful for their transactions. - JZ, 21.3.97, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: to see what wonders a decrease in the printing of money (*) can bring, the goal should be to get government completely out of the money business, whence it came. (**) This means repealing the legal tender laws and abolishing the engine of the inflation fraud - the Federal Reserve System. (***) - Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.349. - (*) of unsound money and an increase in the competitive printing of sound money! - (**) While there exists still compulsory taxation or the voluntary taxation in some communities of volunteers, the government or the managers of voluntary communities should also be free to issue tax-anticipation or contribution-anticipation money of their own, to facilitate the collection of the taxes or contributions. - (***) Only its special powers and privileges need to be repealed for a whole country. And even these could be retained by corresponding voluntary communities of statists, without any territorial monopoly and operating under their kind of personal law. - JZ, 21.12.07. – DENATIONALIZING MONEY, CENTRAL BANKING ABOLITION, REPEALING LEGAL TENDER LAWS, FED.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Too many writings, speeches and public discussion on money tend to merely add to the already existing confusion, myths, errors and prejudices in this sphere rather than diminishing them and providing sufficient enlightenment on the subject, also on clearing, credit, finance and free exchange. – JZ, 8.1.04. – If enough digital “argument-mapping” were provided on such subjects then these issues could become much faster clarified. – JZ, 31.10.07. - FREE BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY ENLIGHTENMENT, MONETARY EXPERIMENTS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Treasure hunters go laboriously and often even expensively after a few thousand to a few million dollars in gold, silver, jewels, antiques, while at the same time they ignore the billions in values that could become monetarily mobilized through monetary freedom, free clearing and free value standard reckoning for all. They find it easier or more attractive to search for and dig for treasures, even risking their lives in the process and investing much time, effort and energy, than to dig up, study, comprehend and apply the monetary-, clearing-, and value standard options of full monetary freedom. – Likewise, they are not prepared to “dig” for their personal share in the national assets, which territorial governments keep under their control and all too much mismanaged, even to the extent of taxing their subjects to subsidize their mismanagement. We have not only to become monetarily emancipated but also financially. This happens even in countries like Australia, where the national assets might still come to A$ 1 million per head. – JZ, 23.8.98, 6.10.08, 7.1.11. – Especially seeing how the Australian Dollar has been depreciated in recent decades. – JZ, 19.2.09. – PEACE PLANS 19C, (Let Freedom Pay Its Way, properly, without corruption …) offered digitized, 131pages, at as part of a disc reproduced there. FINANCIAL FREEDOM, WEALTHY GOVERNMENTS & POOR PEOPLE, TREASURE HUNTING

MONETARY FREEDOM: Under free banking or monetary freedom, labor can offer itself effectively for sale through its own freely transferable scrip, IOUs, labor-notes or clearing certificates, which only these laborers would have to be prepared to accept at any time in payment for their labor, which would have no other value and which would, therefore, tend to stream back to them, fast, to realize that value. The goods and service providers could effectively offer their goods and services and pay for the goods and services, as well as the labor of their employees, with their own freely transferable scrip, or shop currencies, or shop foundation money, or shop association money, which obliges only themselves to accept it at any time at par, when they sell their goods and services. To suppress that kind of options is the mainfeature of monetary despotism. - JZ, 15.5.92, 26.5.97. - However, individual and other small issuers would require the existence or establishment of a close to perfect clearing system to get their notes or clearing certificates widely enough accepted. A transitional step towards such a perfect clearing system would be the issue and acceptance of cheques that are for clearing only, i.e., not redeemable in the government's legal tender paper money. The legal prohibitions against such issues should be abolished or effectively evaded. Such clearing cheques should also be issued in convenient money denominations - and, preferably, upon a better value standard than the abstract and mismanaged one of the government's paper money. - JZ, 10.9.02. - UNEMPLOYMENT & SALES DIFFICULTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Under free competition in the supply of exchange media everyone who offers them must endeavor, in his own interest, to keep them stable. Otherwise he will be pushed out of the market by his competitors, particularly through the public itself. - K.H.Z. Solneman ( Kurt H. Zube ), Drei Kernforderungen zur Vermoegensverteilung, S.16.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Under full monetary freedom - and sufficient understanding of it - it would be hard to impossible to arrive at as bad or even worse results than those of the present dominating monetary despotism. – JZ, 6.10.08. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Under full monetary freedom sufficient monetary demand for all able and willing workers, could be coined or printed, in sound and competing free market currencies, which would drive out of circulation unsound or inferior ones and achieve full employment and sales for the participants. – JZ, 22.2.03. - (The popular version of Gresham’s Law, that bad money drives out good money, applies only to legal tender money, i.e. the bad money. – JZ, 21.10.07.) – It is tragic that many millions of people are again becoming unemployed and thousands of enterprises are becoming bankrupt without them knowing of and realizing their monetary freedom and clearing options between them or even caring to find out about them. Their governments know nothing better than putting their note printing presses into operation. – JZ, 16.2.09, 4.11.13. - FULL EMPLOYMENT, SOUND VS. UNSOUND CURRENCIES, MONETARY COMPETITION, GRESHAM’S LAW, INTEREST FOR & KNOWLEDGE OF MONETARY FREEDOM ALTERNATIVES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Under full monetary freedom we could fully mobilize, by monetization for free exchange purposes, all our ready for sale consumer goods, services and labor, to the extent that they are wanted by others and we could, thereby, also assure their sale, when issuing them accordingly, in our own debt payments and in short term loans for wage and salary payments to employers (discounting their payment claims out of goods and services already produced and sold but not yet paid for) and then accepting these, our alternative currencies back, at par, from anyone who offers them to us in payment. – Such exchange media would always be kept automatically in balance with the goods produced and the services offered, because they would not be monopoly money and have legal tender power. They would be market rated, optional, refusable and discountable and reckon in a sound value standard and, therefore, could not be significantly over-issued or under-issued. – Their issue limit is reached when locally they are no longer readily accepted at par. Then further issues have to be and will be suspended until their par value is restored, in the interest of the issuers and as a result of the responses to such money tokens among most potential acceptors. – Such monies would constitute genuine “shop currencies” with “shop foundation”. - JZ, 5.4.95, 6.10.08, 7.1.11, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Unless they have obliged themselves otherwise, allow all debtors to pay at whatever discount is required, in their own IOU’s, which they are willing to redeem at any time and at their full face value in their own goods and services. Just an honest and public account of all such IOU's is to be kept and it could and should also be summarized as far as possible, on the issued standardized and typified IOU's themselves. Any acceptable or agreed-upon value standard may be used in these IOU's. - JZ, 7.12.82, 7.1.11. - Essentially, they would be private clearing certificates and under comprehensive and free clearing they would even make individuals monetarily independent. However, it would be easier, in most cases, to get one's IOU's discounted almost at par with the notes of a private or cooperative issuing bank, whose notes are much more readily accepted in general circulation than are private and typified IOUs in money denominations. - A general rule should be adopted that any debtor, before he can be driven into bankruptcy, should be free to offer such a settlement. At a fair discount, to both sides, most sufficiently informed creditors could then be satisfied and the debtor could settle his remaining debts with his capacity to deliver goods and services for his IOU's. - JZ, 21.12.07, 7.1.11. – Naturally, he could not cover large speculative or gambling debts in this way. – JZ, 4.11.13. - & DEBT FOUNDATION

MONETARY FREEDOM: USA loudly protests that every man should be free to choose what goods he will make and at what price he will offer them, what work he will do, when he will work, and for what wages. But what is the use of all this freedom if the State tightly controls the means of exchanging the goods he makes - the money he shall use? Men work generally only in order to exchange the results of their labour. Surely, freedom of choice in the means of exchanging goods is just as important as freedom to offer goods and services. Yet governments everywhere, including the government of "The Land of the Free", not only monopolize the issue of permits to exchange goods and services, but proceed to regulate the volume of such permits regardless of the whole principle of demand and supply in an open market.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/74. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Using a standard of value of his own choice (acceptable to his creditors) and exchange media of his own or a clearing method of his choice, everybody should be at liberty to exchange all his goods, services and labor with the own kind of exchange media, value standards and clearing certificates or clearing accounts, without any constitutional, legal, juridical or bureaucratic permission by anyone, and also contrary to the opinions and convictions of the present majority of supposed monetary experts. - JZ, 29.11.83, 21.12.07. – RIGHT TO CLEAR ONE’S DEBTS WITH WHATEVER GOODS, SERVICES OR LABOR ONE HAS TO OFFER, IN CORRESPONDING CLEARING CERTIFICATES, GOODS-, SERVICE- LABOR- VOUCHERS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Using their issue, clearing and value standard options, under full monetary freedom, all providers of consumer goods and services in daily demand, could readily buy from each other, pay their employees and their suppliers and provide short term loans, largely for wage- and salary payments, thus leading to the production and sale of more consumer goods. The sales and production of wanted consumer goods could thus rapidly reach their potential limits, using a larger fraction or even all of the existing productive capacities. That would lead to extra savings and investment in larger production capacities for still more and still wanted goods, requiring for their turnover still more competing currency issues, and a larger total circulation, one corresponding to the additional production and trade. In spite of the increase in optional and market-rated paper currencies that would be involved, the larger scale of production and turnover would lead to some savings, so that prices, most likely, would not be increased at all, according to the predictions of those who uncritically applied observations of forced and exclusive currencies to competing and market-controlled ones, but would rather be decreased. That price decrease would go in parallel with further price decreases due to technical, scientific or management and self-management advances. The elimination, under full employment, due to monetary freedom, of the costs of supporting unemployed, of strikes, of go-slow- practices, of make-work schemes (that waste labor), of the destruction of crops, the scrapping of unsold books, of unnecessary advertisement costs for goods and services that practically sell themselves via the goods and service vouchers in which they are offered, the costs of the resistance against labor saving equipment and methods, and the reduction of personal despair (among unemployed, under-employed or people in jobs that they do not like) that leads to drunkenness, drug use, gambling, crimes, often sickness, the use of the abilities and willingness to work of all old and young people, now excluded by age limits or minimum wage laws, the elimination of all protectionist policies (compulsory licensing, tariffs, quotas, exchange rate controls etc., etc.), would lead to an enormous increase in productivity and exchanges, that is, to a great increase in the general standard of living. The economic, technical and biological capacity to deal with conservation, pollution and ecology problems would also be greatly increased. Class actions, property rights, alternative court systems, more assured indemnification claims, alternative education systems, competitive crime prevention, crime prosecution, penal institutions and restitution services, utilizing prison labor to the fullest, further realization of individual rather than collective responsibility, private covenants, private parks, gardens, forests and wilderness areas, a greater purchasing power for organically grown, pesticide- and additive-free foods etc., could also help to greatly reduce pollution and conservation problems. People reduced to buying only the cheapest goods to enable them to survive, cannot insist on them being of high quality and free of pollution or unwanted additives. Most of our current problems would either disappear or become much more manageable under full monetary and financial freedom. - JZ, 23.8.85, 3.5.97.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Value standards and exchange media as well as clearing and credit arrangements to become all subject to free enterprise and consumer sovereignty, freedom of contracts and free associations and free market relationships, i.e. free market rating and the option to refuse their acceptance altogether, under full publicity for all the details of their issue, acceptance obligation only for their issuers, reflux strength and valuations in a free market for them, with chosen rather than imposed value standards. Monetary freedom rather than monetary despotism. Let the good money drive out the bad. – JZ, 25.12.98, 25.9.8, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: We are almost surrounded by masses of sufficient and sound cover and redemption goods and services for the issue, reflux and redemption of sufficient, sound and competitive private and cooperative currencies, with those offered in our shopping centres worth billons of dollars at any time. Thus additional but quite sound currencies could be sensibly and very extensively issued upon these covers, by their owners, in short term turn-over credits, suitable for wage and salary payments. Issues so covered would rapidly assure the sale of all wanted consumer goods and services and be withdrawn from circulation by these very consumer purchases, to be rapidly replaced by new such issues, covered by newly produced and offered goods and services, and thus readily accepted and used for their purpose. Ticket money is a good term for the issue and temporary circulation of such goods warrants and service vouchers, typified and in standard money denominations - but in appearance very different from the government's present monopoly paper money and coins. Thus the the sale of all wanted and ready for sale goods, labour and services could become assured, simply because they would themselves constitute the most ready, suitable, sound and sufficient cover and redemption fund or sound reflux arrangement for such competitive note and clearing certificate issues. Ideally, they could also express sound alternative value standards that their issuers and acceptors find to be good or good enough for these private exchange media and for the goods, services and labor they offer for them. This would mean that all prices, wages and other contracts would then also be expressed in one or the other of these alternative value standards. Acceptance of these alternative means of payment and value standards would be voluntary. They would be refusable (unless contracted for) and market rated, i.e., discountable. Only the issuer would have to accept them at any time at par, during business hours. (He might oblige some of his debtors to do the same.) Any discount would drive them rapidly back to their issuer, who must accept them at par. In consequence, discounts could rarely become large. Mostly these alternative and optional exchange media would circulate, but only for short periods, at par with their nominal value, until, soon, they are redeemed, i.e. turned into goods and services. The maximum circulation period for each batch issued might be limited to 1-12 months. The stop sign for a temporary halt of further issues would be a discount of such money in local circulation. Further issues can be resumed once this discount has disappeared again. Thus mass unemployment, inflation, depressions, deflations and stagflations could be rapidly ended and prevented for the future. - Nevertheless, this alternative is so far barely discussed anywhere and the existing monetary despotism remains quite insufficiently criticized. - Freedom has the answer to most problems but, nevertheless, these answers remain widely ignored. - For many more more such notes, alphabetized, at book length, previously compiled and put on line see: - JZ, 11.8.02, 31.10.02, 7.1.11. – A longer free banking A to Z and a free banking bibliography are online at - At least some of these online statements are included here. But all such notes and references, from all sources, still need to be combined into a useful enough handbook on monetary freedom. In WIKIPEDIA fashion that could be achieved rather fast, once it is started. – JZ, 16.2.09. - The best of these and future entries by many people might be combined in a short handbook or digital databank, as suggested by Klause Falke, who has put a work bench for this online. - JZ, 7.1.11. - - FREE BANKING, PRIVATE, SOUND & COMPETITIVE CURRENCIES, CURRENCY COVERS

MONETARY FREEDOM: We can convince the world, if we can convince one town full of people.” - J. Hunter Holly, The Grey Aliens, p.119. - First one has to fully convince oneself, e.g., of the rightfulness and practicability of full monetary freedom. Most people seem to find that too hard, even those who subscribed already to some monetary freedom aspects. Secondly, to convince all people in a village or town of such a radical freedom option, contrary to many popular and scholarly and statist prejudices, seems also much too hard or even impossible a job. One might break through their apathy for a short moment, might even get them to temporarily agree with a monetary freedom statement, if one surprises them with it. But it will not take them long to “recover” and to recall some of the hundreds of errors and prejudices commonly advanced against this freedom option. Moreover, they will not be patient and interested listeners and readers while you attempt to refute their opinions, shared by the majority of their fellow citizens. Nay, at most one can get the consent of some significant members of a local community to engage in a monetary freedom experiment when there is an acute crisis brought on by monetary despotism. When these few engage, rapidly and successfully, in monetary freedom options and their experiment is not soon suppressed by the authorities, then others will follow, not convinced by theories and arguments but by the facts of such a success. That would also require a situation where the authorities would be hesitant to come down hard upon the participants of the monetary freedom experiment, e.g. shortly before an election, when the experiment has already locally abolished or greatly reduced sales difficulties and involuntary unemployment. - JZ, 8.9.85, 4.5.97. - EXPERIMENTS, SMALL SCALE STARTS COULD CONVINCE THE WORLD

MONETARY FREEDOM: we may have to retrieve it slowly and painstakingly on the road back to freedom, which gives it birth and meaning through inexorable economic law. This is why we seek no reform law, no restoration law, no conversion or parity, no government cooperation, merely freedom. The road is short and direct. And yet, depending on the resistance offered by popular ignorance and prejudice, by government greed and lust of power, it may take us many years to traverse.” – Dr. Hans Sennholz, Inflation or Gold Standard? P.62. – The redemptionist gold standard is neither the only gold standard nor the best of all of them. It is also not a good enough substitute for full freedom in the choice of value standards and of exchange media and clearing options. – JZ, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: We must end the power of the government to create "dollars" at will; money must once again be a commodity such as gold, produced solely on the free market. As we have seen, these measures would end the boom-bust cycle as well as inflation, but we can speed up the adjustment to recession, and grow and prosper far more if we cut taxation and government expenditures drastically.” - McBride, A New Dawn, p.32. - That is merely ONE of many monetary freedom options. - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONETARY FREEDOM: We should try to economically fully mobilize the ready for sale consumer goods and services by allowing their providers to offer them in form of privately and competitively issues goods warrants, shop vouchers or shop currency in convenient money denominations, all optional, refusable, market rated and discountable by all but the issuers themselves. We should also press for the repeal of or simply ignore all legislation with would prohibit the use alternative and honest and sound currencies for wage and salary payments and other debt settlements, especially taxes. But governments should not grant them full tax foundation but only acceptance in taxes at their market rate against whatever value standard the authorities would then use for their own tax foundation money issues. (Prussian tax office often accepted a variety of currencies in payment of taxes and simply published the exchange rate at which they would accept them, keeping that exchange rate close to the free market rate but not changing it as frequently.) – Shop associations would then tend to issue their own currencies, largely in payroll loans to employers, in order assure and increase their own sales, then no longer dependent upon the sufficient supply of any exclusive currency to any employer. Involuntary unemployment could thus be rapidly done away with. The employers could easily become employers to the unemployed as well and thus increase their business and its output. Sales would be much less of a problem for them. (A special term should be invented for “employers” unable to employ unemployed!) The soundest issues, using the best value standard would tend to drive out inferior money tokens and clearing certificates as well as all too flawed value standards. Without legal tender and an issue monopoly, market rated and refusable and with prices expressed in sound value standards, they could not cause an inflation but would do away with any still existing deflationary phenomena. By choosing a sound value standard for their currency and their prices, the issuers would not participate in the inflation that might still be continued with the governmental money, while this is not yet altogether stopped or refused. Certainly, the government’s legal tender laws and issue monopoly and banking acts should no longer be recognized but rather repealed or ignored. With monetary freedom options becoming widely appreciated and applied, those politicians, who would attempt to uphold monetary despotism among others than their remaining volunteers, would lose credibility, votes and power. I would expect most politicians to then and suddenly become loud advocates of monetary freedom. Changing sides, when it suits them, has long become a habit with them. But they, like their money, are so untrustworthy that all of them should be confined to their own volunteers under exterritorial autonomy and personal laws. (Panarchies under “panarchism”) – JZ, 8.12.96, 29.9.08, 7.1.11, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: What we now need is a Free Money Movement comparable to the Free Trade Movement of the 19th century, demonstrating not merely the harm caused by acute inflation, which could justifiably be argued to be avoidable even with present institutions, but the deeper effects of producing periods of stagnation that are indeed inherent in the present monetary arrangements. – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, 1975, p.101. – Alas, even 33 years later this kind of movement has barely started as yet! – JZ, 5.10.08. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, DEPRESSIONS, STAGNATION, CRISES, INFLATION, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, DEFLATION, FREE BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: What would be the grossest fraud if an individual tried it has become the common practice of governments - all quite legal because it is a governmental monopoly. And the result is a runaway inflation that disrupts business activities and hinders rather than facilitates trade. This is why government cannot be trusted with power to determine what traders should use as a medium of exchange. Let the traders choose.” - Leonard E. Read, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. - Not to speak of deflations, mass unemployment and bankruptcies, stagflations and the wars, revolutions, civil wars and terrorism caused by the governments' mismanagement of currencies. - JZ, 21.3.97. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Whatever there already exists in established facts and sound theories and practices regarding money, credit and value standards has certainly not yet been sufficiently and encyclopedically and alphabetically assembled and clearly enough written up so that it can be widely enough understood and appreciated. A handbook on monetary freedom is still missing. And I do not even know of any effort to try to compile it, in WIKIPEDIA fashion, on the Internet, with input from the many who are already or should be interested in this subject. There and thus such a reference work could be established fast. – I made a long but still very incomplete compilation for this purpose, just by transcribing a lot of notes and quotes that I had accumulated. It can be found on - Later expanded on - But so far it has been largely ignored, even although it was thus digitally published. A 124 pages but still very incomplete free banking bibliography of mine, started in 1989, had the same fate. (An extended free banking bibliography of mine is now also on - JZ, 7.1.11.) I am reminded of a frequent remark by Ulrich von Beckerath that all the bad conditions that people usually and quite wrong blame “capitalism” for, without understanding what laissez-faire or free market capitalism really means, can really be traced back to most people’s ignorance, prejudices and even lack of interest in their own economic affairs. They still rely on patronage, paternalism, authoritarianism, statism and even despotism and totalitarianism in this sphere and expect miracles from them, which these, their territorial and secular “Gods”, cannot perform. - JZ, 8.1.98, 29.9.08, 7.1.11. – - TOWARDS A HANDBOOK OR ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DIGITAL DATABANK ON MONETARY FREEDOM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Whatever use people will make of such liberty is or ought to be up to them. By all means, try to inform them and advise them on your favorite alternatives. Also demonstrate them in practical experiments - but let them do their own things for and to themselves, in peace. The silver-, copper-, steel standard, their "labor hour standard" etc. are all good enough or just right for those who choose them and as long as they do. At least their chosen standards will teach them some lessons on this subject. If they believe e.g. in the postage stamp, KW hour, any index or a "canary" standard, let them practise their beliefs at their expense and risk. If they hold that capital commodity values and medium- or even long-term securities could form a good enough cover and short term reflux for their currencies, just let them try and be wise enough to refuse to accept their currency. If they think that land or roads or buildings, promises or blessings can impart value to circulating media, sufficiently and reliably, immediately and permanently, up to their face values, any time and towards all, let them try, as they might try with money of the game "Monopoly" or with their own uncovered cheques. You are free to refuse their offers and so are others. - "A burnt child will shy the fire." - JZ, 7.4.97, 7.1.11, 7.1.11. – IT IS PRIMARY

MONETARY FREEDOM: When any productive capacity and readiness for sale can be much easier turned into the existing ready cash, or into a newly issued and competitively supplied private local currency, then there will be many less desperate characters committing crimes as a means to support themselves. When, in consequence, the Welfare State "rights" or claims are more and more diminished, too, or delegated to voluntary associations and communities and when monetary rights and other economic rights are more and more recognized and utilized, then and with them the general individual rights of others will also become more and more recognized and respected and people will thus abstain more and more from criminally infringing them. Today property, personal and trading rights are largely restricted by an avalanche of laws and by public opinion, based largely upon "free" public mis-education that creates sympathy for criminal actions of all kinds of "underdogs" and that classes achievers, producers and traders as criminals, to be penalized at least with high taxes. ("Soak the rich!") We would come to see a shrinking of that anti-capitalist mentality and with it of crime. People act upon their ideas, no matter how wrong they are. With right ideas more right actions will follow. Even presently many to most of the convicted prisoners have also their kinds of "standards", i.e., there are some criminal actions which most of them would not commit even if they were highly profitable for them. That kind of self-control is likely to be greatly increased once monetary and financial freedom have been realized for a while. - Frustrations in jobs would become much more rare. People would more often end up and remain in jobs that they really like and are good at. Nor would economic dependency and housing shortage force people to remain together longer than they would like otherwise. Productive work, savings and investments, inventiveness, creativeness, innovation, would be seen much more as an attractive and safe road to personal riches, rather than gambling, betting, lotteries, theft, embezzlement or even robberies and murder. I would even assume that drug consumption and alcoholism would also be greatly reduced. Adventurous spirits could try themselves in hundreds of thousands of new productive jobs, with more of these appearing almost every day. Moreover, they would be much more able to pay for any adventures and experiences that can be purchased. The world would become much more their oyster. Immigration and business entry barriers would fall. Finally, even the universe would be opened up for them. However, if they persisted in crimes with involuntary victims, then they would encounter more armed self-defence, competitive protection and police services, competitive jurisdiction channels, competitive penal services and competitive indemnification extraction companies. Crime would be much less likely to pay. Among more enlightened people even the number of crimes of passion would be reduced, which are all too often based on the primitive and insufficiently refuted notion of "ownership" of other people. Nor would power be glorified in a free society. It would become rather despised. For these and other reasons I would expect much less crime in a society largely liberated via monetary and financial freedom. - Also in one that is enlightened through an optimal declaration of all genuine individual rights and liberties, which is long overdue already. Compare PEACE PLANS No. 241 in PEACE PLANS 15, p.12-20: Some Thoughts on how a libertarian society would tend to reduce crime, by JZ, Dec. 1971. - 7.1.11. – You can either find it online at or can get it from me as an email attachment. – JZ, 4.11.13. - THE CRIME RATE

MONETARY FREEDOM: When man is free he chooses natural money that is free from all strictures of government and politics.” – Dr. Hans F.- Sennholz, THE FREEMAN, 2/75.

MONETARY FREEDOM: When people become free to agree upon alternative exchange media, value standards and clearing avenues among themselves - then they become independent of all monetary policies and measures of the practitioners of monetary despotism, of "their" central banks, and their interest rate-, discount- and "open market" policies to control their forced and exclusive currencies, their inflations, deflations, credit restrictions and stagflations. - JZ, 18.7.96, 19.3.97, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: When stating that monetary freedom is required for full employment, this does not mean that free pricing is considered as unnecessary. On the contrary, it is assumed as given and to be perfected by freeing monetary transactions also from all price controllers and coercers. - JZ, 2/75.

MONETARY FREEDOM: When will there ever be sufficient knowledge and appreciation of it, widely enough spread, to enable us to realize it with almost certainty of success for this effort and also with a minimum of effort and delays? - Until we manage to collect and exchange sufficient information about monetary freedom options to achieve a minimum of consensus or at least mutual tolerance among monetary reformers, the advocates of the various schemes spend more time and energy on fighting each other than they spend upon fighting monetary despotism, their main common enemy. Alas, this is the same false, thoughtless and unjust reaction that is also to be observed in politics and in revolutions, by people not yet comprehending the panarchistic alternatives of competing governance and competing non-governmental societies or communities. - Not even the "virtual communities" now existing on the Internet have, to my knowledge, advanced panarchistic thinking far enough. Sufficient monetary enlightenment and tolerance are among the first objectives. Steps towards it are, among others, microfiche and electronic disk publishing and reading. Also websites, blogs and email attachments, not to speak of a comprehensive monetary and financial freedom library on an external large and by now very affordable HDD. (A good dinner might cost a couple and also many printed books cost more than this hardware. – JZ, 4.11.13.) - So far, this kind of treasure chest (still only very incompletely offered by LMP, on microfiche), has remained largely unused, even by those who have shown some interest in some monetary freedom options. If they let their information and opinion exchanges be blocked by their own mind-sets and reading and publishing habits, prejudicing them against a medium like microfiche, or even against texts on floppy disks and CDs, DVDs & HDDs, while they do not make much use of other alternative and affordable media, either, then they will have only themselves to blame. - If, let us say, 5,000 people interested in monetary freedom in the world, were to make use of the existing monetary microfiche and produce many more themselves, then microfiche might become among them something like an alternative exchange medium, at least for literature exchanges. They could be credited with fiche credits in a clearing center which would be supplied by the monetary freedom fiche producers, who would get credit there for the fiche supplied by others. To that extent their own fiche could be discounted there and paid for in the notes or clearing certificates, redeemable only in fiche, of that clearing center. In this way the credit holders could not only get an assortment of any fiche held there, at the choice of the holder, but his own choice of fiche for the credits he has established there. - That, too, could be a very small sample of the practice of monetary freedom. - Interest in this proposal has so far been zero. (I have also given up on this option, for lack of interest among libertarians, who so far made as insufficient used of digital discs as they made of microfilm. – JZ, 4.11.13. There are so many quite legal self-liberation and self-enlightenment options now in existence. Nevertheless, only a few people use one or two of them and this mostly only fractionally. They seem to love their chains more. - JZ, 31.1.89, 16.5.97, 7.1.11. - MONETRY FREEDOM KNOWLEDGE – COMBINED IN A DIGITIZED HANDBOOK

MONETARY FREEDOM: While the interest rate for turn-over credits would tend to greatly fall under monetary freedom, the interest rates for medium and long-term capital investments, even under gold clauses, might even rise, at least temporarily, because sales would be so much easier, that profits would rise. Thus more people would be employed and much more savings would become available investment capital, under stable value reckoning and thus, in the long run, its interest rate would decline. Whatever interests rates would still have to be charged in a really free market would be just and economical. – JZ, 31.12.04, 29.11.07, 4.11.13. - FREE BANKING & INTEREST RATES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Whoever wants to produce and exchange should not have to put up with a condition in which not sufficient exchange media are available for him. He has the right to create new exchange media himself, when those, who trade with him, are prepared to accept them. That is a very revolutionary principle, probably the most revolutionary of all so far formulated ones. – Ulrich von Beckerath, in my micro-fiched edition of a collection of his papers, page 1402, in my rough translation of the German version. – (“Wer produzieren oder austauschen will, braucht es sich nicht gefallen zu lassen, dass nicht genuegend Umsatzmittel fuer ihn erreichbar sind; er ist berechtigt, neue Umsatzmittel zu schaffen, wenn die it ihm Verkehrenden bereit sind sie anzunehmen. Das ist ein sehr revolutionaeres Prinzip, wahrscheinlich das revolutionaerste von allen bisher formulierten. ...) - JZ, 6.10.08, 7.1.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, MONETARY RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Why is the government’s usually inflated, deflated or stag-flated money accepted at all, in spite of being almost constantly mismanaged and also depreciated in the process and not offering a reliable value standard at all? Firstly, it is the only money in the meaning of exchange medium permitted in a country. Thus, if one wants to participate in a monetary economy one has to accept it with all its flaws. Secondly, its value standard is also manipulated and mismanaged, usually depreciated. Free choice of value standards is denied through the legal tender laws, which are applied to it. It is for most purposes the only monetary value standard one is permitted to use in most transactions. Thus one is forced to put up with the government’s or its central bank’s all too flawed value standard, if one wants to engage in monetary trading at all and most of us depend on it for our very survival needs. Thirdly, one can purchase tax payment receipt with it, which are not a genuine service, but rather an option to avoid major troubles with the government. One’s bank accounts, wages, salary, car house, furniture and other possessions and one’s business might become confiscated if one does not pay these imposed tribute levies and one might even end up in jail as a result, or dead if one actively resists such confiscations. Fourthly, because of its legal tender power and its depreciation, debtors of medium and long-term debts can cheaply rid themselves of at least parts of these debts by paying them in depreciated money, forcing it upon creditors as if it had retained its purchasing power from the time that the debt was contracted. However, under these conditions credits become harder and harder to get. Until e.g. wage and price controls are also introduced by the government, later also rationing, imposed delivery quotas and forced labor, one can counteract a government’s over-issue of its manipulated, exclusive and forced currency only by increasing the prices of one’s labor, services and goods expressed in it. Thus the general price level and the nominal wages and salaries become “inflated” Better monies, clearing certificates and value standards are not allowed to compete with those of the government. - When the governmental currency is under-supplied in a credit-restriction or deflation, one is not free to issue alternative and sound currencies and with them and thus to drive the inferior government money either altogether out of circulation or reduce it to it role as mere tax anticipation warrants, used to pay government expenditures with. – To get rid of the laws, institutions and practices of monetary despotism its laws ought to be repealed. That is very difficult to achieve - even in a democracy. For monetary despotism has become something like a popular religion. It is a significant part of the general and all too popular territorial statism. So far all of the electronic opportunities for achieving this kind of enlightenment have not yet been utilized. – JZ, 5.10.08, 7.1.11. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: With freedom in money, the scientific discoveries and mechanical inventions made in each country, will not only be used to the utmost in that country, but will be carried into all other countries. And these discoveries and inventions, given by each country to every other, and received by each country from every other, will be of infinitely more value than all the material commodities that will be exchanged between these countries. - In this way each country contributes to the wealth of every other, and the whole human race are enriched by the increased power and stimulus given to each man's labor of body and mind.” - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.51. - Towards that aim the abolition of patent and copyrights monopolies would be required, too. Tucker was more consistent in advocating this liberty, too, than Spooner was. - JZ, 22.3.97. - Spooner still insisted upon copyrights. If he had not then we would, perhaps, have copies of his manuscripts that were burnt with Tucker’s library. – Alas, good photocopy machines did not yet exist in his time, far less digital scanners. - JZ, 20.1.08, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: With the issue of the own exchange medium and the adoption of a value standard of one’s own free choice, one gets as far away as possible from the old slave and subject citizen mentality. Even armed resistance and individual secession do not require as much self-thinking and initiative. – JZ, 21.1.84. – STATISM, SLAVE MENTALITY, MONETARY EMANCIPATION, CENTRAL BANKING

MONETARY FREEDOM: With the realization of all monetary rights, most unemployment and sales difficulties would disappear. - JZ, 7.8.75. - One should think that this fact would give unemployed and businessmen a vested interest in it. Alas, human beings are not as rational and as much in love with all individual rights and liberties, especially the economic ones. At least not yet. Let's try to lead these horses to the water. - JZ, 21.3.97, 4.11.13. - UNEMPLOYMENT & SALES DIFFICULTIES, ENLIGHTENMENT, DECLARATION OF ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Withdraw the right of note issue from governments and restore it to the commercial banks, who suffer no such temptation...” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/74. - Allow both to issue - NON-COERCIVE TOKENS! - Meulen never fully realized the significance and consequences of legal tender. Even today many assume that because legal tender fails to coerce in the last stages of an inflation, when people ignore it even at great risk and choose alternatives agreeable to them, that, therefore, legal tender is not really effective. But it took legal tender to bring a currency to the desperate stage of a galloping inflation, where it finally becomes ignored or simply too expensive to utilize. - In 1923 the printing costs in Germany for inflated currency of its Reichsbank came to 48 % of the market value of newly printed notes. In the Hungarian inflation after WW II this percentage may have risen even higher. Imagine a government trying to hawk its money around when it is merely its printed paper, not covered or redeemed in rare metals, not legal tender (forced acceptance and enforced value), not a monopoly money - and if it were (since governments ignored sound tax-foundation for it for for so long) not even accepted in payment of taxes. - JZ, 21.3.97, 4.11.13.

MONETARY FREEDOM: Without full monetary and financial freedom you will largely remain enchained by monetary and financial despotism – and their consequences. – JZ, 22.2.03. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Without full monetary freedom men and women aren’t really free, free enterprise is not free, nor are free trade and free markets, freedom of contract, freedom of exchange, free countries, freedom of association and experimentation. Without it democracies and republics are not really free, either, nor are anarchists and libertarians. Without it decentralization is not carried far enough nor are economic development and growth then reaching their potential. The same could be said about voluntary taxation, voluntary state membership, individual and group secessionism and the right of the people of any community to decide for themselves on war and peace, on rightful weapons and disarmament of mass murder devices, on international treaties and alliances. In short, without all the individual rights and liberties (so far still insufficiently known, published and, largely, ignored or suppressed), people aren’t sufficiently free but still governed by territorial, authoritarian and exploitative rulers, even when these are elected by the majority, a majority that is misled, mis-educated, kept in ignorance and prejudices by territorialist propaganda lies and slogans. – JZ, 5.1.03, 31.10.07, 7.1.11, 4.11.13. - FREE BANKING, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARY TAXATION & VOLUNTARY COMMUNITIES, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, INDIVIDUAL HUMAN RIGHTS, NATURAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Without monetary freedom all your other rights and liberties are endangered. – JZ, 22.2.03. - RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONETARY FREEDOM: Without monetary freedom neither completely free markets, nor free enterprise, freedom of contract, free trade, free competition, free exchange, laissez faire, freedom of association and experimentation and full capitalism - JZ, 3.2.83, 4.11.13. - I consider quite free clearing as an aspect of monetary freedom and all monetary transactions with the monies of monetary freedom to be in essence free clearing transactions. - JZ, 20.12.07. - FREE MARKETS, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREEDOM OF CONTRACT, FREE TRADE, FREE COMPETITION, FREE EXCHANGE

MONETARY FREEDOM: You have the right to issue your own money - and to refuse that of anyone else, even that of the government. - JZ, 11.2.73.

MONETARY FREEDOM: You have to struggle or beg for the money of monetary despotism. The money of monetary freedom you could produce yourself and it would come back to you to buy what you have to sell. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07. - VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONETARY FREEDOM: You never know what is enough unless you know what is more than enough.” – William Blake. – A more than insignificant discount of a currency against its value standard in free market rating in general circulation (the issuer must always accept his own currency at par) and this discount persisting, instead of rapidly disappearing again, through the reflux of the discounted notes, clearing certificates etc., to their issuer, indicates a practical and clear limit for further issues of competitive exchange media, influencing the actions of all potential issuers as well as all potential acceptors for it, just like the indications of a fever temperature indicates overheating of our bodies. Only competitively issued and accepted and free market rated optional currencies can thus clearly determine the limits for their own issues, by the discounts or refusals resulting from even slight degrees of over-issues, when such exchange media are offered and accepted at first beyond the saturation point of the local market for them. Since they are not monopoly money and have no legal tender power (forced acceptance and forced value), they cannot be forced into circulation in really excessive amounts. Thus a close to optimal circulation can be achieved via automatically self-limiting competing private currencies. Those using the sound value standard will also become preferred to those with inferior value standards. – JZ, 27.10.00, 6.10.08. - CIRCULATION LIMITS FOR SOUND MONEY ISSUES, LEGAL TENDER, MARKET RATING FOR COMPETING CURRENCIES, REFUSAL TO ACCEPT DOUBTED OR DEPRECIATED CURRENCIES & RIGHT TO DISCOUNT THEM, IF ONE ACCEPTS THEM, FREE EXCHANGE RATES FOR ALL CURRENCIES, NOT ONLY THE CURRENCIES OF OTHER STATES

MONETARY FREEDOM: You should and you could be your own note-issuing banker, solving your own monetary problems, alone or in association with like-minded others, free to sell your own labor, services and goods for your own monetary assignments, standardized and in money denominations, upon your own labor, services and goods. For this you do not need any other redemption fund, any issue privileges, any legal tender powers, any other supervisory authority than full publicity and free market pricing for your exchange- and clearing media and your offers in labor, services and goods. Once you are thus monetarily emancipated, your monetary troubles will be over, to the extent that you are willing and able to supply labor, services and goods at market prices and are ready at any time to accept back the own notes, assignments, clearing certificates or tickets - in convenient money denominations - that you have issued, at any time and at par with a sound value standard that you have freely chosen, too, and that is acceptable to those who accepted your own notes. This kind of monetary freedom is required for your full emancipation, for your full employment in a society based on the division of labor, free enterprise, free exchange, free trade, freedom of contracts, free pricing and the obligation to help oneself as far as is humanly possible. Thereby you would make yourself independent of the inflationary, deflationary, stag-flationary and thus crises- and unemployment promoting effects of any pre-existing system of monetary despotism, with its central bank, monopoly money and legal tender power. Afterwards you will ask yourself: How could I have ever believed that I could become fully employed in my specialty when the demand for my labor, expressed in money tokens, depended upon a monopolist? Further: how could I have allowed anyone to interfere with my exchanges by imposing his flawed and mismanaged monopoly money with its paper "value- standard" upon all my transactions? - JZ, 15.11.92, 30.4.97, 7.1.11, 4.1.13. - & FREE BANKING AS SELF-HELP STEPS

MONETARY FREEDOM: Your ability to pay would be greatly increased under full monetary and financial despotism – unless you are e.g. a central banker or a tax collector or tax consumer. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07. - FINANCIAL FREEDOM

MONETARY FREEDOM: Your own money and value standards and those by your associates should be free to compete with those of the politicians, in a process of letting good money drive out the bad, i.e., the forced and exclusive currencies of governments. – JZ, 30.7.98, 6.10.08, 7.1.11. – GRESHAM’S LAW, PROPERLY UNDERSTOOD.

MONETARY HISTORY: do not believe in history (*) because history is impelled by whatever passes for money.” - Frank Herbert, Children of Dune, in ANALOG, 1/76, p.98. - If one is aware of that, then one will understand history much better and will work for a better future, with the monies and clearing certificates or clearing accounts and value standards of full monetary freedom. Money and clearing are still the "medium of exchange" and, as Bastiat said, "society is exchange", a free society will only be possible under free exchange. – (*) as is usually reported - JZ, 21.12.07. - MONETARY THEORY OF HISTORY

MONETARY INTOLERANCE: Monetary "experts", "reformers" and "cranks", in the overwhelming majority, seem to state or to imply in their proposals: All of you ought to exchange only through my monetary system, my kind of media of exchange, credit and clearing. All of you ought to use only my standard of value. Almost all do at the same time sprout errors, prejudices and insults on all other exchange media, credit, clearing and value standard systems. - The system of monetary tolerance, on the other hand, welcomes ANY monetary experiment - if only it is applied merely within voluntary payment communities or exterritorially autonomous communities of volunteers (panarchies). It embraces all historical monetary experiments and all monetary theories and proposals and allows their experimental proof or refutation - among voluntary experimenters - and maintains full freedom of expression and information on all of them, including all their opinions, ideas, proposals, premises etc., all, ideally, collected and made accessible through a comprehensive and as far as possible automated data bank and library and information and publishing service and confronted with all criticism or confirmation that have so far been offered. - So far, people who are monetarily tolerant are as rare as agnostics and atheists were in "Christian" countries before the Reformation. Monetary despotism and intolerance is the dominant monetary religion. - JZ, 8.5.87, 9.5.97, 7.1.11. - & MONETARY TOLERANCE

MONETARY POLICY: But to use the control of the supply of money as an instrument for achieving particular ends destroys the equilibrating operation of the price mechanism, which is required to maintain the continuing process of ordering the market that gives individuals a good chance of having their expectations fulfilled.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.89. - It not only destroys the price mechanism for other goods and services but, by its very nature, that for money itself. - JZ, 24.3.97.

MONETARY POLICY: Monetary national policy is a misnomer. It should be called: Monetary national mismanagement. It is inevitably a mis-management, because it is a national management of something that can only be properly managed by the individuals involved. - JZ, 18.9.73, 11/73, 31.7.78. – A managed money is like a “free exchange” managed and controlled by a third party or a managed “freedom” of expression, information or a centrally managed language. – JZ, 20.1.08, 4.11.13.

MONETARY POLICY: Monetary policy a cause of depressions.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.79. - I like to distinguish between the optional and contracted and market regulated monetary policies of monetary freedom and the coercive and monopolistic and fraudulent policies of monetary despotism. - JZ, 24.3.97. – DEPRESSIONS, DEFLATIONS, STAGFLATIONS, CRISES

MONETARY POLICY: Monetary Policy Neither Desirable Nor Possible: It is true that under the proposed arrangements monetary policy as we now know it could not exist. ...” - F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.78.

MONETARY POLICY: Monetary policy today is guided by little more than government fiat – by the calculations, often mistaken economic theories, and whims of central bankers or, even worse, politicians. Under such a regime, inflation of three or four percent annually has come to be viewed as a stellar monetary performance. However, under a more sound monetary system – i.e., a gold standard [If it is used only as an optional value standard and not also as an exclusive exchange medium! – JZ, 30.3.12.] such increases in the general price level would be seen as wildly inflationary. – RAYMOND J. KEATING – in - CENTRAL BANKING, FIAT MONEY, GOLD STANDARD, INFLATION

MONETARY POLICY: Most people act as if the old sayings "power corrupts" and "absolute power corrupts absolutely" would not apply to currency laws, issues and regulations. Alas, they do and the general public has not yet learned this lesson. - JZ, n.d., ca. 1975, & 14.5.97. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY MONOPOLY, POWER & CORRUPTION

MONETARY POLICY: We have it on the testimony of a competent authority who was by no means unsympathetic to those modern aspirations that, during the recent decade 1962 to 1972, when the believers in a ‘fine tuning’ of monetary policy had an influence, which we must hope they will never have again, the larger part of the fluctuations were a consequence of budgetary and monetary policy. And it is certainly impossible to claim that the period since the abandonment of the semi-automatic regulation of the quantity of money has generally been more stable or free from monetary disturbances than the period of the gold standard or fixed rates of exchange.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p. 78. - FINE TUNING AN EXCLUSIVE & FORCED CURRENCY? MANAGED & MISMANAGED CURRENCIES, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, MONETARY DESPOTISM, QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY, CENTRAL BANKING, MONOPOLY MONEY

MONETARY POLICY: We indeed begin to see how completely different an economic landscape the free issue of competitive currencies would produce when we realise that under such a system what is known today as monetary policy would neither be needed nor even possible.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.78.

MONETARY POLICY: What we should have learned is that monetary policy is much more likely to be a cause than a cure of depressions, because it is much easier, by giving in to the clamour for cheap money, to cause those misdirections of production that make a later reaction inevitable, than to assist the economy in extracting itself from the consequences of overdeveloping in particular directions.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.79. - Here he fell back into the old view of the Austrian School that deflations were only a result or reaction to inflations, a "necessary" but under free market rules, short period of economic corrections. But the money monopoly does not need this indirect route to cause deflations. It is inherently deflationary, even in times of galloping inflations - when prices run ahead of the printing presses. A degree of local deflations (in a number of "money channels") is always present under the issue monopoly of central note issuing banking, since it does not supply all of an economy quite evenly with its notes. Some sectors - especially the government bureaucracy, are over-supplied. Some sectors, especially small businessmen and agriculture remain under-supplied. Only when all potential issuers make use of their issue potential to the fullest and issue up to the stage where their issues begin to be slightly discounted, at least in wholesale trading, can we expect the natural deflation (of an economy without a sufficient money supply) to disappear fast and thoroughly enough. Each niche will then be supplied with its own exchange media - or convenient clearing certificates and accounts, to the limits of its capacities and needs. - JZ, 24.3.97. - An analogy: Even if a country were dead flat, it would require pumps and energy to distribute irrigation and other water to every section of it, quite evenly or sufficiently, from a single central source. For a mountainous country this distribution difficulty becomes multiplied. Moreover, even if rain fell in equal amounts, every week, over all areas, rivers and lakes would distribute the accumulated waters quite unevenly and some areas would retain more of the rainfall than would others. - How easily and cheaply do you find it to get sufficient credit - whenever and wherever your need it, for your purposes and projects? - JZ, 30.8.02. - & DEPRESSIONS, UNEMPLOYMENT & CIRCULATION CHANNELS

MONETARY REVOLUTION: Alternatively to an enlightenment campaign to achieve the repeal of the laws of monetary despotism, one should engage in a well-thought-out and carried out monetary revolution. But to enlighten enough people on this possibility, to make it successful, is also very difficult under present conditions. To my knowledge neither anarchists nor libertarians have so far provided a quite rightful revolution or military insurrection program against any form of dictatorship. - For both cases, the law repeals required and also for a monetary revolution, a comprehensive program should be developed, one that would also advice on the most promising steps to be taken towards achieving these law repeals or a monetary revolution. Economic crises should be seen as opportunities for engaging in such enlightenment attempts and also for monetary freedom revolutions. – JZ, 5.10.08. – All popular revolutions and military insurrections that are rightful do also need full monetary and financial freedom, their appreciation and use to maximize their chances for success. – JZ, 4.11.13.

MONETARY REVOLUTION: Cetero censeo: Exclusive and forced- currency must be destroyed in a monetary revolution, by being out-competed and refused. We won't have widespread peace, freedom and wealth without this step. - JZ, 17.8.78.

MONETARY REVOLUTION: It would peacefully make use of all free exchange options, instead of vainly trying to improve economic conditions by e.g. organizing trade unions, strikes, boycotts and occupations of factories or nationalization or municipalisation of enterprises or granting trade unions power over all production and exchange (syndicalism). – The only strikes that make sense to me are tax strikes, military insurrections, liberating revolutions, refusals to accept government currencies and refusals to remain subjects of territorial States. – Enterprises, instead of being confiscated and occupied, in something like a military aggression and confiscation, should rather be peacefully and properly bought by their employees, in a business- and market-like way, on terms, using the issue principle for capital securities like bonds, as means of payment, as well as for goods and services vouchers for the gradual repayment of capital debts so incurred and the interest charges for them, as well as value preserving clauses. - JZ, 27.2.07, 25.10.07, 4.11.13.

MONETARY REVOLUTION: Since and while a free monetary evolution has been outlawed, a monetary revolution is justified and necessary. - JZ, 10.8.92, 1.5.97.

MONETARY RIGHTS & LIBERTIES: Monetary rights and liberties are the foundations for all other rights and liberties, at least in modern societies. – JZ, 22.2.03. – Without them we get the usual statist territorial messes. – JZ, 21.10.07.

MONETARY RIGHTS & LIBERTIES: Your monetary rights and liberties are, perhaps, your most important rights and liberties – and yet they are the rights and liberties that you most ignore or least strive for. – JZ, 22.2.03. – The best declaration of all of them is, probably, still that by Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, which is included in my anthology of private human rights drafts, reproduced from a CD of mine on - The stand of monetary science, and of the spread of important information through the Internet, at present, is characterized by the fact that I have not received a single response to this declaration, although it has been online already for years. Many important truths are still much more ignored than paid attention to. – JZ, 21.5.13.

MONETARY VIEW OF HISTORY: What does the all too long prevailing poverty, “protection”, domination and monopolistic exploitation tell us? It was clearly demonstrated to me in practice by a detailed description of matches, still hand-made, by workers extremely badly paid and treated – somewhere in Asia, many decades ago. I have forgotten author and title of the book, somewhere in my library. The monetary demand for both, the labor commodity and that of their products, the matches, was much too small and a condition close to those of slavery or at least serfdom was the inevitable result of that lack of monetary demand. The wages were so suppressed that it was not even economical to buy and use machines for the job. Thus even matches were manufactured by hand, with primitive tools, under almost slavery conditions and for a pittance in wages. The relatively few who had some cash working capital were then and there the lords of those who had practically no capital - except their own labor power. But all depended already to a large extent on monetary exchanges. Obviously, the ability to pay was not free and maximized under these conditions, e.g. through free clearing or the competitively issued supply of sound exchange media redeemable in daily needed consumer goods, services and labor. Whatever relatively few exchange media were provided under monopolistic conditions were then largely further monopolized by a few, and only these had the ability to pay, not only for their own subsistence, but for some cheap labor of others and thus the rest were made dependent upon these few. Competitive issues of sound exchange media with “shop-foundation” or “clearing foundation” could have changed that situation almost overnight. Even the issue of sound tax-foundation money could have made already a great difference. Or if all the gold and silver that was used by some as jewelry would have been coined out. - Free enterprise, free markets, capitalism, free trade, free migration, are not really free without free exchange and free clearing and freedom to issue currencies, freedom agree upon value standards and freedom to issue capital securities whose value is expressed in sound value standards. Alternative private money tokens appeared at least in China already 800 years ago, when the Mongols ruled there – but were suppressed, just like later, for some centuries, various truck shop currencies and token monies of shops in Europe were suppressed before they could be fully developed into local currencies, issued by a local shop association. – JZ, 21.2.06, 19.9.08, 7.1.11, 5.11.13. – MONETARY INFLUENCE UPON HISTORY

MONETIZATION: In all somewhat developed countries, apart from periods of natural catastrophes, wars and revolutions, there are huge accumulations of ready-for-sale goods and services that would be suitable to cover and redeem exchange media competitively issued by the providers of these goods and services, in short term loans, e.g. for wage and salary payments. These issues of optional free market monies could assure the sale of these goods and services, and with them the demand for labor and services to provide more goods and services. - Try to envision or calculate the ready-for-sale values existing in all the shopping centers and shops! - Presently their turnover is dependent upon monopoly money which is often badly administered and which has flaws even under the best administrators. - JZ, 24.8.02. – MONETIZATION, COMPETITIVE, OF ALL SUITABLE COVERS FOR SOUND EXCHANGE MEDIA, FREE BANKING VS. CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY & ABILITY TO PAY: It has been said that the love of money is the root of all evil. The want of money is so -quite as truly." - Samuel Butler – MONEY SHORTAGE, DEFLATION, CURRENCY FAMINE

MONEY & ABILITY TO PAY: Money's only important when you don't have any." - Sting

MONEY & CIVILIZATION: In societies of low civilization, there is no money." - Herbert Spencer

MONEY & LIBERTY: Money for me has only one sound: liberty." - Gabrielle Chanel

MONEY & LIBERTY: Money is the sign of liberty. To curse money is to curse liberty - to curse life, which is nothing, if it be not free." - de Gourmont

MONEY & TRADE: Money, not morality, is the principle of commercial nations. –Thomas Jefferson – Only the rightful monies of full monetary freedom and its clearing options and freely chosen value standards can work well enough to prevent causing economic crises through a flawed monetary or clearing system. – JZ, 3.4.12. – Free exchange rather than monopolistic and forced exchange is a sign of morality. The monopolization of the needed exchange media and value standards is one of the worst crimes and leads to many other immoral actions. – JZ, 5.11.13.

MONEY CIRCULATION: There is an optimal amount of currency for any particular condition, time and place. It is comparable to the happy medium between drought and flood and only a free enterprise system can provide it and only free market issue and rating of it can stimulate a sufficient supply of it into existence and prevent over-issues as well as under-issues. - JZ, 75, 78, 22.3.97, 20.1.08, 5.11.13. - QUANTITY OF MONEY, OPTIMUM QUANTITY OF MONEY, MONETARY FREEDOM, OPTIMAL MONEY CIRCULATION

MONEY CRANKS: They, too, should also get a hearing. Some of them were aware of some monetary freedom options decades before academics finally took some notice of some of them. And they, too, have the rights to enjoy the benefits and learn the lessons of free monetary experiments, undertaken at their expense and risk and that of their voluntary followers. - However, most of them deserve still some lessons in monetary tolerance towards the money reform or monetary freedom experiments of others. – JZ, n.d. - MONETARY TOLERANCE

MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY: With the exception only of the period of the gold standard, practically all governments of history have used their exclusive power to issue money to defraud and plunder the people." - Friedrich von Hayek (1899-1992) - GOVERNMENT, STATE, CENTRAL BANKING, INFLATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY ISSUES: Money based not on governmental debt certificates or cover and redemption stocks of gold- or silver coins, should only be issued by and to the suppliers of goods, services and labor, in payment for what they have to offer in exchange and to enable them, to buy with that money the goods, services and labor they want and need. – JZ, 11.6.99. – Such issues are as rightful, beneficial and harmless as are the issues of cinema and transport tickets. They are self-limiting and can circulate only to the extent that they are wanted and needed. – JZ, 25.9.08. – ISSUE PRINCIPLE FOR LOCAL CURRENCY, FREE MARKET MONIES

MONEY ISSUES: Only the monies that you issued yourself will come back to you, almost inevitably, and also soon (apart from some hoarding, the better they are and some withholding by collectors of notes and coins), especially when you put a short time limit on them. They would have and need no other foundation than your own readiness to supply wanted goods services, or labor or receipts for debt payments with them to you. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07, 5.11.13. – COMPETITIVE, PRIVATELY & COOPERATIVELY ISSUED FREE MARKET MONIES

MONEY LAUNDERING: Taxation, government budget spending, and inflationary government spending as well as government borrowing, that anticipates future taxation for its repayment, do amount to the largest criminal money laundering schemes of all. - JZ 13.1.93, 17.2.09. - TAXATION, INFLATION, GOVERNMENT BORROWING & SPENDING, PUBLIC DEBTS

MONEY LAUNDERING: The worst and largest money laundering operation is that of taxation and government spending through deficit financing or inflation, the inflation tax. Governments “legitimize” this robbery through legal tender laws for their inflated and forced paper money and through their legalized monopoly for money issues through their central banks. They make a mockery of the term “value standard” by almost constantly depreciating it. Also through credit restrictions and deflationary policies. Their notes are, to a large extent, merely requisitioning certificates. - In this sphere, too, the government does not seem to like competition. - Under competitive note issues their money would be reduced to that amount which they could issue under tax foundation, with a stable value standard instead of legal tender power. – However, under panarchism some panarchies would have tax-foundation or contribution-based money for their voluntary members. - JZ, 2.9.93, 4.12.07, 17.2.09. – Governmental currencies are as “dirty money” that even repeated “laundering” cannot turn them into clean, sound and honest monies. Their very issue is a brazenly criminal act – but a legalized one. – JZ, 21.5.13. -  CRIMINAL OFFICIAL MONEY LAUNDERING

MONEY MANIPULATION ACCORDING TO MISES: Mises remained insufficiently aware that any legal tender law (except that enforcing legal tender ONLY towards the issuer, for his own notes) and any exclusive currency and exchange medium status (money–monopoly), does already amount to a coercive manipulation of money. He favored gold coins and 100 %- covered and convertible gold certificates only. See Mises, Money-Manipulation, p.44, where he speaks of an "absolute prohibition"- of other options. - While it is right to outlaw any form of monetary despotism, it is wrong to outlaw any form of monetary freedom. - Due to his rejection of morality and ethics in economics and adoption of "praxeology" instead, he would never have been interested in or able to state the rights and liberties of monetary freedom. Thus he could recommend only what he considered to be practicable and economical, from his individual point of view, one that was inevitably limited, as even those of the wisest men among us are. - JZ, 4.12.92, 30.4.97. – He, Rothbard and their followers would have confined us to those exchanges that we could manage to mediate with their kind of money. Such exclusive currency practices can be rightful only for the members of communities of volunteers, who have chosen them for themselves. Their economic development would fall back behind those communities that had chosen alternative sound exchange media, clearing options and value standards for themselves. – JZ, 17.2.09.

MONEY MANIPULATION: And why is it that every grammar-school student of economics who can make change properly understands the futility of central planning, but nobody trembles when we manipulate the price of money itself - the very oxygen of the economy. If Karl Marx rose from his underworld grave, all drippy with slime like some swamp monster ... if he lurched into the Fed's meeting and seated himself next to Alan Greenspan ... if he held up his hand like a polite parliamentarian ... and upon recognition suggested the Fed set the price of pickles, they would laugh him out of the room. But with money, it's okay?" - From "If Alan Greenspan Lived in Huntsville, Alabama!" by Ted Roberts, in the August, 2002, issue of The Freeman / Ideas on Liberty [I've not left anything out; all eclipses were in the original article; - MAC.] - LEGAL TENDER LAWS, DEVALUATIONS, REVALUATIONS, CHANGING THE GOLD PRICE IN TERMS OF THE GOVERNMENT’S PAPER MONEY, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY MANIPULATION: Emancipate yourself from the government's money manipulators: Demand freedom for the issue of all non-coercive notes and freedom to use the value standard of your choice and that of your trading partners. - JZ, n.d., ca.1975. – Also achieve the freedom to clear all your debts and credits, using any sound value standard, and thereby make yourself independent of your supply with any kind of physical money tokens. – JZ, 20.1.08. - MONETARY EMANCIPATION OR MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY MANIPULATION: While everybody should be free to manipulate HIS OWN money, as best as he can, with the best issue, reflux, value reckoning, clearing facilities, readiness to accept and debt foundation that he can manage to arrange, non-coercively, cooperatively and competitively, no one should become authorized at all to manipulate any exclusive and forced currency for all involuntary victims of it, in any locality, be it a whole country, or even the whole world, while preventing others from choosing and alternative value standards, means of exchanges or clearing avenues. In other words, no one should be legally and juridically authorized to drive out good currencies with his monopolized, coercive and manipulated currency, his exclusive and forced exchange medium and his exclusive value standard. The manipulations or techniques of full monetary freedom are rightful and necessary. They amount to sound freedom, value accounting, and guaranty and reflux arrangements. The manipulations of monetary despotism are wrongful and never achieve their economic objectives in full, for any length of time, unless these objectives are criminal. The same applies to financial freedom vs. financial despotism. - JZ, 4.12.92, 2.5.97, 20.1.08, 7.1.11, 5.11.13.

MONEY MARKET: The money market is not free until it is based upon full monetary and financial freedom. It must include freely issued, optional and market rated money tokens of all kinds as well as other clearing options of all kinds. The financial money market must also include freedom to issue, freedom to establish and run stock exchanges, including e.g. kerb exchanges and coffee-house exchanges - as long as the competitive brokers and their potential customers are satisfied with their facilities. Since some coffee houses do now supply world-wide computer connections and some very efficient computers are also portable, one does no longer need a prestigious building and impressive offices and furnishings to act as a broker and to buy or sell securities. Nor are there any good reasons why e.g. large department stores should not only issue their own currencies but also deal with capital securities over some of their counters or benches or banks. A free and self-regulated capital market is preferable to a government-regulated one and will lead to less fraudulent actions, bribery and corruption. As honest as a broker was once a proverb, when stock exchanges were still largely free. Now they are monopolies and many of them were involved in shady dealings, with corrupt or dishonest private financiers or governments, losing billions between them and often managed to force taxpayers to pay for the losses they caused. Thus this old proverb does not longer express a proverbial wisdom for today. Today one has to be "street smart" or have expensive lawyers on retainer. One's word or contract is no longer good enough. They will be distorted and misinterpreted in official courts of injustice. Almost all capital dealings are interfered with, at least by taxes and regulations and numerous ones are prevented altogether. E.g. those with value preserving clauses. A friend, John Curvers, then involved in international deals told me several years ago that among ca. 50 honest and mutually beneficial international financial deals and large scale commodity exchange deals, he COULD set up, every year, all but ca. 2-3 fell through - because of some or the other despotic legal or bureaucratic interference or bungling. - How many untaxed and unregulated economic activities do still exist? What fraction of all exchanges are still free in this respect? - How much more prosperous could all of us be under a truly laissez faire economy ("Let people produce and exchange!")? - JZ, 15.9.92, 2.5.97, 7.1.11. – Q.

MONEY MATTERS: The thesis of the monetarist school, according to Henry Hazlitt, THE FREEMAN, Aug. 76: -Money matters most - in- economic affairs! - Monetary freedom view of the German, Swiss & Jewish School of monetary freedom: Under full monetary freedom the good monies, clearing certificates and clearing systems and the good value standards would drive out the bad ones. - JZ, n.d. & 17.2.09. – GRESHAM’S LAW, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, FREEDOM OF NOTE ISSUE & CLEARING, RIGHT TO REFUSE OR TO DISCOUNT THE MONEY OF OTHERS

MONEY MONOPOLY: 1. On the power of congress to lay and collect taxes, etc., 2. On the power of congress to coin money. 3. On the power of congress to borrow money. Out of these simple, and apparently harmless provisions, the court manufactures an authority to grant, to a few persons, a monopoly that is practically omnipotent over all the industry and traffic of the country; that is fatal to all other men's natural right to lend and hire capital for any or all their legitimate industries; and fatal absolutely to all their natural right to buy, sell, and exchange any, or all, the products of their labor at their true, just and natural prices ... The court says, in EFFECT, that this provision (1) gives congress power to establish the present monopoly of money; that the power to tax all other money, is a power to prohibit all other money; and a power to prohibit all other money is a power to give the present money a monopoly.” - Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.77.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Abolish state control over the money supply.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 12/74.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Although the argument in places is necessarily abstract and requires close attention, the central theme is crystal clear: government has failed, must fail, and will continue to fail to supply good money.” - Arthur Seldon, introducing F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.4.

MONEY MONOPOLY: As if to place beyond controversy the fact, that the court may forever hereafter be relied on to sanction every usurpation and crime that congress will ever dare to put into the form of a statute, without the slightest color of authority from the constitution, necessity, utility, justice, or reason, it has, on three separate occasions, announced its sanction of the monopoly of money, as finally established by congress in 1866, and continued in force ever since. - This monopoly is established by a prohibitory tax - a tax of ten per cent. - on all notes issued for circulation as money, other than the notes of the U.S. and the national banks. - This 10 % is called a "tax", but is really a penalty; and is intended as such, and as nothing else. Its whole purpose is - NOT TO RAISE REVENUE - but solely to establish a monopoly of money, by prohibiting the issue of all notes intended for circulation as money, except those issued, or specially licensed, by the government itself - This prohibition upon the issue of all notes, except those issued, or specially licensed by the government, is a prohibition upon all freedom of industry and traffic. It is a prohibition upon the exercise of men's natural right to lend and hire such money capital as all men need to enable them to create and distribute wealth, and supply their own wants, and provide for their own happiness. Its whole purpose is to reduce, as far as possible, the great body of the people to the condition of servants to a few - a condition but a single grade above that of chattel slavery - in which their labor, and the products of their labor, may be extorted from them at such prices only as the holders of the monopoly may choose to give.” – Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.74/75. - Another aspect is that this prohibition was passed to protect the bad money issued by the government from competition by good monies privately issued. - As Ulrich von Beckerath used to remark frequently: One of the first revolutionary acts of Lenin was to occupy the note printing presses in Leningrad. From then on he was the only one able to pay, with forced and exclusive currency, for all his expenses. His opponents had to come to him - even to get the money to pay their secretaries with. All others had not considered the means of payment problem. He had, to that extent and this fact and action helped him to win. During the East German uprising of June 17th, the East German central bank stopped all wage payments. That measure may have been more effective than Soviet tanks in suppressing that uprising. Again, these "revolutionaries" had not considered the means of payment problem, either. - JZ, 30.8.02. - CENTRAL BANKING, OUTLAWING OR TAXING FREE BANKING

MONEY MONOPOLY: Aside from the more strictly economic criticisms that I will have of this view, we should keep in mind that money, in any market economy advanced beyond the stage of primitive barter, is the nerve center of the economic system. If, therefore, the State is able to gain unquestioned control over the units of all accounts, the State will then be in a position to dominate the entire economic system, and the whole society.” - Murray N. Rothbard, The Case for a 100% Gold Dollar, p.2. – In other words, he wanted to replace the current statist money issue monopoly by another exclusive currency, the one he preferred and thought to be sufficient for all wanted or needed free exchanges. – It would, indeed, prevent inflations but not deflations or money shortages. – JZ, 4.11.13. – DEFLATION, REDEMPTIONIST GOLD STANADARD CURRENCY AS AN EXCLUSIVE CURRENCY

MONEY MONOPOLY: At this point, according to economic "science", central banks are instituted to protect the public from periodic financial catastrophe at the hands of unscrupulous fractional reserve bankers. Nothing could be further from the truth. Central banks are established to remove the limitation on over issuance that reality places on competitive banking systems. As early as ancient Babylon and India, central banking, the art of monopolizing the issuance of money, had been developed into a perfect method for looting the general public. Even today many bankers copy the traditions of the earlier exploitative priestly hoods and design their banks to resemble temples! Defenses of Central Banking are simply part of the deception that lies at the heart of all power elites.” - Peter McAlpine, The Occult Technology of Power. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, STATE SOCIALISM, STATIS BANKING

MONEY MONOPOLY: But if congress had put this prohibition distinctly in the form of a PENALTY, the usurpation would have been so barefaced - so destitute of all color of constitutional authority - that congress dared not risk the consequences. And possibly the court might not have dared to sanction it; if, indeed, there be any crime or usurpation which the court dare not sanction. So these knavish lawmakers called this penalty a "tax"; and the court says that such a "tax" is clearly constitutional. And the monopoly has now been established for twenty years. And substantially all the industrial and financial troubles of that period have been the natural consequences of the monopoly. - If congress had laid a prohibitory tax upon all food - that is, had imposed a penalty upon the production and sale of all food - except such as it should have itself produced, or specially licensed; and should have reduced the amount of food, thus produced or licensed, to one tenth, twentieth, or fiftieth of what was really needed; the motive and the crime would have been the same, in character, if not in degree, as they are in this case, viz., to enable the few holders of licensed food to extort, from everybody else, by the fear of starvation, all their (the latter's) earnings and property, in exchange for this small quantity of privileged food. - Such a monopoly of food would have been no clearer violation of men's natural rights, than is the present monopoly of money. And yet this colossal crime - like every other crime that congress chooses to commit - is sanctioned by its servile, rotten, and stinking court.” – Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.76. – CENTRAL BANKING, TAX ON PRIVATE NOTE ISSUES, MONETARY DESPOTISM, SUPREME COUIRT

MONEY MONOPOLY: But there is no reason to suppose that the managers of a governmental monopoly will long function in competitive fashion if the monopoly can be exploited to gain additional political power. And it doesn't take a genius to figure how to exploit a money monopoly: just print bogus warehouse receipts and declare them to be legal tender; then pass laws to penalize suppliers of goods or services who refuse to accept the bogus receipts at face value. Finally, this can be pushed to the point of issuing receipts based not on the FULLNESS of the warehouse but on its EMPTINESS instead - the use of the national debt as the backing for the paper money.” - Leonard E. Read, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. – The term “warehouse receipts” does not cover all forms of money, e.g. not sound clearing certificates or railway money, electricity money or telephone money. – JZ, 20.1.08. – Nor the goods- and service vouchers of a shop association bank. – Warehouses are kept by factories and wholesalers and are, usually, not directly accessible to the consumers at factory and wholesale prices. Thus shop associations are much more suitable issuers with their immediate readiness to accept their own notes. - JZ, 17.2.09. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, PUBLIC DEBT

MONEY MONOPOLY: Even if the system had been managed by the greatest financial minds of the century, its very premise of central management of money and credit is alien to economic freedom and contrary to stability. The very existence of a money monopoly that endows its fiat issues with legal tender force is antithetic to individual choice and freedom.” - Hans F. Sennholz, THE FREEMAN, 2/75. - I would have rather said that endows its issue with legal tender and thus, together with its issue monopoly, turns them into fiat money. - JZ, 25.3.97. – FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, LEGAL TENDER, CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY MONOPOLY: Ever since the British Government in 1694 sold the Bank of England a limited monopoly of the issue of banknotes, the chief concern of governments has been not to let slip from their hands the power over money, formerly based on the prerogative of coinage, to really independent banks. For a time the ascendancy of the gold standard and the consequent belief that to maintain it was an important matter of prestige, and to be driven off it a national disgrace, put an effective restraint on this power. It gave the world the one long period - 200 years or more - of relative stability during which modern industrialism could develop, albeit suffering from periodic crises.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.29. - Under the classical gold standard even in the somewhat developed countries monetary economics did not fully penetrate and a considerable number of barter transactions did still occur, which full development of all monetary freedom options would have made superfluous. Poverty and ignorance were not as fast and far reduced as would have been possible. Governments still retained too much power. The right of creditors to demand gold from debtors, who could only offer goods and services, caused many problems. Even while gold redemption was not yet abolished in Germany and legal tender not yet introduced, most wages and salaries were paid in banknotes which granted their holders the authority to demand gold redemption - and if all had insisted on that, and the merchants upon settlement of all their numerous claims in gold, the system would have broken down almost immediately. Gold weight units can work reasonable well as exclusive value standards or units of account or clearing standards. But as exclusive means of exchange they are by far insufficient to mediate the wanted and possible transfers of all the millions of other goods and services among billions of people. - JZ, 24.3.97. – As an exclusive currency, like an exclusive silver currency, it causes money shortages, sometimes currency famines and always at least degrees of deflation, especially when the offers of goods, services and labor are fast increasing. – JZ, 5.11.13. – DEFLATION, MONEY SHORTAGES, CURRENCY FAMINES UNDER ALL EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES

MONEY MONOPOLY: For one reason or the other, most Austrian economists seem to believe that as forceful deflationary interventions with the medium of exchange and its standard as the money issue monopoly, legal tender and central banking policies are, would have no direct effect whatsoever on unemployment. (The wrong premise here is that the price and wage levels etc. would rapidly enough adapt to any artificial reduction of the money supply.) (The reduced circulation of money might also be a natural response of money holders, holding back their spending and hoarding some money as a safety or security fund in crisis times, e.g. during a revolution. On the smallest level there was e.g. the custom to give Jewish youths a gold coin with the reminder to hang on to it, until they needed it to bribe a border guard if they had to flee. – JZ, 5.11.13.) According to them unemployment is due a) to the still further intervention of wage regulation, imposed upon this interventionist system and b) results as one of the consequences of inflation and of attempts to stop it. Some of them go so far as to assert that there can be a major reduction in the quantity of exchange media circulating without this having a major harmful effects, for they assume that prices, wages etc. would be rapidly and sufficiently enough adjusted to the reduced circulation! It is an a priori assumption, not backed up by historical experience and amounts to the denial of the very possibility of a deflation with harmful deflationary effects. - JZ, 14.4.79, 5.11.13. - They do admit the possibility of inflation but not that of deflation, because, according to them, the price level would automatically, quite effectively and rapidly enough adapt to a reduction in the volume of circulating exchange media. Currency famines do not exist according to their dogma. They ignore the time factor involved and the different effects of falling prices and fallen prices. (Even our electronic computers do not respond, quite instantly, to all of our commands, hopes and expectations.) Freedom for note issues or for clearing certificates or clearing accounts is not required according to them. They cannot imagine any stable currencies that are privately and competitively issued and which do not conform to their model of a sound money. Thus they simply class all other monetary options as being inflationary. – Even F. A. Hayek’s all too belated and a few other monetary freedom writings, since 1975, have not yet sufficiently demolished this dogmatism among them. – They still believe in metallic redemptionism as a necessary, irreplaceable and rightfully absolute requirement, just like Christians believe in their “redeemer”. – Mythology above facts! – Par-value market rating of exchange media with gold coins, although they are not redeemable in gold coins but only exchangeable or convertible into gold on free gold markets, does not count with them. – Nor do other forms of free clearing that use gold coins or gold weight units only as standards of value. - JZ, 17.2.09. – DEFLATIONS, UNEMPLOYMENT, THE AUSTRIAN PERSPECTIVE

MONEY MONOPOLY: Government is the only agency that can take a useful commodity like paper, slap some ink on it, and make it totally worthless.” - Ludwig von Mises. - Quoted in McBride: A New Dawn, p.18. – No clear hint to the money issue monopoly and legal tender legislation, with its compulsory acceptance for monopoly money and its forced and fictyitions value. Everything that is wrong and harmful in this sphere is ascribed merely to printing it or to a mere “fiat”. – JZ, 5.11.13. - PAPER MONEY, LEGAL TENDER, CENTRAL BANKING, FIAT MONEY, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCY, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, FORCED CURRENCY

MONEY MONOPOLY: Government monopoly of money unnecessary. Not so very long ago, in 1960, I myself argued that it is not only impracticable but probably undesirable even if possible to deprive governments of their control over monetary policy. This view was still based on the common tacit assumption that there must be in each country a single uniform kind of money. I did not then even consider the possibility of true competition between currencies within any given country or region. – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.84. - So little did even he know then about the history and literature of the degrees of free banking or monetary freedom that had been experienced, proposed and discussed in writings! - JZ, 30.8.02. – A comprehensive monetary freedom bibliography should also be offered according to the dates of publication, to clearly show the early pioneers and the late-comers. – JZ, 16.2.09. - My own beginnings of such a bibliography are now available on - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Government power over money facilitates centralisation. There can be little doubt also that the ability of central governments to resort to this kind of finance is one of the contributory causes of the advance in the most undesirable centralisation of government.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.92. – Under central banking large firms find it much easier to get central bank credits than small firms, although they are often beyond their optimal size and thus their degrees of mismanagement tend to be larger than in smaller firms. Even large “private” banks, all of them all too much under wrongful legislation, regulations and central banking controls, did recently receive vast bailout sums out of tax revenues or in form of an increased issue of the government’s central banking monopoly money and forced currency. – The rise of unemployment through the bankruptcy of small to medium enterprises may be larger than that due to the bankruptcy of large enterprises but it is much less noticed by the mass media, politicians and voters and thus of less influence during the next elections. – JZ, 5.11.13. - CENTRAL BANKING, CENTRALIZATION IN GOVERNMENT & IN INDUSTRIES, CREDITS & BAILOUTS FOR LARGE FIRMS

MONEY MONOPOLY: Governments have everywhere assumed a monopoly of the creation of money - and we stagger from financial crisis to crisis.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 8/73, p.54. - The issue of an exclusive and forced currency is not an act of creation but an act of destruction, dishonesty, fraud, corruption and robbery. No such act should be covered up by camouflaging words, like “creation”. - Governments issue requisitioning certificates rather than true "money". Seeing the imposed tax tributes that are involved, this applies even to the best forms of their tax foundation money - as long as taxation and State membership remain compulsory. - JZ, 30.8.02, 7.1.11. – ECONOMIC CRISES, DEFLATIONS, INFLATIONS, STAGFLATONS, RECESSIONS, DEPRESSIONS

MONEY MONOPOLY: Hayek's seminal analysis goes back to an earlier starting point. He dates the origin of a government's prerogative to issue a national currency from the time when money was minted from precious metals. What made inevitable the massive abuse by inflation was the transfer of this prerogative to the unlimited government issue of paper money with no intrinsic value. At once the root cause of the debasement of money is revealed as the monopoly power of national governments to compel their citizens to accept whatever the ruling politicians decree to be legal tender. The remedy follows from the diagnosis. It is nothing less than permitting private monies to compete for public favour so that stable currencies drive those that depreciate out of circulation - an apparent reversal, he explains, of the widely misunderstood ‘Gresham's Law’." - R. Harris & A. Seldon, Not From Benevolence, p.38. - LEGAL TENDER & GRESHAM'S LAW

MONEY MONOPOLY: Here one should keep in mind that inflation, in its crudest form, is nothing but an indirect tax. The government, with its monopoly on the issuance of currency, found it simple to play the role of counterfeiter. It simply paid for the goods it needed with newly created money...” - Bruce Bartlett, THE FREEMAN, 6/75, p. 368. - One cannot counterfeit the money one issues oneself, but one can dilute it, or inflate it, given monopoly and legal tender power. Only the duplication of the own kind of money, by others, can be rightly called a forgery. Moreover, they do not offer for their forged notes whatever limited or sound cover the issuer offers for his notes that are being multiplied by the forgers. - JZ, 30.8.02. - INFLATION, COUNTERFEITING, FORGERY

MONEY MONOPOLY: How comes it that, alike in active and quiescent countries, we see this relentless rise of prices? I suggest that the cause is a policy common to all these countries, a policy the importance of which is hardly recognised today: the policy of state monopoly of the issue of money, and of rigid control over the lending of money. This leads to monopoly and restriction of industry, and thwarts the natural tendency of prices to fall. The exposition of this evil has been the aim of the INDIVIDUALIST. - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, Aug. 75, p.39. – Typically for Henry Meulen, he did not mention the role that legal tender plays in inflation. Without legal tender the monopoly money could not be forced into circulation at par with its nominal value, even though it has already been deteriorated, when measured in a sound value standard. Legal tender laws combine compulsory acceptance with a forced and fictitious value standard that wrongly pretends that a value paper value standard of the same name would still have the same value after the government had grossly multiplied its paper money notes beyond the increase of goods and services that are offered. – People, who are territorially dominated in the country of such a central banking despotism, are not free to refuse or to discount such money against a sound value standard. Only in foreign countries can it get a reduced foreign exchange rate – provided that exchange rate is not governmentally interfered with either, by some international agreement and procedures. - JZ, 16.2.09. -INFLATION, LEGAL TENDER, HENRY MEULEN

MONEY MONOPOLY: How could all exchanges function smoothly as long as the exchange medium is monopolized? - JZ, 28.4.79. – Q.

MONEY MONOPOLY: If only one kind of money is permitted, it is probably true that the monopoly of its issue must be under the control of government.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.84. - Since that assumption, namely, that only one kind of money is rightful, rational and permissible, is quite wrong, we do not really have to bother about that conclusion. (Except that monetary despotism now rules everywhere, quite legally, and we have to suffer the consequences, including further inflations, to finance “bail-outs”, which are the only thing its advocates can think of to “cure” the disasters they caused by their prior interventions. – JZ, 17.2.09.) But somebody who does not pretend to be able and willing to work only for the public interest might be a better issuer. He may aim to maximize his profit by doing as much trade as he can - to his advantage and that of his customers. The government did not really benefit from the inflations, deflations and stagflations it caused. Numerous politicians lost their jobs through them, too and they could never be certain how long they would stay in office. Look e.g. at how often the French people changed theirs. Indeed, I would not like to see a wrongful but legalized monopoly in anyone's hands but I do doubt that any good businessman would have committed as many wrongs and  made as many stupid and counterproductive mistakes as most governments have committed in the past, or their central banks, when the exclusive money system was entrusted to them. I would also fear that even the best businessman, with the best intentions, would be corrupted by as much power. Moreover, even with the best training and best abilities and best of will, the despotic money system can work no better than a despotic money system can work, at its best. It eliminates competition, its eliminates the creative potential of others in this sphere. It eliminates free contracts, local knowledge, the pricing system, the automatic balancing of demand and supply. Its legal tender prevents it from realizing soon enough whether it is inflating or deflating. It even produces stagflations and its notes can never evenly or sometimes not at all penetrate sufficiently to wherever they are needed and its investments and subsidies will, inevitably, frequently fail. We found that authoritarianism does not work well in any other sphere. Why should we assume that it could in this one? - The only kind of money permitted in the future might be that of monetary freedom, namely optional money, market rated, issued competitively, in considerable diversity, by individuals and their associations and based upon as well as redeemable only in the goods and services the issuers are ready to deliver. - In that case, most governments could offer very little - and there is no good reason why any of them should be granted a territorial monopoly for that little. - PIOT, JZ, 24.3.97. - Only forced and exclusive currency should be outlawed. Better still, there should be no law on the subject, no more so than a law on saucepans, tooth brushes and soap. – However, communities of volunteers, which permit only one kind of exchange medium, clearing and value standard for their internal exchanges, should not be prohibited. Only territorial imposition of such a system should no longer be tolerated. - J Z., 30.8.02, 20.1.08, 5.11.13. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, Central banking, PANARCHISM, MONETARY FREEDOM.

MONEY MONOPOLY: If you know how to cause a deflation without an issue monopoly for an exclusive and forced currency, please explain. – JZ, free after Ulrich von Beckerath in his Berlin Program, p.11. – DEFLATION, CURRENCY SHORTAGE, CURRENCY FAMINE, LEGAL TENDER, CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY MONOPOLY: It has the defects of all monopolies: one must use their product even if it is unsatisfactory, and, above all, it prevents the discovery of better methods of satisfying a need for which the monopolist has not incentive. - If the public understood what price in periodic inflation and instability it pays for the convenience of having to deal with only one kind of money in ordinary transactions, and not occasionally to have to contemplate the advantage of using other money than the familiar kind, it would probably find it very excessive. For this convenience is much less important than the opportunity to use a reliable money that will not periodically upset the smooth flow of the economy - and opportunity of which the public has been deprived by the government monopoly. But the people have never been given the occasion to discover this opportunity.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.22. - The same could be said for the opportunities that would be provided by exterritorial autonomy for communities of volunteers. - JZ,24.3.97. - DIVERSITY & CHOICES VS. UNIFORMITY, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES

MONEY MONOPOLY: It is as good as having a Government licence to print money.” - Roy Herbert Thompson, 1st Lord, 1894-, remark on the profitability of commercial television in the U.K., made during an interview in Canada.

MONEY MONOPOLY: It would be inadmissible for me, in this letter, to occupy the space that would be necessary, to expose all the false, absurd, and ridiculous pretences, by which the advocates of the monopoly money have attempted to justify it. (*) The only real argument they ever employed has been that, by means of the monopoly, the few holders of it were enabled to rob everybody else in the prices of their labour and property. (**) And our governments, State and national, have hitherto acted together in maintaining this monopoly, in flagrant violation of men's natural right to make their own contracts, and in flagrant violation of the self-evident truth, that, to make all traffic just and equal, it is indispensable that the money paid should be, in all cases, a BONA FIDE equivalent of the labour or property that is bought with it. (***) The holders of this monopoly now rule and rob this nation; and the government, in all its branches, is simply their tool. And being their tool for this gigantic robbery, it is equally their tool for all the lesser robberies, to which it is supposed that the people at large can be made to submit.” – Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.42, in Works I. - (*) Alternative media have room for these arguments and their refutations. E.g., anyone interested could and should submit arguments, facts and references towards a growing electronic book, compiled in WIKIPEDIA fashion: “The Myths of Central Banking!” and another one: “The Truths of Free Banking”.  - (**) They rarely admitted that, but pretended to act in the public interest while they really acted against it and in their own short-term interests only. They even pretended to be proper and trustworthy guardians of national currencies, no matter how rotten their "fruit" were. - (***) From this he should have concluded, that the money issued upon capital assets should only be usable to buy these capital assets with and should in no way pretend to be able to represent the consumer goods and services of others than the issuer [of the "asset currency"], - who may have ONLY his capital assets to offer in exchange. - JZ, n.d. & 17.2.09.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Like the land monopoly the money monopoly is also so dispersed among all the holders of monopoly money that no one among them has obviously more advantages than the advantage of being a holder of monopoly money and all of them have also the disadvantages arising from his holding only monopoly money. All (except the monopoly issuers) have to pay a high price for it in labor, goods, services and interest. All are restrained in their productive and distribution efforts through it. In its deflations the creditors seem to be at an advantage but the number of bad debtors or bankrupt debtors increases and thus also many creditors go bankrupt. In its inflations the debtors seem to win, but under these conditions they hardly get any new credits any more. In balance all people lose through all monetary crises caused by monopoly money. Only the issuers of monopoly money have a major advantage, an immoral and unearned one, which would disappear under full monetary freedom and fully free clearing. Thus this monopoly money should be replaced by freely competing exchange media and value standards. Only then can all the liberating powers of monetary exchanges become released. Just like the abolition of the remaining land monopolies, unwarranted titles to vast real estates, based on royal or governmental grants and privileges (rather than land titles purchases at market rates), would benefit everybody. The greatest benefits for all, in every sphere, would arise from abolition of the territorial and country-wide land monopoly power that territorial governments claim and abuse now, over the whole population and over all its “private” real estate, just like feudal princes once did and which they expressed via an imposed serfdom or taxes or rent claimed on real estate, with them being the supreme landlords. – JZ, 18.10.03, 31.10.07, 7.1.11. - & LAND MONOPOLY, TERRITORIALISM

MONEY MONOPOLY: Monetary management leads to unprecedented inflation.” - Ralph Harris, 1984, p.13. - Only if it is the mismanagement of monopolistic and forced currency of governments. If it is the management and self-management of privately or cooperatively issued and accepted competing currencies, which are optional and market rated and thus largely self-managed and self-limited, between issuers, borrowers and other acceptors, then it is neither wrong nor harmful but, rightful and even dutiful and also extremely useful. It could be dutiful insofar, as something so useful should be issued by all who are capable of it, rather than such potential issuers acting parasitically upon the issues of other issuers. It should be part of the general self-responsibility and duty to maintain oneself, without becoming a burden upon others. - JZ, 24.3.97. - With the money of monetary freedom and fully developed clearing we could become monetarily almost as independent and self-supporting as we are with our own breathing and blood circulation and our ability to walk from one place to another. It is even out personal duty to use our own muscles for this purpose, as long as we are able to. To circulate our own money, rather than parasitically utilize the money circulation efforts of others, amounts to a similar duty and would keep the economy healthy. - JZ, 30.8.02, 5.11.13. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, MARKET-RATED, REFUSABLE & COMPETING MONIES VS. THE MONIES OF MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY MONOPOLY: Money is too important a tool for economic independence and personal liberty to have its issue monopolized and the acceptance of this monopoly money enforced and this at a fictitious and dictated value, even though the purchasing power of this legal tender monopoly money may already have been greatly depreciated. This money may also be greatly under-supplied by the monopolist issuer, which would increase the debt burden for every debtor and drive multitudes into bankruptcy and unemployment. Inflationary over-issues do also partly expropriate multitudes of creditors and lead to mass unemployment. The system is so bad that always to some extent and sometimes to an extreme extent, it combines the evils of inflation and deflation into stagflation. Only nominally are deflations and inflations complete opposites of each other. E.g., some channels of circulation might be inflated while others are deflated. E.g., the channels subsidized initially or permanently by means of the note printing presses for legal tender money, might be flooded with it, while at the same time other channels might remain deflated or become deflated through the coercive extraction of taxes. During the later stages of inflations the prices and wages might anticipate further inflation and thus race ahead of the capabilities of the printing presses, causing deflationary phenomena. - JZ, 17.8.92, 1.5.97, 5.11.13. - LEGAL TENDER, INFLATION, DEFLATION & STAGFLATION

MONEY MONOPOLY: Money, first and foremost, is a medium of communication, conveying the information we call “price”. Government control of the money supply is censorship, a violation of the first Amendment.” - L. Neil Smith, Lever Action, A Mountain Media Book, 2001,, p.169. – A money issue monopoly, combined with legal tender power, makes inflation, deflation and stagflation possible and thus prevents sound and free pricing and sufficiently free markets. It prevents many exchanges of goods, services and labor and also sound value reckoning, especially over long periods. – JZ, 27.9.07, 5.11.13. - CENTRAL BANKING, FREE PRICING

MONEY MONOPOLY: National currencies not inevitable or desirable.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.85.

MONEY MONOPOLY: No one can contend that the Federal Reserve System has brought economic stability or conquered the trade cycle, ..." "On the contrary, its critics are convinced that a politically conceived and administered money monopoly, such as the Federal Reserve System, is the worst of all money systems." – Dr. Hans F. Sennholz, 11/12/02, - Ludwig von Mises Institute. - FED, CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY MONOPOLY: Nothing can be more welcome than depriving government of its power over money and so stopping the apparently irresistible trend towards an accelerating increase of the share of the national income it is able to claim. If allowed to continue, this trend would in a few years bring us to a state in which government would claim 100 per cent (in Sweden and Britain it already exceeds 60 per cent) of all resources - and would in consequence become literally 'totalitarian'.” – F. A.Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.92.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Now here's the rub. The Government has seen fit for centuries to tell you what you must use for money and also to reserve for itself the sole right of manufacturing it. Because it can do this, it can obviously determine how much money is worth in terms of goods. As a simplified and theoretical example, it could issue every person and every institution in the land with a bonus of pounds exactly equal to the number that person or institution has already got, and this would simply mean that everyone swapped twice as many pounds in future for their transactions; in other words "prices" would double. (I should add that this exact relationship is true only if all other factors do not alter, which in practice they do, and if the issue is of a once-and-for-all nature, which it isn't, so that the effect is greater or lesser than a doubling.)” - Terry Arthur, 95 % Is Crap, p.34.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Of all monopolies that of credit and the circulating medium is the worst.” - Charles A. Dana, Proudhon and his Bank of the People, p.63.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Only by the mercy of its State laws exists my private property, only within the limits prescribed by it may I compete, only the exchange medium which it prescribes am I permitted to use.” – Max Stirner, in: John Henry Mackay, Max Stirner, p.145. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE EXCHANGE, STATE, PROPERTY

MONEY MONOPOLY: People have been losing confidence in money because it has been controlled by government.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.102. - Government money rarely ever deserved any confidence in it and a money that is largely based merely upon confidence hardly deserves any confidence but, rather an extreme distrust and outright rejection. - JZ, 24.3.97. – Government control of money means mismanagement of money, leading mostly to inflation and in-between to deflations and stagflations. – We might as well be asked to have confidence in Warfare States and in the Mafia and other organized crime syndicates and in those who levy high tax tributes from us. - JZ, 17.2.09, 5.11.13. - & CONFIDENCE. DIS., TRUST, DISTRUST

MONEY MONOPOLY: People who, for all too long, have put up with absolute monarchism and absolutist parliamentarianism, are, naturally, all too willing to put up with monopolistic post offices, central banks, government railways etc. - JZ, 3.4.79, 24.3.97. – They have become accustomed to their remaining degrees of slavery and serfdom, as most clearly expressed e.g. by taxation, conscription and compulsory schooling. – JZ, 17.2.09. & STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONEY MONOPOLY: POLITICALLY the broadcasting monopoly may be even more dangerous, but ECONOMICALLY? I doubt whether any other monopoly has done as much damage as that of issuing money.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.23. - The territorial monopoly, considering a whole country and all its people as the property of a State, may be considered as a still larger monopoly. - JZ, 24.3.97. - And a more dangerous one! - JZ, 30.8.02. – It embraces all others. – JZ, 17.2.09. – TERRITORIALISM, MONOPOLIES, BROADCASTING

MONEY MONOPOLY: Practically everyone who presumes to comment and propose, re the present situation, looks upon it more as a CONDITION instead of a stage of a process of deterioration. As already stated, this process involves the mulcting of populaces by means of an inequitable system of land tenure, and a diabolical monopoly of the means by which substantially all cooperative endeavor is carried on, namely the money-issuing monopoly, which in this country is the Federal Reserve System. None of the self-styled social fixers proposes the eradication of these denials of the essentials of freedom in economic activity. Practically every one of them is trying to concoct some scheme to distribute survival-income to the victims.” - Laurance Labadie, Selected Essays, 55. & MONEY REFORMERS, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY MONOPOLY: Professor Hayek's HOBART SPECIAL, and the works of other economists who are trying to evolve methods of 'taking money out of politics', should stimulate economists and non-economists alike to re-examine the first principles of the control of money is civilised society is to continue.” - Arthur Seldon, introducing Hayek: Denationalisation of Money, p.5.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Seeing the extensive evidence, it should be clear even to fools: Either those, who hold the money monopoly, cannot hold the money value stable or they will not. In both cases this monopoly has to be abolished. - Solneman (Kurt H. Zube), S.16 of Drei Kernforderungen zur Vermoegensverteilung. - CENTRAL BANKING & STABLE MONEY

MONEY MONOPOLY: That money should be free is inconceivable to typical 20th century man. He depends on government to mint his coins, issue his notes, define "legal tender", establish central banks, conduct monetary policy, and then stabilise the price level. In short, he wholly relies on government regulation of money. But this trust in monopolistic monetary authority operating through political processes inevitably gives rise to monetary destruction. It fact, money is inflated, depreciated, and ultimately destroyed whenever government holds monopolistic power over it.” - Hans F. Sennholz, Inflation or Gold Standard? As if these two were the only alternatives. Even the gold standard is possible in various forms, not to speak of the multitude of other value standards proposed and partly practised already. – JZ, 20.1.08.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The abolition of the government monopoly of money was conceived to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation, which have plagued the world for the past 60 years. It proves on examination to be also the much needed cure for a more deep-seated disease: the recurrent waves of depression and unemployment that have been represented as an inherent and deadly defect of capitalism. – Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p. 99, chapter XXV. Conclusions. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, FREE BANKING, CAPITALISM, FREE MARKET MONIES, MONETARY FREEDOM, CRISES, DEPRESSIONS, UNEMPLOYMENT, DEFLATION, INFLATION

MONEY MONOPOLY: The erection of a monopoly over the monetary system, Spooner argued, "is the equivalent to the establishment of monopolies in all the businesses that are carried on by means of money - to wit, all businesses that are carried on at all in civilized society; and to establish such monopolies as these is equivalent to condemning all persons, except those holding the monopolies, to the condition of tributaries, dependants, servants, paupers, beggars, or slaves." - W. O. Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.137. - Seeing so many quotes by many thinkers and writers on this question, one has to ask oneself, how many more will have to express themselves along these lines before their arguments are finally taken up by the general public, influence public opinion and lead to action against the money monopoly? - JZ, 24.3.97. - It is not so much a question of numbers but of where and how often these opinions appear, in what media and how frequently they are brought to the attention of public opinion. E.g., Christian ideas and opinions are preached at least on Sundays from every Christian pulpit. Monetary freedom views are mostly out of sight and hearing in mass media, bookshops, public and private libraries - with very few exceptions. Even on the Internet only a fraction of those, which have so far been expressed, by some people, somewhere, in some writings, can be easily and rapidly accessed there. - JZ, 30.8.02. – That may have significantly changed since then – but I doubt that all or most of such texts are already offered online or on discs. – JZ, 5.11.13.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The government outlaws your own money and forces its own bad paper money upon you and thereby takes part of your life. - JZ, 1.6.76.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The great monopoly in this country is the money monopoly. So long as it exists, our old variety of freedom and individual energy of development are out of the question.” - Woodrow Wilson, 1911, quoted by Justice Brandeis, Other People's Money. - Did he ever introduce a bill to abolish it? - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The issue of standardized means of exchange - the most essential of all commodities - must not be monopolized.” - U. von Beckerath, Berlin Program, p.16.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The main result at this state is that the chief blemish of the market order which has been the cause of well justified reproaches, its susceptibility to recurrent periods of depression and unemployment, is a consequence of the age-old government monopoly of the issue of money.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.14. - DEPRESSIONS, UNEMPLOYMENT, CRISES, MARKET ORDER, CAPITALISM

MONEY MONOPOLY: The money monopoly acts like a restrictive licence for jobs and sales (purchases), as well as credits and debt repayments, directly or indirectly. (Indirectly when monopoly money is used as a compulsory "cover" for credits or when it can be legally or juridically demanded at any time, in repayments from a debtor, instead of merely a non-cash payment or clearing settlement.) - Unemployment and other sales difficulties do inevitably follow from it and become extreme during the crises termed deflations, inflations and stagflations, depressions, recessions or credit-restrictions and economically unjustified credit expansions. - All these phenomena, not being property defined and then traced back to their causes, are usually merely accepted as if they were natural- catastrophes, rather than consequences of monetary despotism. But they are merely various symptoms of central banking and its monopoly money and “value standard”. - JZ, 2.10.89. 29.4.97, 5.11.13.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The monopoly of money is the one great obstacle to the liberation of the laboring classes all over the world, and to their indefinite progress in wealth.” – Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.49. - LABOR & WEALTH

MONEY MONOPOLY: The most fatal restriction upon trade now existing is the monopoly of the issue of money, the fountainhead of all tyrannies in these plutocratic days, and that is where LIBERTY ... must strike first to strike effectively.” - Benjamin R. Tucker.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The Persistent Abuse of the Government Prerogative: When one studies the history of money one cannot help wondering why people should have put up for so long with governments exercising a power over 2,000 years that was regularly used to exploit and defraud them. This can be explained only by the myth (that the government prerogative was necessary) becoming so firmly established that it did not occur even to the professional students of these matters (for a long time including the present writer) ever to question it. But once the validity of the established doctrine is doubted its foundation is rapidly seen to be fragile.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.26/27. - The money monopoly is just one of the outgrowths of statism which is even older, ca. 6,000 years. The government is dead - long live the government! - shouted and shout the fools. Even Hayek remained a territorial statist to the end, even though at least in favor only of the limited government utopia. - JZ, 25.3.97. - He remained unaware of how unlimited territorial despotism is, generally, although he finally managed to attack it in the sphere of money. - JZ, 30.8.02.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The position has become very different, however, since paper money established itself everywhere. The government monopoly of the issue of money was bad enough so long as metallic money predominated. But it became an unrelieved calamity since paper money (or other token money), which can provide the best and the worst money, came under political control.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.25. - Exclusive and forced paper money did not establish itself but was established by despotic monetary legislation. - JZ, 24.3.97.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The power over the people's money is just as bad as the power over the people's land.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The power to create money is one of the ways in which the State holds the citizen in the grip of its dead hand.” - Sir Ernest Benn, The State the Enemy, p.78. - It "creates" requisitioning certificates rather than sound "money". - JZ, 6.9.02. - INFLATION, DEFLATION, DEPRESSION, UNEMPLOYMENT, CREDIT RESTRICTIONS, LEGAL TENDER, STAGFLATION, CRISES, CENTRAL BANKING.

MONEY MONOPOLY: The theory, on which the advocates of this monopoly attempt to justify it, is simply this: THAT IT IS NOT AT ALL NECESSARY THAT MONEY SHOULD BE A BONA FIDE EQUIVALENT OF THE LABOR OR PROPERTY THAT IS TO BE BOUGHT WITH IT; that if the government will but specially license a small amount of money, and prohibit all other money, the holders of the licensed money will then be able to buy with it the labor and property of all other persons for a half, a tenth, a hundredth, a thousandth, or a millionth, of what such labor and property are really and truly worth.” - Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.36. - The last part contains more than a slight exaggeration. Emergency sales prices do not fall to a millionth of their normal free market prices. - Spooner's main monetary error was to assume that ALL kinds of property were right and proper to be freely monetized into currency claims upon ready for sale goods and services, regardless of the fact that these holders had not obliged themselves to so redeem and fund capital assets and that the capital assets could at best only produce equivalent additional goods and services in the future but not immediately. The natural issuers of currency, current for current consumption needs, are the owners and traders of consumer goods and services in daily demand, not investors of large capitals hoping to preserve and multiply their capital investments after considerable periods have passed - and often failing to do so. Future and hoped for goods are not the same as goods now ready for sale. Land was always one of the worst covers for currency issues - but it is an excellent one for mortgage bonds on the investment market. - JZ, 24.3.97. - For each author on monetary freedom and each of his writings on the subject pages should be made readily accessible for viewing them and former comments and criticism and adding more. - At least CD-ROMs would have space for this. Especially their most common mistakes and their strengths should be listed and summed up on these pages, with references to refutations and back-ups. - JZ, 30.8.02. – ENCYCLOPEDIAS OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS FOR ANY AS IMPORTANT SPHERE & SIGNIFICANT WRITINGS & AUTHORS DEALING WITH THEM

MONEY MONOPOLY: This is what "monetary management" really means. In practice it is merely a high-sounding euphemism for continuous currency debasement. It consists of constant lying in order to support constant swindling. Instead of automatic currencies based on gold, people are forced to take managed (*) currencies based on guile. Instead of precious metals they hold paper promises whose value falls with every bureaucratic whim. And they are suavely assured that only hopelessly antiquated minds dream of returning to truth and honesty and solvency and gold.” - Henry Hazlitt, Inflation, p.24. - The paper promises of e.g. a large department store chain, accepted by it like gold weight units, for prices marked in gold weight units, and optional and market rated, would be partly self-managed by its issuer and its acceptors and partly by publicity and market forces in general, including competition by other issuers. There is nothing inherently wrong or inferior in issues of full weight gold coins or 100 % gold covered certificates. But they should not be granted a monopoly, either! All the honesty and solvency that most money users really want and need, in most cases, is: shop foundation. Competitive management of optional services should not be equated with bureaucratic management of monopoly services and legal tender currencies should not be equated with market rated ones. Gold bugs tend to have their loving eyes only upon gold or gold redemptionism and remain blind to all other beauties. – (*) mismanaged, rather! - JZ, 24.3.97, 30.8.02, 7.1.11. ("Love makes blind!").

MONEY MONOPOLY: This prohibitory tax - so-called - is therefore really a penalty imposed upon the exercise of men's natural right to create and distribute wealth, and provide for their own and each other's wants. And it is imposed solely for the purpose of establishing a practically omnipotent monopoly in the hands of a few. - Calling this penalty a 'tax' is one of the dirty tricks, or rather downright lies - that of calling things by false names - to which congress and the courts resort, to hide their usurpations and crimes from the common eye. - Everybody - who believes in the government - says, of course, that congress has power to levy taxes; that it must do so to raise revenue for the support of government. Therefore this lying congress call this penalty a "tax", instead of calling it by its true name, a penalty.” – Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.75.

MONEY MONOPOLY: To the present day money is that part of the market order that government has most suppressed. It is also the part of the market order that silly rulers and economists have most tinkered with. … it will not be present knowledge but discoveries by free experimentation that can show us the best solutions. … government jealously guarded its monopoly, for purposes quite different from those for which money had been introduced.” – Friedrich Hayek, in “The Future Monetary Unit of Value”, in “Money In Crisis”, Barry Siegel, ed., Pacific Institute, San Francisco, 1984, p. 224-227. – Quoted in Thomas H. Greco, Jr., “Money and Debt: A Solution to the Global Crisis”, second edition, 1990, p.31.

MONEY MONOPOLY: We can now understand the situation. In the most civilized nations - such as Western Europe and the United States - labor is utterly crippled, robbed, and enslaved by the monopoly of money; and also, in some of these countries, by the monopoly of land. In nearly or quite all the other countries of the world, labor is not only robbed and enslaved, but to a great extent paralyzed, by the monopoly of land, and by what may properly be called the utter absence of money. There is, consequently, in these countries, almost literally, no diversity of industry, no science, no skill, no invention, no machinery, no manufactures, no production, and no wealth; but everywhere miserable poverty, ignorance, servitude, and wretchedness. - In this country, and in Western Europe, where the uses of money are known, there is no excuse to be offered for the monopoly of money. It is maintained, in each of these countries, by a small knot of tyrants and robbers, who have got control of the governments, and use their power principally to maintain this monopoly; understanding, as they do, that this one monopoly of money gives them a substantially absolute control of all other men's property and labor.” – Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.51.

MONEY MONOPOLY: We cannot trade the details of the nefarious- activities of rulers in monopolising money beyond the time of the Greek philosopher Diogenes who is reported, as early as the fourth century BC, to have called money the politicians' game of dice. But from Roman times to the 17th century, when paper money in various forms begins to be significant, the history of coinage is an almost uninterrupted story of debasements or the continuous reduction of the metallic content of the coins and a corresponding increase in all commodity prices.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.27. - LEGAL TENDER & INFLATION

MONEY MONOPOLY: We have always had bad money (*) because private enterprise was not permitted to give us a better one. In a world governed by the pressure of organised interests, the important truth to keep in mind is that we cannot count on intelligence or understanding but only on sheer self-interest to give us the institutions we need.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.100. – (*) monopoly money! - JZ. - As if genuine individual rights and liberties were not also involved. Alas, the moral case is no of interest to all too many libertarians and anarchists. If it were, they would already have compiled a sound and complete declaration of all genuine individual rights and liberties. - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONEY MONOPOLY: We have no choice but to replace the governmental currency monopoly and national currency system by free competition between private banks of issue. We have never had the control of money in the hands of agencies whose SOLE and EXCLUSIVE interest was to give the public what currency it liked best among several kinds offered, and which at the same time staked their existence on fulfilling the expectations they had created.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.100.

MONEY MONOPOLY: What we must still consider is the effect that power over the supply of money has had on financial policy. Just as the absence of competition has prevented the monopolist supplier of money from being subject to a salutary discipline, the power over money has also relieved governments of the necessity to keep their expenditure within their revenue. It is largely for this reason that Keynesian economics has become so rapidly popular among socialist economists. Indeed, since ministers of finance were told by economists that running a deficit was a meritorious act, and even that, so long as there were unemployed resources, extra government expenditure cost the people nothing, any effective bar to a rapid increase in government expenditure was destroyed.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p. 90. - Under monetary freedom the exhaustion of resources for the backing of sound currency would be indicated by the appearance of a discount of optional and market rated money against its own standard, that of all other monies and with that against other means of exchange that are still at par with their standard and this would tend to drive out any depreciated money - by more and more people simply refusing to accept it at all. Not all kinds of resources are suitable for the issue of money, least of all medium and long term government "insecurities", which are essentially investments in future tax slaves but usually also exposed to the inflation risk unless they do bear sound index-standard or gold clauses. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY MONOPOLY: What, then, is the remedy? Plainly it is to abolish the monopoly of money. Liberate all this loanable capital - promissory notes - that is now lying idle, and we liberate all labor, and furnish to all laborers all the capital they need for their industries. We shall then have no longer, all over the earth, the competition of pauper labor with pauper labor, but only the competition of free labor with free labor..." - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, Works I, p.50/51. - Again he mixes up turnover credits with capital credits. Only the former is directly freed by monetary freedom. Only indirectly can monetary freedom, with its full employment and boom economy, increase savings and with them capital investments and it can preserve and increase capital investments via free choice in value standards. It can also increase the value of existing capital assets by solving most of the sales problems for its wanted goods and services and reducing advertising costs. Under that condition productivity would also be increased and lead, at least temporarily, to higher returns for productively invested capital, at least until capital is offered in abundance. However, there is still a very large scope for the growth of capital in all the severely under-developed countries.  - JZ, 24.3.97, 5.11.13 – Spooner wrongly believed that all capital assets could be monetized, too, instead of being merely circulated in corresponding capital certificates. – To many money reformers still do not draw this important distinction. Governments, too, still imagine that government medium- and even long-term debt certificates would form a sound basis for a stable currency, although, obviously, such notes do not have a sufficiently strong current reflux in the repayment of such loans. – JZ, 17.2.09. - EXCHANGE MEDIA VS. CAPITAL MEDIA, DIS.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Whatever is monopolized is likely to be under-supplied and overpriced. Whatever can be forced upon people, whether they fully value it or not, is likely to become oversupplied. That is the major reason why the exclusive and forced currency of monetary despotism leads almost always to inflations, deflations and stagflations of one degree or the other. For want of good monies in the market the bad monopoly money is accepted in spite of its high price and other common flaws (like its depreciation most of the time), by all dependent upon monetary exchanges and most people are by now. Because the government paper money is legal tender, it cannot and will not be refused - except in the very last stages of a galloping inflation, which was made possible only by the existence of legal tender, in combination with the issue monopoly. – We do have the same situation with territorial statism, its monopolism and coercion, in all countries. Monetary despotism is just a particular case of it. - JZ, 17.12.93, 30.4.97, 12.9.02, 7.1.11, 5.11.13. – STATISM, MONETARY DESPOTISM & TERRITORIALISM, STATE SOCIALISM

MONEY MONOPOLY: With the monopoly for money issues and the associated legal tender power and privilege all three types of crises, inflations, deflation and stagflation would very soon disappear and become impossible. – Under full monetary freedom significant financial crises could also no longer occur although some losses through incompetence and fraud would naturally continue. - JZ, 29.12.92, 7.10.08.

MONEY MONOPOLY: Yet it is clearly possible that there is no necessity or even advantage in the now unquestioned and universally accepted government prerogative of producing money. It may indeed prove to be harmful and its abolition a great gain, opening the way for very beneficial developments. Discussion therefore cannot begin early enough. Though its realisation maybe wholly impracticable so long as the public is mentally unprepared for it and uncritically accepts the dogma of the necessary government prerogative, this should no longer be allowed to act as a bar to the intellectual exploration of the fascinating theoretical problems the scheme raises.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.20. - H. was unaware of numerous predecessors, including economists, who had advocated free banking. - If that can happen to a scholar like him, then what can one expect from the ordinary economist, student of economy, journalists, writer or man in the street? - JZ, 7.1.11.

MONEY OF THE STATE: Another strange notion pervading whole peoples is that the State has money of its own; and nowhere is this absurdity more firmly fixed than in America. The State has no money. It produces nothing. It existence is purely parasitic, maintained by taxation; that is to say, by forced levies on the production of others. 'Government money,' of which one hears so much nowadays, does not exist; there is no such thing. One is especially amused at seeing how largely a naïve ignorance of this fact underlies the pernicious measures of 'social security' which have been foisted on the American people. In various schemes of pensioning, of insurance against sickness, accident, unemployment and what-not, one notices that the government is supposed to pay so-much into the fund, the employer so-much, and the workman so-much …. But the government pays nothing, for it has nothing to pay with. What such schemes actually come to is that the workman pays his own share outright; he pays the employer's share in the enhanced price of commodities; and he pays the government's share in taxation. He pays the whole bill; and when one counts in the unconscionably swollen costs of bureaucratic brokerage and paperasserie, one sees that what the workman-beneficiary gets out the arrangement is about the most expensive form of insurance that could be devised consistently with keeping its promoters out of gaol." - Albert J. Nock, Memoirs of a Superfluous Man, now available in the Mises Store. - GOVERNMENT SPENDING, TAXATION, GOVERNMENT MONEY, STATE PAPER MONEY, PUBLIC DEBT, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, OBAMACARE

MONEY POWER: The money powers prey upon the nation in times of peace and conspire against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than a monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy. It denounces, as public enemies, all who question its methods or throw light upon its crimes. I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me and the bankers in the rear. Of the two, the one at my rear is my greatest foe.” - Abraham Lincoln - This political liar and misleader had favored central banking, i.e. monetary despotism, for decades. - JZ, 26.3.04. – Finally, he practised it on a huge scale during the Civil War, with his inflationary issue of greenbacks as a forced government currency, to finance his war against the secessionist States which were on the one hand Free Trade States and on the other side Slave States and also issued and inflated their exclusive and forced paper currency. – How much worse did the Civil War become, as a result of this method of financing it? - JZ, 4.1.08, 7.1.11. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, Q., LINCOLN & THE CIVIL WAR

MONEY REFORM: A directory or at least a public list is needed of all those who are, to a limited extent, already on the road from monetary despotism to monetary freedom. Ideally some particulars of their ideas should be added. Those only in favor of other forms of monetary despotism are here not considered to be worth mentioning, unless some of their arguments deal with monetary freedom. – JZ, n.d. & 17.2.09. – MONEY REFORMERS FOR MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY REFORM: Like the communists, most of the money reformers (there are a few honorable exceptions, e.g. the Gesellian Paul Nagel) considered only a centralized, authoritarian and coercive money system, exclusive for a whole territory and its population, with forced value and forced acceptance, euphemistically called "legal tender", usually quite unaware of all the variations of legal tender and of its general consequences: inflation, deflation, stagflation, Gresham's Law, the vitiation of Say's Law. Although legal tender was openly declared to be necessary to inflate the currency during the next war, as happened during the German Bank Enquete of 1908, they tend to ignore such relationships. Even when they are fans of Karl Marx, which I am definitely not, they tend to ignore his observation on this (Zur Kritik der Politischen OekonomieOn the Critique of Political Economy), p.129 of the Dietz, Berlin 1951- edition ): "... observers who studied the phenomena of money circulation exclusively on the examples of the circulation of legal tender paper money, had to overlook the inherent laws of money circulation." - More on this in my booklet, reproduced in PEACE PLANS No.19A: "Stop the $ X00 Million Legal- Tender Crime". ( - For some people legal tender seems to be rather an ideal than a crime. - Perhaps the only legal tenders that are justified, are: a) one agreed upon within a volunteer community or b) one individually contracted for, c) most importantly, the one that is inherent in the obvious obligation of any issuer of any kind of IOU: He must, at any time, in case of a "currency" issue and, otherwise, at the due date, accept the own IOUs at par in all payments due to him. He cannot rightfully refuse that obligation, no more so than could a cinema owner or an airline, bus-company or railway refuse to accept its own tickets. If one ponders along the lines of "ticket money", then one will come to quite different and more accurate conclusions than the popular misconceptions. d) The one which is customary for a local currency, is a juridical assumption that settlement in the local currency is meant - when nothing to the contrary has been agreed upon. But even that would apply only while a local currency is maintained at par with its nominal value, in public free market ratings. - There may be some other features of legal tender that are rightful, occasionally, but I cannot think of them at present. Most other versions are despotic, characterizing monetary despotism, and have long-term disastrous consequences. In my booklet on legal tender I distinguished between about 19 varieties of legal tender but made no claim that this list would be complete. - JZ, 3/97, 7.1.11. - LEGAL TENDER, COMMUNISM, MARX, CENTRAL BANKING, FED

MONEY REFORM: Money reformers unite! On the following platform: full freedom for tolerant, honest and fully publicized monetary experiments. - This remained an almost unanswered appeal in PEACE PLANS No.9 of March 1967. - Now on - together with the other two monetary freedom books by Ulrich von Beckerath and many other such texts. - Alas, some monetary reformers are even more intolerant and less informed than central bankers are. - JZ, 30.5.97.

MONEY REFORM: Most do wrongly assume that they already know all there is to know about money and are thus disinterested in or even intolerant of other monetary reformers and, most of all, ignorant of or suspicious towards the full monetary freedom potential. - Thus and at least sometimes, they are the least promising potential candidates for educational efforts on monetary freedom or for experiments with monetary freedom. Most do prefer their own favorite kind of monetary despotism. - JZ, 12.3.93, 24.4.97.

MONEY REFORM: No reform is possible until money has been reformed." - Cited by A. E. Veith, in "In the Wake of Inflation" - It is somewhat exaggerated but still contains much truth, because monetary despotism, dealing with exchange media and value standards, and its alternative, monetary freedom, is, like censorship, freedom of expression and information, language, trade and production, involved in almost everything. Or can you think of many exceptions that do not somewhat relate to them, directly or indirectly? How sound or endangered are e.g. family relationships - and international relationships - under monetary despotism? With regard to the all-over freedom framework, monetary freedom is just one aspect of competing governments and competing free societies that are only exterritorially autonomous and have only voluntary members. Monetary freedom does, likewise, embrace all kinds of private and cooperative or official payment communities, all freely competing with each other. - JZ, 15.5.97. - & OTHER REFORMS, PANARCHISM

MONEY SHORTAGE: A bizarre money shortage recently hit the inhabitants of a small Pacific island - their -currency was killed by an oil slick. - The island people, who trafficked in shells, went "broke" when an oil tanker leaked its cargo into nearby seas, destroying the mollusks which grew their money.” - Marsali MacKinnon, in THE AUSTRALIAN, FEB. 22, 1983. - The whole article is reproduced in PEACE PLANS 731. - These natives had, apparently, considered monetary freedom alternatives (apart from their own, traditional and primitive currency), even less than most white “natives” have and, according to this article, they show an even larger bias against a proper monetary exchange economy than most people in the developed countries do. However, if a monetary freedom experiment could be set up in such an environment and would remain undisturbed for a few years and if it were then well publicized, with all its remaining mistakes and all its gradually attained successes, the obstacles encountered and overcome and the opportunities and development resulting, then at least many people of the Third World might listen to this information. – JZ, n.d. & 5.11.13. - SHELL MONEY, PRIMITIVE MONEY, MONEY SHORTAGE VIA AN OIL SLICK

MONEY SHORTAGE: Can anybody remember when the times were not hard and money not scarce?” - R. W. Emerson, 1803-1882. - Goods, labor and service prices cannot always or sufficiently fast, easily and extensively be exchanged for a part of the fluctuating supply of any exclusive currency. Moreover, even medium and long-term debt contracts will always be adversely affected for one side or the other by inflations or deflations of an exclusive currency. Rising prices will encourage buying while falling prices will deter from it. Only freedom to issue exchange media or free clearing can always achieve that enough exchange media or clearing options exist to make all desired exchanges possible, as far as ordinary consumer goods and services are concerned, for which there exists already an extensive demand, and this while using sound and self-chosen rather than fictitious and imposed governmental value standards. If I issued exchange media based upon my libertarian microfiche, I would find only very few acceptors, if any at all. - JZ, 21.12.07, 7.1.11.

MONEY SHORTAGE: When producers and their customers are free, then abundance rather than shortages are the rule. That applies to the supply of sound exchange media and sound value standards as well as it does apply to the supply of any other goods and services. - Money shortages, to come into existence and to continue, require monetary despotism. To overcome them, monetary freedom is required. - - However, sufficient knowledge of the monetary freedom alternative and of sound issue and reflux techniques is also required. Otherwise, merely by custom, tradition, ignorance, prejudice, primitivism or barbarism, the monetary freedom that would exist, not being outlawed by the laws of monetary despotism, might not be utilized, in the same way as Arabs, for a long time, did not utilize their oil treasures. - JZ, 30.5.85, 3.5.97, 13.9.02 5.11.13.

MONEY SUBSTITUTES: Banknotes, when issued under the best form of the banking principle, are merely temporary and efficient substitutes for large and uneven commercial bills, not substitutes for rare metal coins. Their backing is made up of both, the commercial bill (or equivalent modern papers or accounts. - JZ, 7.1.11.) and the shop foundation that serves as the immediate redemption fund for all the notes issued. A gold-weight unit as a clearing or accounting value standard is an excellent, even a superior substitute for the promise and ability of the issuer to redeem his notes at any time and upon demand 100% in gold coins. For this kind of clearing gold standard can mediate an unlimited number of transactions, not only as many as can be managed by exchange media 100% redeemable in gold. A rare commodity like gold, even though very highly valued, cannot be an always and readily available as well as sufficient equivalent for all transactions in all other commodities and services and for all other debt payments regardless of the volume and number of such transactions, at any time multi-millions of them. It would limit their quantity to these metallic redemption funds and to the extent that they would be able to mediate several transactions before the rare metal redemption is insisted upon by the current note holder. It was long thought that this redemption obligation would be necessary to limit the volume of issues, to achieve a sufficient guaranty, trust and confidence as well as security and to prevent abuses. But there are other and better and more natural limitations - without the inherent limitations of the rare metal redemptionism, be it 100 % or fractional or optionally postponable or discountable (as in Henry Meulen's scheme, reviving the old "option clause" notes). - JZ, 27.8.02, 7.1.11. – MONEY SUPPLY, REDEMPTION IN GOODS OR SERVICES RATHER THAN IN GOLD COINS,  GOLD WEIGHT VALUE CLEARING STANDARD

MONEY SUPPLY & MONETARY FREEDOM: Only once you become free to issue, discount and refuse money can your money supply become sufficiently secured. – JZ, 22.2.03.

MONEY SUPPLY: As far as possible - as far as individuals and voluntary associations are willing to try to issue and others are willing to accept, let each be his own money supplier. And let each be judge and jury towards the money issued and offered to him by someone else, unless he has contractually obliged himself to accept it. Everyone is morally only obliged to accept his own money or clearing certificate from anyone at any time and at its nominal value (at par), in all payments due to him. - JZ, 27.9.91, 27.4.97. - FREE COMPETITION, FREE ENTERPRISE & FREE TRADE IN THE PROVISION OF EXCHANGE MEDIA, CLEARING FACILITIES & VALUE STANDARDS, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. LEGAL TENDER FOR MONOPOLY MONEY

MONEY SUPPLY: Growth of the money supply should be restricted to a rate consistent with the long-term rate of growth of the economy.” – Joseph F. Johnston, Jr., The Limits of Government, Regnery Gateway, Chicago, 1984, p.144. - That is also one of the maxims or false pretences of the monetary despotism of central banking and with it or contrary to it, the central note issuing banks regularly produce inflations, deflations and stagflations. For how much longer should they be “free” to do so? How much longer should be we remain their ignorant, prejudiced or under-informed victims? A quite rightful and self-regulating money supply system would arise out of the freedom to issue private or cooperative money token, combined with the obligation to accept them at par and the freedom of all potential acceptors to refuse to accept them at all or only at a discount, i.e. with the abolition of the issue monopoly of the central banks and the legal tender power and privilege for their kind of paper money and paper currency. – A private, cooperative and competitive money issue and its money increase can be quite sound even if overall there is little or no growth or even a decline in the general economy. – No bad money should be allowed to drive good monies out of the circulation but all good monies should be allowed to drive all bad monies out of the circulation. – The free customers tend to be always right, even towards the money issuers. – Abolition of government controls of the money supply and of the governmental monopoly for the money supply is required. Government monies to have only tax foundation or voluntary contribution foundation. As such they should be market-rated and refusable in a free market. Macro-economic planning, direction and control are disastrous in this sphere as well. And their political and military consequences are even worse. - JZ, 2.10.07, 17.2.09, 7.1.11, 5.11.13. - & GROWTH, FREE BANKING VS. CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY SUPPLY: Only once you become free to issue, discount and refuse money can your money supply become sufficient, sound and secured. – JZ, 22.2.03, 8.2.09. - MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY SUPPLY: Professor Hayek’s proposal that the supply of money be put into the market-place along with other goods and services is even more revolutionary.” – Arthur Seldon, introducing F. A. Hayek’s 1975 work: Denationalization of Money, p.5. – Apparently, both were unaware of predecessors, like the Swiss, German and Jewish advocates of monetary freedom of the 1930’s. – Monetary freedom experiments, theories and and writings go back much further still. A full chronology of them and their technical details would be interesting. – What a world we live in when as important ideas can remain unknown even to such outstanding scholars! – and this for many decades. – JZ, 6.10.08, 7.1.11. - FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM, DENATIONALIZATION OF MONEY

MONEY SUPPLY: Spooner believes a country's money supply can be increased indefinitely and that it is limited not by the market but that the market is limited by the money supply.” - Charles Shiveley, in introduction to Spooner's "The Law of Prices. - What Spooner said is largely right for a currency subject to voluntary acceptance and free market rating but wrong for a currency that is legal tender and based upon capital assets or capital debts. - JZ, .n.d. - Spooner did not sufficiently distinguish "money" in the meaning of "money men" with much wealth, in form of certified or fixed capital, whether productive or not, and "money" or "currency as a "current" and widely enough used means of exchange, at any time redeemable in wanted consumer goods or services or labor or in debt-payment receipts. The general wealth, which he believed could be turned into "currency", can only be turned in to mortgage letters, shares, bonds and similar capital certificates, that are also freely transferable, but not, as a rule, usable as currency for daily wanted consumer goods and services and for paying ordinary debts, pensions, salaries, wages, rents or tickets with. - Many money reformers have still not clearly recognized the differences that are involved. But in both spheres freedom of issue, freedom or refusal to accept and freedom to discount or price money tokens and capital certificates should be involved and both kinds of issue and acceptance liberties are needed to maximize and economize productivity, the use of all scarce resources and free exchange. - However, those wishing to experiment with mortgage letters, bonds and shares, in suitable denominations, as their exchange media, only among themselves, should not be prohibited from engaging in such experiments. Naturally, they should not be allowed to force them upon anyone else, far less at their nominal value. - That will, might or should teach them. Otherwise they will go on merely advocating, dogmatically, their kind of monetary despotism, which they consider to be a form of monetary freedom, like e.g. Lysander Spooner did. - JZ, 21.12.07, 7.1.11. - MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY SYSTEMS: The "money system” is a misnomer, since xyz money systems existed and have been proposed, with only few excellent or rightful as well as economic ones among them. Most were and are faulty to a very large degree. There should have been freedom enough to compete them out of existence. Instead, they were artificially and legally upheld by monetary despotism. The current systems, largely all alike and upheld by despotic money legislation and jurisdiction, are very wrongful and flawed ones. We have to get rid of them in order to become aware of and able to apply the very best ones among ourselves, even if initially only among their very first and relatively few advocates. For this purpose we should become free to opt out from under monetary despotism and its laws and free to apply our own personal law preferences and associations, exchange media, clearing certificates and value standards, also all degrees of monetary freedom among ourselves. The record of governments in this sphere is so bad that the right of secession from them and experimental freedom for all alternatives to their wrongful,  uneconomic and imposed systems, should be self-evident. Coercively upholding monetary despotism is the equivalent to coercively upholding the old medical method of bleeding patients in the vain hope that thereby they would be cured. – JZ, 16.9.98, 27.9.08, 7.1.11. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY THEORIES: They are so numerous that all should be listed and confronted with the facts and contrary theories as far and fast as is possible, in order to enable the patient researchers to finally sort the wheat from the chaff. - JZ, 19.3.97. This process would be accelerated by full freedom for monetary experiments among volunteers. – JZ, 5.11.13.

MONEY-CHANGERS: History shows that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit and violent means possible to maintain control over governments by controlling the money and the issuance of it." - President James A. Madison. - He should have known better or should have been informed better. It was rather the other way around. Governments have always abused their legislatively usurped powers over money issues and value standards to harm and exploit businessmen and citizen to their own advantage, regardless of the economic disasters which they thus caused and the political consequences for their own and foreign governments of these government-made disasters. As usual, they blame rather others than themselves. – Even the knowledge and wisdom of the “Founding Fathers” of the USA was still rather limited. – Free competition among all money-issuers and money-lenders and freedom for all potential acceptors to refuse to accept the government's money and any privately or cooperatively issued money or to discount them down to their true market value. - JZ, 5.1.08, 8.1.11. – Then Gresham’s Law, properly understood, would apply and the bad monies would be driven out by the good monies. But as long as the law gives a legalized monopoly to the bad money and also legal tender power, i.e. compulsory acceptance and a forced value to it, then this bad money can and does drive out the good money alternatives of full monetary freedom. – JZ, 5.11.13. – GRESHAM’S LAW, LEGAL TENDER, MONOPOLY MONEY, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANING, BANKERS, FINANCIERS & GOVERNMENTS

MONEY-MAKERS: Money-getters are the benefactors of our race. To them … we are indebted for our institutions of learning, of art, our academies, colleges, and churches.” – P. T. Barnum, 1810-1891. – Money-getters do not always earn it but money-makers always do. – JZ, 9.6.92. - There should be many more and quite competitive makers of sound and optional money issues. -  Should we be grateful for all of the teachings of private teachers? And for all those of State subsidized and controlled “educational” institutions? - All the government-controlled teaching and learning has rather held us back than advanced us at least in this sphere. - I also believe that most religious teachings have held us back. - Should one overlook productive agricultural and industrial investments? – All the benevolent spending together does, probably, not do as much good as all the profit- making investments do. - JZ, 7.12.07. - MONEY-GETTERS, MONEY-ACCUMULATORS, WEALTH, RICH PEOPLE, INVESTORS, CAPITALISTS, FOUNDATIONS, CHARITY, BENEVOLENCE, PROFIT

MONEY MAKERS: Money-takers and money fakers should always be distinguished from money-makers. – My version of an often quoted proverb. Presently I cannot recall its exact wording and source. – Money issuers of sound free market monies should also be distinguished form the money issuers of monetary despotism. To indiscriminately condemn all of them as e.g. “profiteers”, “money monopolists”, “money manipulators”, “banksters” and “exploiters” is quite unwarranted. – The producers of quite sound and freely competing free market monies will one day become counted as being among the greatest benefactors of the human race. - JZ, 5.11.13.

MONEY: A healthy man without money is half-way sick.” – Goethe, Sprueche in Reimen, JZ tr. of: “Gesunder Mensch ohne Geld ist halb krank.” – ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: A jackass loaded with gold can climb over every wall.” - Ein mit Gold beladener Esel uebersteigt jede Mauer.” - King Philipp of Macedonia. – It was certainly a cheaper, easier and less bloody way to conquer a city. Bribing an enemy general can sometimes help, too. And so can paying deserters for their weapons and for their stay with us or in a neutral country, until their country has been liberated from despotism in a defensive or liberation war or libertarian revolution. - JZ, 23.3.97. - All the sound payment options for rightful defences, liberation and resistance attempts, popular revolutions and military insurrections against dictatorships, to prevent or reduce war, have still not been sufficiently publicized and discussed. Not even in the age of ABC mass murder devices! – JZ, 31.10.08. – DESERTION, LIBERATION, DEFENCE, REVOLUTION, REFUGEES, FULL EMPLOYMENT, OPEN ARMS POLICY

MONEY: A lack of money is the root of many ills.” - Whittaker Chambers, quoting perhaps a Greek proverb, mentioned in W. F. Buckley: Rumbles ..., p.209. – ABILITY TO PAY, DEFLATION, LACK OF MONEY, EVIL

MONEY: A man without money is a bow without an arrow.” - Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia, 1732, No. 317. - One could also say: A man without money has to bow - because he has no arrow! - JZ 5.7.82. – Like most analogies, this one limps, too. The target of one's money "arrow" would complain if one missed him. And when one hits him with it then he is neither wounded nor killed thereby. But one thing the two have in common: One can manufacture one's bow and arrows and one's money. But the one is a sign of animosity or subjugation and the other of trading or mutual benefit. The one is a political means, the other an economic one. Insofar the gap could not be greater. - JZ, 23.3.97 - Clearing, under full freedom, is always a ready option – if one has something to offer that others do want and if such transactions are not outlawed. Such clearing includes the freedom to issue, accept and use clearing certificates expressing sound and self-chosen or freely accepted value standards. – JZ, 31.10.08. – ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: A man's goodness resides in his money, and he who has no money, deteriorates.” - Bornu proverb, quoted by U. v. Beckerath in PEACE PLANS 9-11, p. 257. - & GOODNESS, ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: A money income is almost essential in a modern economy. Dreams of happy self-sufficiency on a picture-postcard farm are dreams of the young and energetic. For almost everyone else, an income of money is the SINE QUA NON of survival. With enough money, it is generally believed, people can buy what they need....” - James E. McAdoo, THE FREEMAN, I/76, p. 52.

MONEY: A tool to escape the inconveniences of primitive barter transactions and of laborious clearing and to facilitate the clearing of all debts. - JZ, 5.4.85, 22.3.97. – CLEARING NATURE OF MONEY

MONEY: A Tranquilizer: I don't like money, actually, but it quiets my nerves.” - Joe Louis, b.1914. – Who feels quite comfortable without a credit card, cheque book or money in his pocket, wallet or bank account and without almost a certainty that he will get at least some money, to pay his way, during the next few days? – JZ,

MONEY: All I want is the freedom to make money. Do you know what that freedom implies?” – Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.451. – Alas, she did not know, either, because she considered only one monetary alternative, namely that of gold coins and gold-covered certificates, i.e., another exclusive and forced currency with only one advantage, namely that it could not be arbitrarily multiplied. But that advantage is at the same time a great disadvantage, too, because it limits possible exchanges of all other goods, services and labor, millions of different ones in endless quantities, to those which can be exchanged in this way, with the aid of such an exclusive exchange medium, one represented in a single rare metal. She did not even consider using gold merely as an optional value standard for all exchanges, and not as an exclusive exchange medium. Nor did she consider the fact that we should be free to clear all our mutual debts without being able to cover or redeem or pay all of them in gold coins or gold certificates and that such free exchanges in gold value clearing and accounting only could make us independent from the quantities of gold coins available to us for our transactions, even while we would still be using them as our optional value standard. – JZ, 6.10.08. – GOLD STANDARD, GOLD VALUE CLEARING VS. GOLD COIN PAYMENTS & GOLD COIN REDEMPTION AS THE ONLY OPTIONS, RIGHT TO DEMAND GOLD VS. RIGHT TO DEMAND ONLY GOLD WEIGHT VALUES OR CLEARING IN GOLD WEIGHT UNIT RECKONING, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE CHOICE AMONG VALUE STANDARDS & EXCHANAGE MEDIA

MONEY: All the perplexities, confusions, and distresses in America arise, not from defects in their constitution or confederation, not from a want of honor or virtue, so much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit, and circulation.” - John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, August 25, 1787. - The Works of John Adams, ed. Charles Francis Adams, vol. 8, p.447 (1853). - Quoted in: Irvin A. Schiff, The Biggest Con, p.13. - & MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY

MONEY: Always remember, money isn't everything - but also remember to make a lot of it before talking such nonsense.” - Earl Wilson, READER’S DIGEST, 7/78 - MONEY IS NOT EVERYTHING

MONEY: Among mankind money is far more persuasive than logical argument.” - Euripides. - This is obviously more true of sound money than of highly inflated money, which has little to no purchasing power on the official market and that can purchase at uncontrolled prices, on the black market, only according to the inflation rate and the limitations and risks involved in black market trading. In these cases bribes with goods and services are often more persuasive than "golden" handshakes. - JZ, 27.8.02. - IMPORTANCE, LOGIC, ARGUMENTS, REASONING, PERSUASION, MAN

MONEY: And few tools, if any, are more important to the champion of freedom than a sound money system.” – Dr. Hans Sennholz, Inflation, or Gold Standard, p.3. - Even the soundest monetary system should be a matter for individual choice. It should not be imposed upon anyone. People should remain free, in their own monetary experiments, to use unsound exchange media and unsound value standards and unsound clearing methods as long as they can stand them – at their own risk and expense. Only thus will finally all or most people adopt for themselves also the soundest kinds of money, clearing and value standards. – JZ, 6.10.08. – And that is not the redemptionist gold standard but, rather, e.g. the gold-clearing or gold-accounting standard, which uses gold weight units only as a value standard, not an exclusive and forced one, either, and which does not necessarily mean the obligation to pay or be paid in gold coins, i.e., the duty to use gold coins as an exclusive exchange medium. – JZ, 8.2.09, 5.11.13. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS VS. ANY EXCLUSIVE & IMPOSED VALUE STANDARD, SOUND MONEY

MONEY: And let us bear in mind that exchange (other than primitive barter) depends on an honest, trustworthy, circulating medium; this is an absolute - money of integrity. Freedom in monetary matters means no political manipulation of our medium of exchange.” - Leonard E. Read, Having My Way, p.82/83. - If the money of monetary despotism were so bad that one could not exchange it at all for anything one wants, then it could hardly last for many days. What makes it bad are especially its shortages, caused by the monopoly for its issue, its enforced depreciation and the combination of these despotic features in stagflations, with all their consequences, bankruptcies, mass unemployment, mass under-employment, even dictatorships, official and unofficial terrorism, wars and revolutions. But one should recognize that vast turnovers are achieved even with this bad money. Much more could be easily turned over, saved, productively invested and turned into more and more widely spread wealth - with the help of honest and competitively supplied currencies. Alas, too many “hunt” for the present bad money rather than ponder the easy availability of good money under monetary freedom and the preconditions for this freedom. - JZ, 23.3.97, 7.1.11. – Not to forget: the value standard that we do prefer for our transactions! – It need not be perfect – but close enough to it! – It should be chosen or freely accepted by ourselves instead of being imposed upon us. - JZ, 31.10.08, 19.2.09. – FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, TOO! NOT ONLY FREEDOM IN THE ISSUE & ACCEPTANCE OF EXCHANGE MEDIA!

MONEY: Another strange notion pervading whole peoples is that the State has money of its own; and nowhere is this absurdity more firmly fixed than in America. The State has no money. It produces nothing. It existence is purely parasitic, maintained by taxation; that is to say, by forced levies on the production of others. 'Government money,' of which one hears so much nowadays, does not exist; there is no such thing. One is especially amused at seeing how largely a naïve ignorance of this fact underlies the pernicious measures of 'social security' which have been foisted on the American people. In various schemes of pensioning, of insurance against sickness, accident, unemployment and what-not, one notices that the government is supposed to pay so-much into the fund, the employer so-much, and the workman so-much ... But the government pays nothing, for it has nothing to pay with. What such schemes actually come to is that the workman pays his own share outright; he pays the employer's share in the enhanced price of commodities; and he pays the government's share in taxation. He pays the whole bill; and when one counts in the unconscionably swollen costs of bureaucratic brokerage and paperasserie, one sees that what the workman-beneficiary gets out the arrangement is about the most expensive form of insurance that could be devised consistently with keeping its promoters out of gaol." - Albert J. Nock, Memoirs of a Superfluous Man. - OF THE STATE, TAXATION, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, GOVERNMENT MONEY, STATE PAPER MONEY, PUBLIC DEBT, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONEY: Any paper money, in the sense of currency, not of capital, represents a claim against its issuer. Such a claim must be claimable immediately and also in the future, unless only a short period of validity is agreed upon. Without immediate acceptability, at least by the issuer, any such money will tend to depreciate, i.e., will not really be a sound money. – JZ, 9.4.05, 5.11.13.

MONEY: Are there on any other subject more errors, myths, prejudices and false assumptions than do exist on the nature of money, currency, barter, clearing, credit, banking, banknotes, value standards, currency, etc.? - JZ, 24.6.93, 14.4.97. - EDUCATION, PREJUDICES, IGNORANCE, PUBLIC OPINION, MYTHS & "EXPERTS" BEING WRONG, Q.


MONEY: As John Wesley put it: ‘Do not impute to money the faults of human nature.’ And to ‘money’ I would add capitalism.” - Margaret Thatcher, Statecraft, 2002, HarperCollins, – p.430. - Nor should one attribute to money itself the wrongs and faults of monetary despotism. Money can show its best qualities only under full monetary freedom. – JZ, 8.10.07. - CAPITALISM, HUMAN NATURE

MONEY: As long as I have still money in my purse, my independence is assured ... The money, that one holds, is the means for freedom, the money that one tries to obtain is the means to servility. Thus I am very careful with money and desire nothing.” – Rousseau, Bekenntnisse, 1,1. – He meant enough money for independence. How independent is one with just 1 cent or one dollar in one’s purse? Nor did he consider the credit and clearing options - or the possibility to issue money oneself, alone or in a sufficient association with others. – JZ, 13.12.07.

MONEY: As long as its value standard is sound, and it is free market rated and stands at par with its value standard, an exchange medium or clearing certificate is sound, regardless how much of it has been competitively issued and readily accepted to satisfy the requirements of trade. It is then self-regulating. No more will be issued for general local circulation than can be issued at par and no less should be issued by all potential issuers, whose notes are readily accepted locally, than can be issued - until their first slight discount occurs and refusals to accept it do rapidly multiply. No more and no less is needed and will occur, as a rule. Thus both inflation and deflation are avoided. Anyhow, they would not be legal tender and thus sound value reckoning would not be interfered with. Further, they would be competitively issued so any deflationary money shortage would be avoided. Its circulation would then be constantly adapted to the requirements of trading. – JZ, 4.6.07. 21.10.07, 5.11.13. - LEGAL TENDER & THE QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY, SOUND MONEY ISSUES, DIS.

MONEY: Ayn Rand long ago proclaimed that money is the root of all good!” - Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.75. - Whatever good a good money can achieve could also be achieved by quite free clearing. - One should beware of generalizations that do not cover the whole truth. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: Blessed indeed will be the day when it will no longer be from the benevolence of the government that we expect good money but from the regard of the banks for their own interest. – ‘It is in this manner that we obtain from one another the far greater part of those good offices we stand in need of.’ - (Mises)” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.47. - BENEVOLENCE, GOVERNMENT, SELF-INTEREST, BANKING

MONEY: But things were not money, any more than water shared was growing closer. Money was an idea, as abstract as on Old One’s thoughts – money was a great structured symbol for balancing and healing and growing closer.” – Robert Heinlein, Stranger in a Strange Land, p.217. – However, needed or wanted goods or services can, under freedom, be turned into quite concrete and practical goods- or service-vouchers or clearing certificates, in money denominations, and much of such alternative money can be much better and safer than any money any government is able or willing to provide. – JZ, 8.12.07, 17.2.09. - CLEARING, FREE EXCHANGE, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: By money inflation, by import quotas, by "ceilings", we have made it most difficult for the foreigner to buy our products because all these devices simply reduce his capacity to pay. Need it be pointed out that the only way to pay for goods and services is with goods and services? That money pays no part to trade except as a measurement of value? (*) Even as in transactions between nationals every purchase is ultimately liquidated with another purchase, every sale calls for another sale, so must international transactions be likewise balanced. Minnesota cannot sell flour to New York unless it buys New York clothing in return, and Detroit cannot sell automobiles to Argentina unless it is willing to accept payment in either Argentine beef or in some commodity from a third country which has acquired our claim on Argentine beef. That is primary. And yet, our mad primitive isolationism has blinded us to this basic fact of all business.” - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.352. - All of the clearing options, which if fully used, would make exchange media superfluous, but not sound value standards, are still not fully seen be most. - JZ, 7.1.11. - (*) It is still a good medium to facilitate exchange, which otherwise could be done through comprehensive clearing. But the transaction costs for small purchases could be higher than the purchase price in case of non-cash payments. – JZ, 2.1.08. - & FREE TRADE, INTERNALLY & EXTERNALLY, CLEARING

MONEY: Can anybody remember when the times were not hard, and money not scarce?” - Emerson, Society and Solitude: Works and Days. – We have all experienced only degrees of monetary despotism. Under monetary freedom sound money will not be scarce and times will not be hard! – JZ, 31.10.08. – I have experienced 4 inflations so far: That of the Nazis, the one by the occupation forces, then the “democratic” ones in West Berlin and in Australia. – JZ, 8.2.09. - How many people can remember hard or sound money and money so cheap that mortgages were offered at between 1 & 2 % - as in Switzerland still after WW II? - JZ, n.d. - Oddly enough, in the USA, with inflated money, credits are now granted at as low and even lower interest rates. If the opponents of interest were right, this would lead to a boom economy. But it was exactly loans at very low interest rates for housing loans to people unable to repay loans, that started off the current crisis in the U.S.A. The notion of Maynard Keynes, that one could thus “pump-prime” the economy still prevails, like numerous other popular but false spleens, errors and prejudices, false premises and conclusions. – JZ, 17.2.09. 

MONEY: Cash: The poor man's credit card.” - U.S. saying. - Actually, a number of sellers do now prefer it when you pay them by cheque or credit card. - JZ, 23.7.97. – Mostly that seems to be due to fear of robberies. They want to keep as little cash as possible on their premises. – JZ, 17.2.09. - CASH

MONEY: Competitive monetization of ready-for-sale and wanted consumer goods and services, as well as offers of productive labor. Ever newly issued, as required, and cancelled after their reflux and redemption in these values. Just like the ever-new goods, services and labors - produced and used up. – JZ, 6.5.05, 23.10.07. - MONETARY FREEDOM, TICKET MONEY, GOODS WARRANTS, SERVICE VOUCHERS IN MONEY DENOMINATIONS, ISSUED BY THE SUPPLIERS OF GOODS & SERVICES

MONEY: Different kinds for different payment spheres. Almost any payment sphere in which regularly many payments have to be made and are received, has the potential for the issue, use and reflux of its own kind of sound, optional, market rated and refusable, competitive, private or cooperatively issued money, using one or the other and self-selected sound value standard for these money notes and the prices or charges involved . – One of the many sound observations on money made by Ulrich von Beckerath, 1882-1969, expressed in my own terms. - JZ, 16.9.08. - MONETARY FREEDOM, PRIVATE PAYMENT SPHERES

MONEY: Does a population have informed consent when that population is not taught the inner workings of its monetary system and then is drawn, all unknowing, into economic adventures?” - Frank Herbert, The Dosadi Experiment, GALAXY, 7/77, p.68 - From: The Trial of Trials – Under full monetary freedom, an education on money would be automatic and thorough. Under monetary despotism people mostly only learn that it gets inflated, deflated or stagflated and leads from one crisis to another, just like most territorial governments do, except the very smallest. – JZ, 8.2.09. - MONETARY EMANCIPATION VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, CONSENT, MONETARY IGNORANCE & ENLIGHTENMENT

MONEY: Enormous: The difference between a little money and - no money.” - "Hello, Dolly!" - Even if one still owns money, the difference can be felt if one e.g. goes shopping and has managed to forget one's purse or wallet with a credit card. - JZ, 21.12.07. - & THE ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: Even as in transactions between nationals every purchase is ultimately liquidated with another purchase, every sale calls for another sale, so must international transactions be likewise balanced. Minnesota cannot sell flour to New York unless it buys New York clothing in return, and Detroit cannot sell automobiles to Argentina unless it is willing to accept payment in either Argentine beef or in some commodity from a third country which has acquired our claim on Argentine beef. That is primary. And yet, our mad primitive isolationism has blinded us to this basic fact of all business. - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, p.352. – Money is, essentially, a very useful clearing certificate! Which is also a medium of exchange. – JZ, 31.10.08, 8.2.09. – CLEARING, INTERNAL & INTERNATIONAL, FREE TRADE

MONEY: Even to the wisest of men those people, who bring money, are more welcome than those which come to collect it.” – Lichtenberg, Vermischte Schriften, 2, 2, Bemerkungen vermischten Inhalts, 5.

MONEY: Ever noticed that when someone says: "It's only money", it's usually our money he's talking about?” - Al Bernstein, READER’S DIGEST., 6/77. - ONLY MONEY?

MONEY: Everything else can satisfy only one wish, one need; ... Money alone is absolutely good, because it is not only a concrete satisfaction of one need in particular; it is an abstract satisfaction of all.” - Arthur Schopenhauer, Aphorismen zur Lebensweisheit, translated by T. Bailey Saunders. - He was lucky to live in that century in Germany which had no inflation, from the Napoleonic Wars to WW I. - As a philosopher he should have distinguished between good money and bad money, forced currency and optional currency, mismanaged currency and self-managed currency, kept well within its natural limits. - JZ, 23.3.97. . – It hasn’t brought us immortality yet. The monies of monetary freedom might have. – JZ, 31.10.08.

MONEY: Falling short of money" should, perhaps, be reworded: "money is falling short of you!" or: “Money is being hoarded before it reaches you.” - JZ, 14.8.81, 21.12.07. - Under full monetary freedom any amount of hoarded money could be rapidly replaced by new issues, at least in all areas that are not devastated by man-made or natural catastrophes. Just like a stock of tickets for coming-up performances, which has accidentally been destroyed, could be rapidly replaced by an order to an instant print shop. Ticket money is not a bad term to describe the character and potential of the money of monetary freedom. - JZ, 21.12.07. – HOARDING, MONEY SHORTAGES, DEFLATION

MONEY: Fight thou with shafts of silver and thou shalt conquer all things.” - Response of the Delphian Oracle to Philip of Macedon, when he asked how he might be victorious in war. - (Plutarch, Apothegms.) – Oracles may be vague. Reformers and peace lovers should not be: E.g: Pay deserters from dictators for their weapons. See to it that they are soon fully and productively employed and correspondingly paid - and the conscript armies of dictators would largely dissolve, with their men and women becoming neutrals or even your allies. – Also put a price on they head of their and our common enemy! – Bribe his generals! – It’s much cheaper and effective than fighting them! – Further: do offer them and their soldiers and all the civilians quite rightful war and peace aims, too, including more freedom, rights and opportunities than they so far dared to dream of! - JZ, 31.10.08, 7.1.11. – DESERTION, PRISONERS OF WAR, LIBERATION, WAR AIMS, FINANCING DEFENCE, LIBERATION & REVOLUTION, GOVERNMENTS & SOCIETIES IN EXILE AS ALLIES

MONEY: Geld" in German. The old German way of spelling "Geld" (money) was "Gelte", which refers to the description "es gelte" meaning "it is valid". - JZ, 5.4.85. - It left open whether a money is valid as a monopoly money or forced and exclusive currency or because it is valid, of full value, under free market conditions. Even today the difference is not widely enough noticed. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: God how I hate money – or rather the lack of it.  – Wilbur Smith, They Eye of the Tiger, a Mandarin Paperback, 1992-96, p.12. - ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: Good money can come only from self-interest, not from benevolence.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.100. - One thing is certain, governments are less likely to recognize their long-term self-interest in the monetary sphere than businessmen are. When, like politicians usually do, they have their eyes mainly on the next election returns, and these are based on ignorance and prejudices, then facts and truths will rarely influence them enough to act rightly and sensibly, regardless of the votes they can thereby win or lose. - They rather provide a multitude of band-aids and bandages for the multitude of wounds they have caused and are still causing by their monetary despotism. - JZ, 23.3.97. – How many of the writers on monetary freedom wrote only from self-interest and not from benevolence? Most were not even paid for such writings. – Some published them at their own expense. – However, most of the future free issuers or alternative monies will act from self-interest rather than from benevolence. It will pay them to be able to pay with their own money! - JZ, 17.2.09, 7.1.11. - GOOD MONEY, BENEVOLENCE & SELF-INTEREST

MONEY: Good money is not impossible. It is merely outlawed. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: Government prints money and trouble. - D.Z., 2.4.82. - The printing of money does not do much harm but forcing it into circulation, via legal tender legislation and an issue monopoly, does, as soon as that amount is exceeded which, under free market rating and under competition from other currencies, would still be accepted at par. - JZ, 22.3.97. – When government monopolizes such printing and gives the product legal tender power. – JZ, 2.1.08. - The other troubles that it causes with its printing, is the publication of its laws. If they all remained unpublished then they would be all the more easily to ignore all or most of them. – JZ, 20.1.08. - Whenever it prints the monopolistic and forced currency of monetary despotism and outlaws competitively supplied alternative exchange media and value standards! – JZ, 31.10.08.

MONEY: Governments everywhere have shown they cannot be trusted with the creation of money.” - H. B. Every, PROGRESS, Melbourne, 9/76. - A fact which F. A. Hayek did not clearly enough state until 1975. - What governments do is never a creative act but always a destructive, preventative or distorting, at least a dishonest act, by being "financed" through taxation, inflation, forced loans or by selling certificates on the enslavement of future taxpayers. - JZ, 23.3.97. - & GOVERNMENTS

MONEY: Governments firstly impose their paper money upon us. Then they confiscate much of what we earn or own in this form via their tribute gathering and then they make the rest slowly to fast melt away via their paper money inflations of their legal tender forced currencies. Moreover, they do not permit us to drive out its inferior exchange medium and value standard by better ones, freely produced or chosen by ourselves and to refuse to pay them the tributes they demand and to opt out from their despotic and abusive territorial systems, with compulsory membership and subordination. – JZ, 8.12.05. – A well-organized tax strike, especially if it is combined with a refusal to accept their paper money and a monetary and currency revolution to provide ourselves with sound exchange media, could come to defeat them quite non-violently. The tax strikers should take over the payment of e.g. policemen and soldiers, rather than threatening their livelihood. – JZ, 24.10.07, 7.1.11. - GOVERNMENT, INFLATION & TAXATION, TAX STRIKE, REFUSALS TO ACCEPT GOVERNMENT MONEY, LEGAL TENDER

MONEY: He that is of (*) opinion (**) money will do every thing, may well be suspected of doing every thing for money." - Poor Richard, 1753. – Another and older version: "They who are of the opinion that money will do everything, may very well be suspected to do everything for money." - George Savile, Lord Halifax, 1633-1695. – (*) the?- (*) that? – JZ - CORRUPTION, ECONOMIC POWER & BIG BUSINESS

MONEY: He was against the money-god and all his swinish priesthood.” – George Orwell, Keep the Apidistra Flying, p.604 in the Octopus/Heineman edition of 1980. – I cannot take those people serious, who write or talk about “money” without distinguishing between the monies of monetary despotism and those of monetary freedom. Only the latter do maximize free exchanges between human beings and are thus beneficial rather than creating problems and crises. – JZ, 6.10.13.

MONEY: He who has money has in his pocket those who have none.” – Lyof N. Tolstoy, Money, 1895. - ABILITY TO PAY VS. INABILITY TO PAY, MONOPOLY MONEY

MONEY: His concept of money as the economic catalyst.” - H. G. Pearce, in PROGRESS, 3/76, on Henry George.

MONEY: Honest money is the best policy.” - Michael Pilch, Saving for Retirement, in: "Down With the Poor", p.79. - Even honest or sound money is also needed in the quantities necessary for all possible, needed and desired exchanges. No exclusive currency can always and everywhere supply that service. The gold-bugs still overlook that fact. - JZ, 7.1.11. - HONESTY, SOUND MONEY, GOLD STANDARD AS EXCLUSIVE CURRENCY

MONEY: how 'money as energy' disrupts established political orders and fosters choice, cooperation, and even life - as opposed to political coercion and the warrior code of death.” - FREEDOM NETWORK NEWS, ON 1999 ISIL Conference, tape of Christian Michel, Producers vs. Warriors. - Did he make a distinction between the money of monetary freedom and that of monetary despotism? - JZ, 3.2.02. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: How can you have any fun when you’ve got no money? … Of course it all comes back to money. - George Orwell, Keep the Apidistra Flying, p.647/48 in the Octopus/Heineman edition of 1980. – No monopoly money – while the sufficiently and in free competition even abundantly supplied sound monies remain outlawed. – Freedom is leisure! – said G. B. Shaw. At least the unemployed do have this in abundance. Not all leisure activities cost money. Serious thinking about cause of and cure for involuntary unemployment does not cost money, either but might lead to the production and spread of sound alternative monies corresponding to one’s own productivity. - JZ, 21.9.13, 6.10.13. - FUN

MONEY: I cannot afford to waste my time making money.’ - Agassiz, when offered a large sum for a course of lectures at a western college.” - Whipple, Recollections of Eminent Men. - I find myself in the same position when I try to promote monetary freedom, as long as there is no freedom for monetary experiments. - JZ 7.4.85. - Making "a lot of money" or "more money" than one really needs for one's commitments, would be more correct. Moreover, lectures are such a fleeting product - the memories of the relatively few listeners being so bad and their comprehension so often insufficient. It would be more worthwhile to have them permanently recorded on audio- or video-tape and transcribed on microfiche, floppy disks, text CD-ROMs etc. and thus permanently available to an unlimited number of interested people upon demand. (*) Appearance in a conventional book is usually too expensive and limited, too. - So far no amount of money can buy a doubled or tenfold increased life-span. One's remaining hours, days and years are still the scarcest “currencies”. What are all riches besides them? - JZ, 23.3.97. - - (*) But even that is not yet sufficiently organized. – JZ, 20.1.08.

MONEY: I don't know what money is today, and I don't think anybody at the Fed does either.” - Richard Pratt, Chairman of the Board of the Federal Home Loan Bank, 1982. –– Let everybody try to define, issue and accept his own kind of money. But let everybody also be free to refuse to accept and to discount that of others. As a result only sound enough currencies would survive. Good monies would drive out the bad ones and we would finally learn, from practical experience, what good money is and what it requires. – JZ, 8.8.08. – MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS, CENTRAL BANKING, IGNORANCE ON MONEY, JOKES, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: I don't like money, actually, but it quiets my nerves.” - Joe Louis, b.1914.

MONEY: I have almost always been more interested in understanding money and trying to put my limited understanding into clear enough words than in making money. Or, rather, in understanding State paper money and the private and cooperative alternatives to it well enough so that I, in association with like-minded people, could finally come to make my own or our own money, with or without government permission, in something like a monetary revolution. But the enlightenment required for this is still very far from being achieved. Sufficient correct information on the subject has not yet been assembled and made readily and clearly enough accessible to anyone interested. - JZ, 25.11.83, 21.12.07.

MONEY: I have always found it useful to explain to students that it has been rather a misfortune that we describe money by a noun, and that it would be more helpful for the explanation of monetary phenomena if "money" were an adjective describing a property, which different things could possess to varying DEGREES. ... "Currency" is, for this reason, more appropriate, since objects can "have currency" to varying degrees and through different regions or sectors of the population.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.47. - If one considers as money only a legal tender currency then one can also describe the various degrees to which it can have legal tender, as has, to some extent been attempted in Peace Plans No.19a. - JZ – How come that so many people consider an exclusive and forced currency as the only possible or sound currency? – JZ 2.1.08.

MONEY: I must deny the statement that "money is an information system we use to deploy human effort." (Michael Linton, LETS). – “We use money to CONVEY OWNERSHIP & owners deploy human effort. The statement that textbook definitions tell what money DOES, not what it IS, while Michael's tells what it IS, is not clear. A shovel IS a digging instrument because it is used to dig with. The IS category depends on the doing. The same with money. - But what information does money convey? Some say the essential feature of money is that it is a generalized credit- instrument. In that case the information is a claim of ownership. But of what and how much? - Don Werkheiser to Tom Greco, Aug. 6, 1986, p.2. - I find that general "definition" as useless as another all too general one: "Money is property." - Property owners, from shop owners to land owners or car owners, would strongly disagree, while they vainly try to sell their properties for money. And so would unemployed, who rightfully own their labor power, skills and willingness to work. - JZ, 8.9.02. - DEFINITION

MONEY: I suppose there is not a man in the world who, when he becomes a knave for a thousand thalers, would not rather have remained honest for half the money.” – G. C. Lichtenberg, Reflections, 1799. – Recruitment for standing armies of territorial governments has not ceased. Too many people want some regular income security more than freedom, even when it is achievable, for a while, only through military serfdom, in which one has to risk life and limbs. – JZ, 17.2.09.

MONEY: I would extend your definition of money a bit by saying that money indicates the existence of incomplete transactions and that it is a means of deferring transactions to the future. In other words, money is a convenient form to store labour or resources in until they are wanted for trade." - Mike Gunderloy, in THE CONNECTION 111, p.36 of 16 April 83, to PYRRHO. - For those who largely live a hand-to mouth existence, the storage period is a very short one. They want to buy today's bread, milk, butter, honey, meat and cigarettes with it. Or, if they shop only once a week, filling their shopping cart with it during their next weekly shopping trip. They would also want to pay their rent or mortgage, current electricity, gas- and telephone bills with it and pay their transport costs. Such transactions might involve not only one but several local currencies. Should they be able to save something, beyond their current consumption expenditures, they want to be able to use that currency, at par, to buy e.g. a bearer bond, share or fixed term deposit or mortgage letter with it, all, hopefully, with a value preserving clause in it. The times that people can think only of saving by hoarding cash should finally come to an end, as far as any amounts are concerned that go beyond any reasonable cash stock for unforeseen and sudden expenditures are concerned. Even these can now be mostly kept in e.g. a check account, or substituted for by a credit card contract. - In other words, there are many substitutes for saving and value preservation that go beyond currency holdings. But there are all too few quite free alternatives to using cash or cash claims as media of exchange. Money ought to be especially liberated and become competitive in this respect, in the first place. For their immediate or near future spending requirements even the paper money of governments is mostly good enough, although it is almost constantly depreciated by over-issues. Liberation from this as monopoly money is the first step. Liberation from its “value standard” as a forced and exclusive currency is the second step, not as urgent, in most instances, as the first. The first ends the government currency as an exclusive currency, as monopoly money, with the compulsory aspect of legal tender, namely its compulsory acceptance. The second step ends its exclusive “value standard”, a forced and fictitious one, the other aspect of legal tender. - JZ, 15.5.97, 5.11.13. -DEFINITION

MONEY: If “your” money is really your money, issued and accepted by yourself and those associated with you for this purpose, then it will serve you and them well, much better than any government’s exclusive and forced currency could, which serves mainly only the interests of the government or its privileged central bank. – JZ, 5.4.95, 6.10.08 – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: If e.g. the football, golf, tennis etc. crowds familiarized themselves to a minimum degree with the nature of money, we would not have unemployment and inflation. - JZ, 2.3.79. - It would cost them only a fraction of the time, effort and money they do now spend on sports. - JZ, 23.3.97. - INTEREST IN MONETARY THEORY & PRACTICE

MONEY: If making money is a slow process, using it is quickly done.” - Ihara Saikaku. - Making, i.e., producing your own kind of money, can be a very fast process, too. And it would also make certain that your own money would tend to flow back to you, rather fast, to pay debts to you and to pay you for your goods and services. - JZ, 13.10.02. - MAKING & SPENDING OF MONEY

MONEY: If money is your hope for independence you will never have it. The only real security that a man will have in this world is a reserve of knowledge, experience, and ability.” - Henry Ford. – Especially if it is merely the money of monetary despotism. – JZ, 23.1.08. – However, if you are free to issue your own kind of money or clearing certificates or clearing account, then this would not only increase your ability to pay and your earnings potential, but also your independence and security. Naturally, such issues and their sound reflux arrangements are also requiring sufficient knowledge, experience and ability. – But even this important freedom and opportunity is not a sufficient substitute for individual secessionism from all of  territorial statism and for personal law societies, communities and governance systems as alternatives to it. It is just one important aspect of the liberty or right. – JZ, 5.11.13. - IS STILL NO GUARANTY FOR INDEPENDENCE

MONEY: If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issuance of their currency, first by inflation and then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all their property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.” - Attributed to Thomas Jefferson. Although Jefferson was opposed to paper money, this quotation is obviously spurious. - Inflation was listed in Webster's dictionary of 1864, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, but the OED gives 1920 as the earliest use of deflation. – Private note-issuing banks should, obviously, only be free to control the issues of their own notes and in this they will be greatly helped by the freedom of the potential acceptors of their notes to refuse or to discount them, also by the clearing of their notes with other banks of issue and by full publicity about all note issues. – I know, some people consider certain central banks to be merely private banks! – But private banks cannot pass and uphold the laws of monetary despotism. - JZ, 17.2.09. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, BANKING PRIVILEGES & MONOPOLY VS. FREE BANKING & MONETARY FREEDOM, DIS.

MONEY: If the economists could satisfactorily solve the problem of the regulation of paper currency, they would do more for the wages class than could be accomplished by all the artificial doctrines about wages which they seem to feel bound to encourage.” - W. G. Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other, p.139. - Actually, I can't think of a single case which economists, by their theorizing and observations and by their influence upon public opinion have ever permanently solved. Collectively, they are part of the problem rather than the solution. Luckily, there are at least some real economists among them, who understand the economics of freedom. The others are only advisers on the regulation or management of economic despotism - and thus helped to cause or maintain rather than solve problems. - Paper currencies do not need governmental regulation but, rather self-management, by issuers and potential acceptors. - JZ, 23.3.97. - Only the attempts to “regulate” money creates problems. Monetary freedom does not. – JZ, 2.1.08. . – The “regulation” of paper money issues should take place only through market forces, here implying competitive issues, agreed-upon value standards and a variety of exchange media and clearing certificates and accounts, all subject to discounts by voluntary acceptors or even total refusals to accept them. Then and only under such conditions, also under full publicity for all their details, the private and official money issues (of tax foundation money) will regulate themselves. – JZ, 8.2.09. - PAPER MONEY, SOUND CURRENCY, DIS.

MONEY: If there is a shortage in ready cash then there is a shortage in everything.” - (Deficiente pecu, deficit omne, nia.) (Mangelt im Beutel die Baarschaft - mangelt's an jeglichem.  - Rabelais, Gargantua & Pantagruel, III, p.41. Another English version: If you are short of money you are short of everything. - Almost everything. – JZ, 8.2.09.

MONEY: If you make money your god, it will plague you like the devil.” - Henry Fielding. - But if you issue good money it will help you like a faithful friend. - JZ, 13.10.02. - It quite depends upon whether you make the "gods" of monetary despotism or the free spirits of monetary freedom your "gods". - JZ, 26.11.02.

MONEY: If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some.” - Benjamin Franklin. - Sound and competitive money would not be so scarce and expensive that it would be hard to borrow it for productive purposes. - JZ, 13.10.02. - VALUE, CREDIT

MONEY: ignorance of the indispensable role money plays in making possible the extended order of human cooperation and general calculation in market values. Money is indispensable for extending reciprocal cooperation beyond the limits of human awareness - and therefore also beyond the limits of what was explicable and could be readily recognised as expanding opportunities." - F. A. HAYEK, The Fatal Conceit, p.104. - & HUMAN COOPERATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM, IMPORTANCE OF MONEY, PEACE, WAR, REVOLUTIONS, CIVIL WARS, OPPRESSIONS, DICTATORSHIPS, UNEMPLOYMENT, CRISES, DEFLATIONS, INFLATIONS, NAZIS, HITLER REGIME, TOTALITARIANISM.

MONEY: In her wordless feminine way she knew that the sin against money is the ultimate sin. – Women know instinctually or through common sense that those, who in our times to not make enough money are certainly not good providers for her offspring. But they, too, do not sufficiently distinguish between making, taking and faking money and do not ponder sufficiently on how sound and sufficient money or other free and honest exchange options can be provided to replace the often deteriorated or insufficiently supplied monopoly monies or forced national currencies. – JZ, 6.10.13.   

MONEY: In the hands of governments, money, as an exclusive means of payment and value standard, has become, like fire, a dangerous master, instead of becoming, as it would, under full monetary freedom, one of his most useful and faithful tools or servants. - JZ, 24.6.97, 14.4.97. – MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: In view of their (60 year) record, can governments be trusted to keep any money which the politicians have the power to tamper with?” - Henry Hazlitt: To Stop Inflation: Return to Gold, p.19. - Politicians are usually better at taking or faking money (legally or illegally) and spending it than keeping it stable and also in sufficient supply. And they abide usually by a "gentlemen's" agreement that lets each of them keep the loot they were able to put aside for themselves. - JZ, 23.3.97, 7.1.11. - Putin, as has been mentioned in Australian newspapers, is supposed to have put aside for himself over US $ 40 billion! – JZ, 20.1.08. - Beware not to return to the gold cover and redemption standard and exclusive and forced currency, but, rather, to the gold-weight clearing or accounting standard, then only partly practised here and there for some time, now to be permitted generally as an option, internally and externally, in free competition with all other kinds of exchange media and clearing certificates and value standards, with convertibility confined to the free gold markets. – JZ 31.10.08, 7.1.11. – The gold redemption currency will not win that competition because of the inherent costs involved in it. Also because of its inherent limitations in the supply of exchange media, i.e. and volume limit. All exchanges should not be confined to those made possible with it. – It was always wrong to assume that a shop currency like redeemable gold certificates, with which only a single commodity could be bought, from its issuer, could ever be a sufficient substitute for all the other shop currencies, with which all the millions of diverse consumer goods and services, including labour, all being offered in ever greater numbers, varieties, qualities and quantities, by their issuers in their shop currencies, more than covered by their wanted goods, services and labour offers, could ever be mediated by such an exclusive rare metal currency. Naturally, as an optional value standard instead of an exclusive exchange medium, it could serve for the free exchange of all goods, services and labour offered, if all people wanted to use it, although it would be in free competition with all other value standards that people could choose for their transactions. What bugs me about the “gold bugs” is that they managed to overlook this important distinction for so long. – They also overlooked that a complete clearing system would not need any physical exchange media at all, for all its exchanges and merely might use, optionally, a certain gold weight units as its value standard. - JZ, 8.2.09, 6.11.13. . – SHOP FOUNDATION, GOLD BUGS, REDEEMABLE GOLD CERTIFICATES AS AN ALL TOO LIMITED SHOP CURRENCY- WHEN COMPARED WITH ALL OTHER SOUND SHOP CURRENCIES THAT ARE POSSIBLE & DESIRABLE & THE QUANTITY OF SUCH TICKET MONIES OR FREE MARKET CURRENCIES THAT COULD BE SOUNDLY ISSUED, COVERED & REDEEMED.

MONEY: Increased velocity of circulation of money may mean only that the country is producing and consuming more: it has no automatic effect on prices.” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 5/78. –– The same could be said for an increase in the quantity of sound exchange media, competitively supplied, in circulation, i.e. money still using a sound value standard and standing at par with it, representing e.g. a greater quantity of goods and services that are ready for sale to a greater number of customers. – JZ, 20.1.08. - The only effect it has on prices is that a) it prevents their nominal inflation and also b) that it prevents deflation and its emergency sales prices. – Both, inflation and deflation require monopoly money and legal tender power. Without them one can neither inflate nor deflate the general price level expressed in any sound value standard. - JZ, 31.1.08, 8.2.09, 6.11.13. - CIRCULATION & PRICES, CIRCULATION SPEED, INFLATION, DEFLATION, ISSUE MONOPOLY, LEGAL TENDER POWER, CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY: Inflation is due to additional money issues.” - If additional money issues merely ended a deflation and facilitated the exchange of all ready for sale goods, services and labor, then the effect might be a growth of sales at prices back from emergency or deflated prices to normal free market prices - but this would, obviously, not be inflationary and an inflationary rise of prices. - What kind of money? Monopoly game money, obviously, has no effect on the general price level. Nor has casino or prison money. - How come additional money suddenly "appears". Is there no issuer for it? - Why can he impose his additional money upon us? Why do we have to accept additional inflated money and are not free to refuse it, discount it or substitute our own competitively issued sound currencies for it? Why are we not free to adopt alternative and sound value standards that we trust, in our prices, contracts, wage agreements and discount the government's inflated paper currency against them, so that this paper money can no longer inflate our prices and wages? – Can one inflate all prices without a money issue monopoly and legal tender for this kind of “money”? – If more seats or performances can be offered for ticket monies, offered in greater quantities, then the price for these “seats” or performances would even tend to go down. Most statements on money deserve at least to be questioned, if not soundly refutated. - People so eager to acquire more "money" should bother to inquire much more into its nature and possibilities instead of considering only the monies of monetary despotism. – JZ, n.d. & 16.2.09, 6.11.13. – INFLATION

MONEY: It don't bring happiness but it makes being miserable easier.” - George G. Gilman, Edge - Blood on Silver, p.108. - It don't buy no happiness, but it makes misery a little more comfortable.” - George G. Gilman, Edge: Vengeance Valley, p.95. – Ibid: It don't buy no happiness ...but it makes misery a little more comfortable.” & HAPPINESS

MONEY: It is not money, as is sometimes said, but the depreciation  of money - the cruel and crafty destruction of money - that is the root of many evils. (*) It destroys individual thrift and self-reliance as it gradually erodes personal savings. It benefits debtors at the expense of creditors as it silently transfers wealth and income from the latter to the former. It generates the business cycles, the stop-and-go, boom-and-bust movements of business that inflict incalculable harm on millions of people. For money is not only the medium for all economic exchanges, but as such also the lifeblood of the economy. When money suffers depreciations and devaluations, it invites government price and wage controls, compulsory distribution through official allocation and rationing, restrictive quotas on imports, rising tariffs and surcharges, prohibition of foreign travel and investment, and many other government restrictions on individual activities.” – Dr. Hans F. Sennholz: Inflation or Goldstandard? Chapter: What Inflation Is. – (*) or the scarcity of money, due to deflations and these are due to the issue monopoly. It is also the root of many evils. - JZ, 22.3.97. - THE ROOT OF ALL EVILS? INFLATION & DEFLATION

MONEY: It is physically impossible for a well-educated, intellectual, or brave man to make money the chief object of his thoughts.” - John Ruskin. - Thinking about sound money, competitively supplied, should be the chief object of many good minds, until it is finally achieved and has become customary. - JZ, 13.10.02. - & MONETARY FREEDOM, DIS., "GREED". "MONEY-GRUBBING"

MONEY: It is probably impossible for pieces of paper or other tokens of a material itself of no significant market value to come to be gradually accepted and held as money unless they represent a claim on some valuable object. (*) To be accepted as money, they must at first derive their value from another source, such as their convertibility into another kind of money. (**) In consequence, gold and silver, or claims for them, remained for a long time the only kinds of money between which there could be any competition; (***) and, since the sharp fall in its value in the 19th century, even silver ceased to be a serious competitor to gold.” (****) – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.24/25. - Here he ignores among other things the extensive and prolonged use of copper weight units or taels in China, with which for centuries they measured, rather soundly, a great variety of depreciating currencies then also existing. Apart from this large and prolonged instance, look up any good guide to private token and emergency money issues. - (*) The object might be merely the extinction of a debt, like a tax debt or insurance premium debt. – (**) Convertibility of a local shop currency into wanted consumer goods and services, locally offered, is good enough. However, they should also be convertible into rare metals, not by their issuers but in the rare metal market, should this really be desired. Australian store currencies, for instance, provide no claims to rare metals. – They are “only” convertible into wanted goods and services, of an enormous variety up to the nominal value of the notes held and in accordance with his choice! In the following he ignores that theoretical possibility and its extensive, although not universal practice under the remaining monetary despotism - and the prevailing monetary ignorance and prejudices. - (***) Not out of necessity but because of lack of imagination. Chinese street money, not granting metal redemption claims but only goods or services at metal values, existed already ca. 1200 A.D. and was often made out of wood or bamboo tablets. - The prolonged and extensive practice of trader’s token money, in many countries, did also offer only redemption in goods and services. - (****) Silver weight units could be "revived" as an optional value standard but only in form of a parallel currency, that would make further price fluctuations of silver against gold rather harmless. - A value standard does not have to be perfect to be good enough for those, who adopted it and as long as they do. - JZ 7.4.85, 23.3.97, 17.2.09, 6.11.13.

MONEY: It is the love of money - not money itself - which is "the root of evil, ...” - Samuel Smiles, Self-help, p. 364. – One should distinguish the mad rush for the only money now available, that of monetary despotism from the much purer and even liberating love of the money of monetary freedom. Otherwise one does not distinguish between good and evil in this sphere. Even Smiles did not advocate self-help money issues and self-help alternative value standard contracts. - JZ, 23.3.97. - Love of forced and exclusive currencies should be distinguished from love of the monies of monetary freedom just like rape and making love should be distinguished. – There are no good reasons for loving the money of monetary despotism but good ones for loving those of monetary freedom, including its clearing certificates and clearing accounts. - JZ, 31.10.08, 8.2.09. – With money as with love one should rather be discriminating. – JZ, 19.2.09. - LOVE OF MONEY

MONEY: It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning.” – Henry Ford - BANKING & POPULAR PREJUDICES ON THE SUBJECT, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONOPOLY MONEY

MONEY: It means what money has always meant. A measure of performance. A symptom of mismanagement.” - Sam Nicholson, Scrooge in Space, ANALOG 8/80, p.68. – Its wide-spread and prolonged mismanagement is only possible under monetary despotism: the issue monopoly, the value standard monopoly, combined with legal tender power. – JZ, 20.1.08. - There exists an inflation of wrong ideas, principles, opinions and observations on money, depreciating all of them, but not yet enough to lead to their repudiation and an enlightened enough public or even scholarly opinion on money - JZ, 8.1.11.

MONEY: It must be capable of negotiating all kinds of exchanges. - It must be universally acceptable.” - Popular opinion, sometimes even expressed by "experts". - In fact, not a single currency, not even gold coins, is universally accepted or ever was. - In practice it is sufficient when an exchange medium is acceptable at par among the members of a private or cooperative local payment community. - This it has in common with any other goods and service. They do not have to be universally accepted, either, but just by their customers. What is true about any kind of money is that it tends to be much more widely acceptable than most goods and services are. On the other hand, a popular newspaper might have a wider acceptance, very temporarily, among a wider circle of people, spread over a larger area. But each of these issues is likely to end up in the scrap or a recycling bin within hours to days at most, perhaps after not changing hands at all during its short issue and circulation period or validity, before it becomes outdated, like a morning paper is in the evening or next day. - Money is so varied that no definition seems to cover all of its types. - Would you know of a definition of "goods" or "services" that would cover all cases? - JZ, 2.7.91, 12.4.97. - Even values have turned out to be essentially subjective. – JZ, 20.1.08. - UNIVERSAL ACCEPTANCE REQUIRED? SUBJECTIVE VALUE THEORY

MONEY: It represents goods and services and its function is to facilitate the interchange of goods and services between individuals and peoples.” - Ernest Benn, Honest Doubt, p.32/33. - That would be true of the monies of monetary freedom. Alas, it is not true of the monies of monetary despotism. - JZ, 25.4.97. - DEFINITION ATTEMPTS

MONEY: It's different things to different people. Let them have their ways - for themselves! - JZ, 5.4.85, 8.1.11. – MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM

MONEY: It's not that money makes everything good; it's that no money makes everything bad.” - Yiddish Proverb. - One should distinguish between the money of monetary despotism and that of monetary freedom. Just like one should distinguish between despotic and free actions in all other spheres. – JZ, 31.10.08. - Only under monetary freedom can money make almost everything good and only under monetary despotism can money make almost everything bad. To use the term "money" for both, without distinctions, is misleading. At present all of us suffer directly or indirectly under the absence of the money of monetary freedom and often under too much or not enough of the monopolized and forced currency money of monetary despotism. - JZ, 23.3.97, 17.2.09, 8.1.11. - GOOD VS. EVIL, ABILITY TO PAY VS. INABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: labor cannot be free, unless each laborer is ... free to sell, wherever he can sell, all the products of his labor. Therefore, labor cannot be free, unless we have … freedom in money, and free trade with all mankind.” - Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.51, Works I.

MONEY: Lack of money is the root of all evil.” - George Bernard Shaw, Man and Superman. The Revolutionist's Handbook, Maxims for Revolutionists, 1905. - Alas, he never stood up for the competitive supply of sound currencies. - JZ, 27.8.02. – Lack of money, sound enough money, is usually the result of monetary despotism. Monetary despotism often supplies unsound money in abundance. Then it still causes major problems. Lack of the money of monetary freedom is rather the root of evils, not of all, but of many of them. – JZ, 8.12.07. - Even some very rich people committed crimes with victims. – And not all very poor people commit such crimes. - JZ, 20.1.08. - This "revolutionary" never considered the monies of monetary freedom! – JZ, 31.10.08. - Another version: “Lack of money. The root of all evil.” - LACK OF MONEY

MONEY: Lack of money is trouble without equal.” - (Faute d'argent, c'est douleur sans pareille.) - Rabelais, Works, Bk. ii, ch.16. - LACK OF IT, INABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: Land is, alone, an unfit fund for a bank circulation. - Alexander Hamilton, in his report calling for a national bank in 1790. - A bank can  do either or both, circulate a) a currency, with a current value for ready for sale goods and services, upon which it is as directly based as is possible and desirable and b) financial securities, that within financial circles are freely transferable (but only within them!) and help to mobilize financial or productive assets. - Only the produce of land, once it is ready for sale, can provide a good cover for currency in the hands of consumers. Only to that extent can farmers liquidify their assets in form of their own kind of ready cash. But they should also be free to issue and circulate e.g. their own mortgage bonds and establish a proper market for them among all other financial securities. Governments have all too much neglected or even outlawed this kind of credit option for them. - JZ, 23.3.97. – Medium- and long-term government securities or, rather, insecurities or “investments” in tax slaves, are even worse as a backing for the issue of paper money! – JZ, 31.10.08. - ASSET CURRENCIES, LAND BANKS

MONEY: Let me give you a tip on a clue to men's characters: the man who damns money has obtained it dishonorably; the man who respects it has earned it.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.389. - The man who damns the money of monetary despotism knows enough about it to condemn it and the man who respects the money of monetary despotism may not have earned it honestly. On the other hand, the man who damns the money of monetary freedom does not know what he is talking about and only the one who respects it has the right to earn it. - Ayn Rand always appealed to her readers to check her premises - but sometimes failed to do so herself, e.g. in her condemnation of competing governments, in her notion that only "romantic heroes" could run enterprises successfully and that enterprises must be run hierarchically. A book is still missing, as far as I know, that lists all her economic, philosophical and political errors and refutes them systematically. Those who do respect her truths should do this honorable thing towards her untruths and clear her writings of them, by corresponding comments or appendixes. Microfiche and CDs would have room for all of them. – Regarding money she went never beyond "the" gold standard, as far as I know. - JZ, 23.3.97. – The dishonest and coercive issuers of the money of monetary despotism do not condemn it but wrongly and irrationally praise it. – JZ, 31.10.08, 8.1.11. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: Let money be the servant, not the master.” - Quoted on radio, 22.10.76. - You can't do this for the money of monetary despotism. You can do it only for the money of monetary freedom. - JZ, 23.3.97. - Only with the competing monies of monetary freedom can we achieve that. – That of monetary despotism masters all too much of our lives. - JZ, 31.10.08, 8.1.11. – MONEY TO BE THE TOOL OR SERVANT INSTEAD OF MASTER

MONEY: Let us keep a firm grip upon our money, for without it the whole assembly of virtues are but as blades of grass.” – BHARTRIHARI, The Niti Sataka, c.625. – And yet most of these men making "wise" remarks about money – were considering only the money of monetary despotism, not that of monetary freedom. – We would be much less dependent upon money and much more able to pay our way if money were competitively supplied also, by ourselves and others – or if clearing options were fully utilized. – JZ, 13.12.07. – If one keeps holding on to it then one might as well not have any. – "You can't take it with you" - Money is only good for spending it upon something else. A means of exchange, best a sound one and in sufficient supply for all wanted or needed exchanges and also honestly earned. - JZ, 18.2.09, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Machlup... speaks occasionally, e.g. (39) p 225, of "moneyness" and "near-moneyness". - Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, 47, footnote 2.

MONEY: Make money, not war.” - Slogan by the Peace and Freedom Caucus of SIL. - At least the German Government expressly prepared for the financing of WW I by introducing legal tender for its paper money, as demonstrated by the discussions in the German Bank Enquete of 1908, which led to the introduction of legal tender in 1909, in force from 1.1. 1910. There exists no voluntaristic way to finance an unpopular and aggressive war. It can only be financed through forced and exclusive currency and its inflation and through financial despotism. Taxes and public debts (investment in future tax slaves) reach their limits. Territorial governments or Warfare States "make" or rather order and get printed money (in form of forced and exclusive paper money, best called "requisitioning certificates") for their wars. - JZ, 23.3.97,8.1.11. – The competitive supply of sound monies would often have brought peace rather than the wars, which the money of monetary despotism has led us into. – JZ, 31.10.08. - WAR

MONEY: Man makes money and the money makes the man. - D.Z., 16.4.77. (At 13!) – Wrong for monetary despotism – but right, largely, for monetary freedom. – JZ, 31.10.08. – The money of monetary despotism makes for despotism and is an expression of it. It makes or maintains despots and is their "product". The money of monetary freedom can make men free and is the product of already somewhat free men and of the really free men of the future. It can be self-realizing. The more you manage to issue of it, the more free you might become, like with your other underground economy transactions, if you can manage to escape the oppressors and their penalties. - JZ, 23.3.97. - The money of monetary despotism deteriorates man and his institutions and relationships. – JZ, 20.2.09.

MONEY: Maybe it isn't everything, but it's a wonderful substitute.” - CHANGING TIMES.

MONEY: Money ... enables us to get what we want instead of what other people think we want.” - George Bernard Shaw, The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism. – Alas, he did not speak or write about the money of monetary freedom but merely that of State Socialism. Too much of our lives is spent upon hunting up still insufficient supplies of this monopoly money. Sound competing monies should be as readily available as various good enough toothbrushes, ball point pens and digital watches. – JZ, 26.12.07. It, too, would then be competitively produced and this in a sound enough form that it would be gladly accepted and could be readily used. – JZ, 18.2.09, 8.1.11. - DEFINITION, FUNCTION & PERSONAL INDEPENDENCE OR LIBERTY

MONEY: Money alone does not make one happy - one has to have it, too.” - Peter Gorf, Der Gruene Diktator, p.119. - It will almost always be easier to acquire money issued by oneself, alone or in association with others, than to gain monopoly money by struggling, together with many other victims of monetary despotism, to acquire enough of its for one’s needs or wants. - JZ, 7.9.02, 6.11.13. - ABILITY TO PAY VS. INABILITY TO PAY. – MONEY & ITS IMPORTANCE & HAPPINESS, JOKES, MONOPOLY MONEY, ABILITY TO PAY, JOKES

MONEY: Money alone sets all the world in motion.” – Publius Syrus, Moral Sayings, 1st. c. B.C., 656, tr. Darius Lyman. - Free and comprehensively used clearing could do the same and to a large extent it already does. – JZ, 13.12.07,

MONEY: Money amounts to coined out freedom of will.” – Dostojewski, Memoiren aus einem Totenhaus, Reclam, S.26. (Geld heisst so viel wie gepraegte Willensfreiheit.) – I would rather call it “purchasing power” or “ability to pay”. – One can also have much freedom without having much money. – In that case one will also be safer from tax collectors and private thieves. - JZ, 23.10.07. - & FREEDOM

MONEY: Money and intelligence pretty soon had little connection. Money and privilege, every unnatural link.” - Fay Weldon, Darcy’s Utopia, Collins, London, 1990, p.36. - But, have most “intelligent” people so far coped intelligently with the money issue monopoly and its forced currency nature? Or with other significant monopolies and coercive acts? – JZ, 18.9.07. - INTELLIGENCE & PRIVILEGE

MONEY: Money answereth all things.” - Old Testament, Ecclesiastes, x, 19. ( Pecuniae obediunt omnia. - Vulgate.) - Yes, provided one asks all the right questions about it. - Then one can come to understand it, liberate the monetary sphere and use it or free clearing as an almost all-purpose tool. - We are mastered by money instead of mastering it and turning it into our servant or ready tool. Despotic money spreads despotism everywhere. The money of freedom spreads freedom everywhere. Thus we should abolish the former and learn to master the latter. – Let good monies drive out the bad monies, especially that of the territorial State. - JZ, 6.7.82, 7.4.85, 23.3.97, 2.1.08, 8.2.09, 20.2.009. – As you can see from the dates, I am struggling to achieve better wordings but I am leaving the coinage of the best one to YOU! – JZ, 20.2.09.

MONEY: Money as a multilateral clearing facilitator needs neither an issue monopoly nor power and coercion to give it a value and stability. What it does need is freedom, competition, free contracts, free market rating of its current value, a sound enough value standard, a distinct appearance, issue in suitable denominations, a sound issue and reflux policy, sufficient publicity of the details of its issues and its reflux to the issuer and, always, ready acceptance by the issuer at 100 % of its nominal value, whenever anybody pays any debts to him with his money or purchases anything from him. - To make any private and competitive currency possible, it must either monetize something used or needed by almost everybody: water, gas, electricity or petrol, or a widely enough used transport facility or tax payment receipts, or a wide enough range of consumer goods and services must be offered to make it at least a locally widely used currency. Its value standard must also be simple enough and widely enough acceptable. – But it does not have to function as a permanent store of value. Its validity might be time-limited. Its main function is to achieve and assure current turnovers. - There are other means to achieve the value hoarding or preservation aim. - JZ, 7.11.98, 29.9.08. - CLEARING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, FINANCIAL ALTERNATIVES FOR SPARE CASH

MONEY: Money becomes evil not when it is used to buy goods but when it is used to buy power ... economic inequalities become evil when they are translated into political inequalities.” - Samuel Huntington, Political Scientist. Sent by C. B. – The money of monetary despotism is evil because of its monopolistic and coercive origin and administration, regardless for what it is spent. The money of monetary freedom is rightfully issued, accepted and withdrawn, after having done its job to promote free exchanges, regardless of what it was spent for. If power can be purchased then the fact that it can be purchased is evil, rather than the money used for this. – JZ, 27.12.07, 8.1.11. - & POWER

MONEY: Money can not only buy happiness, it can rent, lease, hire and charter it.” – Sign seen displayed in an office, probably in 1993. – JZ

MONEY: Money can’t buy happiness, but it can buy you the kind of misery you prefer.” - Dr. Laurence J. Peter, Peter’s Quotations, p.345. - & HAPPINESS, JOKES

MONEY: Money cannot be at the same time productively invested on medium or long terms and be, at the same time, immediately available to the depositors as ready cash or instantly refundable. At most that could be done to the extent that old loans are repaid and new deposits made. Only fixed deposits are repayable on time – provided the bank timed its loans well and the bank’s debtors did not fail – which often seems to happen when banks were not careful enough in the selection of their debtors. Both, the deposit and the loan conditions are long due for an overhaul, long avoided because of the monopolization and subsidization and regulation of the whole system by the State’s central bank, which is an embodiment of monetary and financial irresponsibility and leads to more irresponsible actions in the whole economy. – JZ, 29.7.08, 19.9.08, 8.1.11. - DEPOSIT BANKING, FINANCE, INVESTING, CAPITAL

MONEY: Money corrupts only the character which is already corrupted.” – Faure. (Geld verdirbt nur den Charakter, der bereits verdorben ist.) – I would rather say that monetary despotism does also promote corruption, while monetary freedom trends to reduce it and to promote honesty and sound characters. The government, with ist financial and monetary despotism ist he greatest robber and cheat and certainly does not set a good example to its subjects. - & CORRUPTION

MONEY: Money could and should be as abundantly offered as an exchange or clearing medium, as are the ready-for-sale and wanted consumer goods and services and useful labors, which could all be practically identical in volume with freely issued money tokens, mainly local shop currencies, service vouchers and clearing certificates, when they are issued upon these values, ready for sale and redeemable in them, immediately or within a short period, using agreed-upon value standards. – JZ, 6.5.05, 23.10.07, 6.11.13. - MONETARY FREEDOM, FREEDOM TO ISSUE & CLEAR

MONEY: Money could and should be based on anything that is in daily demand by many people and should be issued only by those ready to supply that daily demand. Only then could all goods, services and labor that are offered for sale readily be exchanged with each other, through the assistance of such exchange media or corresponding clearing channels. Only then could the crises caused by monetary despotism be prevented. – JZ, 15.8.98. – Each would, so to speak, issue tickets to what he has to offer and use them as exchange media towards others, whilst others would also be free to issue their tickets to what they are able and willing to perform and use them as exchange media towards him. In free competition with each other, subject to refusals to accept them and the possibility to accept them only at a discount, the better exchange media would tend to drive out the inferior ones but they would never become the only ones for all transaction and could themselves be driven out by still better ones. Just like in business the better firms take over the inferior ones. But this process never leads to a single monopoly business. On the contrary: The modern trend is to more and more decentralization, even within large enterprises. – JZ, 26.9.08, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Money distributes itself among the nations, relatively to the needs of each ... being attracted by the products.” - Le Trosne, quoted by Marx, Great Books of the Western World, S. 68. - Unless it is hoarded in central banks or otherwise. – A monopoly money or exclusive currency is never distributed evenly everywhere and at all times. (Compare the law of fluctuating gold quantities over periods of time. They are never equally distributed in all areas and countries and in all periods. That some automatic balancing does always take place cannot make up for this flaw, when it is an exclusive currency. If gold weight units are merely used as optional value standards then their local supply hardly matters. Then, wherever gold coins are located and freely traded, with the exchange rates sufficiently published, they could still serve everywhere as a good value standard for those, who prefer it. – JZ, 6.11.13.) The economy can only be saturated with sound exchange media and clearing certificates – everywhere to the amounts required - under full monetary freedom and its competitive supply, always measured against freely chosen value standards, just like the prices of goods, services and labour should be. - JZ, 31.10.08, 8.2.09, 6.11.13. - Under monetary freedom to issue one has not to depend upon a natural and even distribution of rare metals, which is only a strong tendency but not an immediate practice or requirement. This was once expressed as the "law of fluctuating gold quantities", occurring under the exclusive and redemptionist gold standard. But this was often disturbed through export or import prohibitions or restrictions, central bank hoardings, wars and revolutions, insecurity of highways and property, etc. If gold is not an exclusive currency then one does not depend on it, either. - JZ, 23.3.97. – Products and services are not the only distribution factors for money. There are inheritances, gifts, lottery wins and xyz other factors. – JZ, 17.2.09. (Not to speak of tax-tributes, government spending and private robberies, thefts and frauds. - JZ, 8.1.11, 6.11.13.) - The distribution of any exclusive currency is rather uneven. It also tends to get hoarded to excess. The money of monetary freedom is issued freely and competitively, in a decentralized way, whenever, wherever and to the extent that it is needed. It is thus much more evenly distributed and not hoarded to excess. – Much of it will be issued only in a temporary form, like tickets are. It will be accepted, passed on and then rapidly used by someone returning it to the issuer for its redemption in wanted consumer goods or services or labour or for receipts for the payment of other debts. Often its limited circulation period will be imprinted upon it. It obliges only the issuer and, by contract, his debtors. - JZ, 18.2.09. - As if the offer of goods, services and labour in each country were irrelevant and only its needs were important. It was typical for the "thinking" of Marx to quote this passage. Money has also to be produced, budgeted and circulated to be effective and will not automatically appear where it is needed to promote exchanges. It might be hoarded. Money does not walk or fly. Conditions of monetary despotism are different from those of monetary freedom. The needs of the beggar may be great but his hands may remain empty of it. - JZ, 8.1.11. – And he produces nothing that gives value to it. – JZ, 6.11.13. – HOARDING, MONETARY FREEDOM, DECENTRALIZATION, DISTRIBUTION OF IT, FREE TRADE, BALANCE OF PAYMENT, INTERNATIONAL LIQUIDITY, GOLD STANDARD, DIS.

MONEY: Money does not afford happiness unless you have got some.” - German proverb, quoted by Fluerscheim, Money-Island, p.52. - It will be much easier to obtain or issue the money of monetary freedom. Thus it will tend to spread more happiness and cause less unhappiness. - JZ, 4.5.97. – HAPPINESS, ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: Money does not pay for anything, never has, never will. It is an economic axiom as old as the hills that goods and services can be paid for only with goods and services; but twenty years ago this axiom vanished from everybody's reckoning, and has never reappeared. No one has seemed in the least aware that everything which is paid for must be paid for out of production, for there is no other source of payment.” - Albert J. Nock. - Consequently, sound money should be based on production and the offer of wanted goods and services. It should be issued, preferably, by the producer himself or an agent of producers, a bank, e.g. a shop association bank, granting short-term loans, mainly for the payment of wages and salaries, in exchange for claims which the producers have against their customers, mostly the wholesalers. In all its forms it would, essentially, amount only to sound clearing certificates or accounts, to mediate the free exchange of goods, services and labour with as little friction and transaction costs as possible. - JZ, n.d. & 22.3.97, 20.2.09. – CLEARING, MONETARY FREEDOM, ISSUERS

MONEY: Money enables us to get what WE want - instead of what other people THINK we want.” - Bernard Shaw. – No quotas, no rationing, no allocations, no long queues, no shortages – when you are free to pay for what you want with the money of monetary freedom. – But did G. B. Shaw ever oppose Central Banking, its issue monopoly and legal tender and advocate monetary freedom instead? - JZ, 31.10.08. . - As a state socialist and for a short time somewhat of an anarchist, he never uttered a monetary or financial freedom idea - as far as I know. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: money equals security and lack of money equals insecurity.” - Robert Anton Wilson, Illuminati Papers, p.26. - Sufficient money and good enough money. One cent or one dollar in one's pocket does not equal security - and if even these are inflated … - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: Money evolved on the market placein a number of simple steps.” - John Singleton and Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.164. - I would add: And that is where it should be returned to, to make it work best for us instead of also against us, us - as an instrument of monetary despotism. - JZ, n.d. JZ, 2.1.08.

MONEY: Money expresses, essentially, a clearable debt-relationship. Metallic contents, legal tender and monopoly status are, compared with this feature, non-essential characteristics and even wrongful, harmful and uneconomic characteristics. – JZ, 12.3.04, 16.2.09, 6.11.13. - & CLEARING

MONEY: Money has corruptive characteristics.” – Werner Mitsch. (Geld hat bestechende Eigenschaften.) Only towards the already corrupt people. And only under conditions of monetary despotism, which limits the possibilities for earning sufficient sound money quite honestly. When free and honest exchanges are outlawed secret, dishonest and corrupt deals will multiply. Then degrees of freedom have to be bought. Money itself should not be blamed for this but rather the wrongful characteristics and conditions that have been legally imposed upon it and all economic activities. Without legal tender power for government money and a legalized monopoly for its issue, we would have only sound exchange media, value standards and clearing options, paying with them only for wanted and ordered genuine and competitive supplied public services and for all kinds of private transactions: e.g. the purchase of wanted consumer goods and services, privately or cooperatively supplied. – JZ, 6.12.07, 8.1.11. - & CORRUPTION,

MONEY: Money has its own rewards. - JZ, 11.8.78. - It also has its own penalties - or it should have them. E.g., the government's penalty, for its paper money issues, should consist in widespread refusals to accept it, in ignoring it and choosing alternative monies or in discounting it down to its real free market value, if any. (*) For the monies of monetary freedom the above remark about rewards is much more applicable. However, if e.g. a debtor pays back a debt to a bank of issue in other than the bank's own currency, then a small penalty or charge might be advisable, contracted for in advance. (For this would involve another transaction cost for the bank. – JZ, 6.11.13.) Any mistakes of a free bank of issue has then the effect of a corresponding discount of its notes in general local circulation - and this is as it should be. - JZ, 23.3.97, 8.1.11. –  Flawed notes should be refused or discounted and returned to the issuer, who would have to accept them at par for anything he has to offer for sale. Thereby they and their discount would rapidly disappear from the local circulation.  JZ, 6.11.13. - (*) The government should not be allowed to discount its own paper money – in any tax or other payments made to it - as long as the system of legalized robberies, via taxation, is still being continued. – JZ, 20.2.00, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Money has neither to be absolutely stable or hard in order to be sound enough to be voluntarily accepted and preferred to today's governmental monopoly money and to most of the proposed money types. As an analogy: Cars do not have to be of the Mercedes or Rolls Royce brand in order to serve as a good enough means of transport for most people. - JZ, 18.11.82, 21.12.07. – Nothing is perfect. Nobody is. Not even you and I are perfect. Nevertheless, we can honestly earn our way, if free enough to do so. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONEY: Money is a bearer of options, an instrument of freedom.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce.

MONEY: Money is a defense.” – Ecclesiastes VII, 12, c. 200 B.C.

MONEY: Money is a good servant, but a bad master.” - 17th. century proverb. (L'argent est un bon serviteur, mais un mechant maitre.) - Bacon, Menigiana, (Menegiana?) ii, 296. Quoting a French proverb, 17th c., anon., in Hyman, Quotations, p.272. - We are mastered by money (forced and exclusive currency) instead of mastering it (free enterprise or free market money, optional and market rated.). - JZ, 6.7.82, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Money is a guaranty that we may have what we want in the future. Though we need nothing at the moment to ensure the possibility of satisfying a new desire when it arises.” – Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, v, c. 340 B.C. – Neither inflated nor deflated nor stag-flated money or taxed money capital or income ensures that, in full. Only the money of monetary freedom, earned and used in full freedom, e.g. without taxation or other robberies, could. – JZ, 13.12.07, 7.1.11.

MONEY: Money is a marvelous instrument of emancipation.”- Geoffrey- Sampson, An End to Allegiance, 1984, p.240. - That statement is correct only for the money of monetary freedom, not for that of monetary despotism. The latter is a dangerous instrument for it prevents the full emancipation of people and it supports rather than helps to overthrow warlike, despotic and even totalitarian regimes. To the extent that it remains in practice in Western or newly "liberated" countries, they will not yet be fully emancipated, at least not monetarily and, consequently, not yet in many other spheres, as well. - JZ, 12.4.97, 5.9.02.

MONEY: Money is a symbol for everything.” - Napoleon I. - For love, friendship, faith, honesty, intelligence, creativity? - JZ, 7.9.02, 8.1.11. – At most a symbol or means for everything that can be bought with money. – JZ, 20.1.08. – He did not buy his power with money but with arms and the lives of his men. And the money that he obtained was mainly by plunder and robberies. – JZ, 20.2.09. - However he also introduced a stable silver currency in France. Details on this are not known to me. - JZ, 8.1.11. - AS A SYMBOL, DIS.

MONEY: Money is a system of counters by which human beings keep track of what they have done for each other.” - Thomas W. Phelps, in THE FREEMAN, Sept. 60, p.4. – Forced currency, i.e., legal tender monopoly money (with compulsory acceptance at a forced value), is a system of counters largely indicating what people have, wrongfully, done to each other - as permitted and prescribed by “positive” laws. To a large extent it does not constitute payment but the pretence of payment when it is used as the only permitted option and at a forced rather than its free market value. – JZ, 31.10.08. (During inflations.) During deflations it is under-supplied and thus makes it harder to impossible for many debtors to pay their debts and for creditors to be paid. – JZ, 8.2.09. – Obviously, mere counters do not have to be made out of silver or gold or be redeemable in such rare metals. But they do have to count for something that is valued, namely, especially, daily needed consumer goods and services. Thus those who offer them are the best of the potential issuers of money. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONEY: Money is a terrible master but an excellent servant.” - P. T. Barnum. - The money of monetary despotism is a terrible master. That of monetary freedom is an excellent servant. - JZ, 13.10.02.

MONEY: Money is an essential ingredient to happiness in this world.” - Alexander Hamilton, Letter to John Laurens, Dec. 1779. - But one is not necessarily all the more happy the more money one has or acquires. - JZ, 23.3.97. – Not the money of monetary despotism – but that of monetary freedom! – JZ, 31.10.08. - The money of monetary despotism has also an all too large part of in causing unhappiness in this world. – JZ, 18.2.09, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money IS clearing! It need not be a store of value any more than a ticket is. The clearing does not have to be immediately, as long as it will take place, any time soon and, usually, in the near future, no more than 3 months way. It must refer to goods and services already produced, and already sold, at least to wholesalers. And it must be redeemable in goods and services ready for sale, immediately. It cannot be based on e.g. produced not yet harvested, sold and distributed ready for sale, e.g. produce that might still be destroyed by fire, storms or floods. Assignments on future and hoped for harvest products are speculative papers, dealings in futures, not currency. They must have some other and immediate usefulness or they will depreciate. They must e.g. be usable for other debt payments and in payments for ready for sale goods and services of the customers of the issuing bank. The local employees, professionals and -tradesmen must also be prepared to accept them, at least as long as they are at par and a customary local means of exchange and as long as they have debts to the bank of issue and are thus contractually obliged by it to accept its notes, at least to the amounts of their debts. - As a sound clearing instrument money does need a sound value standard - one chosen and trusted by its private or cooperative payment, exchange and clearing community, but it need not be the standard of value itself, like e.g. a gold or silver coin of a certain weight. It must only be readily accepted, at least in that payment community, as if it were such a coin - if that is the accepted and expressed value standard unit. To turn it into "paper-gold" or something "as good as gold (or, for some payment purposes even better than gold), it must be accepted, like its equivalent gold weight unit would be, at par in all payments due to the issuer. Or, by contract, to the debtors of the issuer. The very convenience of such paper means of exchange has sometimes given them even a small above par value among money traders. - If a discount should occur elsewhere than at the bank of issue and its debtors' shops etc., then that would tend to speed up the reflux of this money to them, i.e., to those who do have to accept it at par. (The debtor by contract with the issuer.) These acceptors would thus not mind a small discount occurring for the notes of their clearing centre somewhere else. Nor would the local note holders mind a small discount for the notes he holds, elsewhere, in other districts or countries, as long as they can redeem them locally and immediately, at par, in the goods and services they do want. - One might also say that turn-over-credit banknotes or clearing money, accounts, token or certificates, are nothing but advanced forms of barter. An advanced form of barter because it is largely anonymous and between several to many participants, who might not know of each other at all. Each of them is only involved with his direct trading partner and his payment for the goods he wants or his being paid by clearing or “ticket money” for whatever goods and services he has to offer. If the covering "curtain" of money or clearing is removed, simply goods and services (including labor) are exchanged for goods and services, but with much less difficulties and for many more goods and services than could be achieved by primitive barter only. This clearing nature for sound money is all too much neglected in the writings on money. Prof. Heinrich Rittershausen based his Geldtheorie (Theory of Money) on it. Alas, even in its 5th version it remained unfinished - and I managed to lose or to mislay the typed-out version of the first 80 pp of the 5th version. I would like to get another copy of it from the manuscript and papers collection of the library of the University -of Cologne, where Rittershausen was Dean for many years. – At least some of his monetary freedom writings are available on - JZ, 17.4.97, 8.1.11. - CLEARING, MEANS OF EXCHANGE, STANDARD OF VALUE & STORAGE OF VALUE FUNCTION

MONEY: Money is coined liberty, and so it is ten times dearer to a man who is deprived of freedom. If money is jingling in his pocket, he is half consoled, even though he cannot spend it.” – Dostoevsky, The House of the Dead, 1862, 1.1., tr. Constance Garnett. – Example: Even while the Soviet System still ruled, many Russians got the feeling of some liberty by hoarding some US dollars. But at times the US dollar may have been as fast or even faster depreciated than the Soviet Ruble was. In both countries the communist central banking system ruled for all too long and still does. – JZ, 13.12.07.

MONEY: Money is different things to different people! Let them have their ways! - JZ 5.4.85.

MONEY: Money is everything that has power of purchase.” - MacLeod, as quoted by Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 8/77. - Alas, Meulen explored and discussed in this publication only too few alternatives to the government's legal tender paper money and to the traditional gold standard. - JZ, 23. 3.97. – With one’s shares one can also make a take-over bid for another company’s shares. In that sphere capital certificates can be used as money. But that does not mean that one can go shopping in a shopping center with them. Barter is also a form of purchase – but it is certainly not a monetary form of purchase. Via clearing one can also purchase much, even if one does not have any cash. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONEY: Money is EVERYTHING.” - Quoted in ANALOG, 4/72, p.118. - Well, money is not always the main problem. For instance: Who can't afford a 30 cents blank CD-ROM? This raw material capital acquisition is not the problem. But filling it, e.g. with the pages of up to 3,000 of worthwhile freedom books is, at least for an individual. It does not have to be filled by paid professionals. It could be filled with the labors of love of those who like certain freedom texts and want to make them cheaply and permanently accessible and who do have them in their possession and are not obstructed by copyrights claims. But even this has to be organized and that is not easy. A proper ideas and projects market would also make sufficient publicity for particular ideas and projects much easier and cheaper. - JZ, 17.8.02, 18.2.09.

MONEY: Money is honey.” - from the film: The Producer. - Why shouldn't everybody be free to produce (issue) or collect it, all kinds of it being competitively produced and competitively acquired and consumed? - JZ, 1.2.76, 23.3.97. – But one can eat, drink and otherwise consume only so much and should also have some other and better uses of one’s time and energy than merely trying to accumulate more money. – JZ, 31.10.08. – Neither inflated nor deflated nor stag-flated monopoly monies are “sweet” like honey. – JZ, 8.2.09. - Excessively inflated money is close to useless and often refused, while excessively deflated money is often out of reach for all too many. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONEY: money is how you keep track of whether you've done enough for other people to deserve what you want from them.” - C. S. Bushnik, in editorial, ANALOG, 4/87, p.6. - EXCHANGE, MUTUALITY, DEFINITION

MONEY: Money is important, ... because OTHER PEOPLE want it. The first requirement of a truly useful money is its acceptability. The more people are willing to accept it, the more useful that substance or thing is, as money.” - Robert LeFevre, Lift Her Up, Tenderly, p.174. - LeFevre is right here. This is primary. More important than redemption in gold or silver because such purchases are only rarely wanted by most people. - Readiness to accept it, by the issuer and his acceptors, is more important than redemption in gold or silver because such metals are only rarely wanted by most people. - JZ, 7.4.85. – Why do they want it? Because it has a wide “readiness to accept foundation”, going far beyond any metallic redemptionism or acceptance in tax-payments. Redemption in rare metals can only keep as much of sound exchange media in circulation as can be redeemed in this way. Tax foundation only as many as can be used in this way. The “shop foundation” or “readiness to accept foundation” can keep as much money at par with its nominal value as corresponds to the production and service capacity combined with the immediate and near future consumer demand for them. – JZ, 31.10.08. – You do not have to be a passive person in this process and a mere recipient or the money produced by others. - The other side of the coin is it that YOU COULD ISSUE YOURSELF SOME FORM OF MONEY, THAT OTHER PEOPLE WOULD FIND ACCEPTABLE! You could ISSUE it or OFFER it for voluntary acceptance, on the basis of your own ready-for-sale goods and services, including your own labour services, thereby transforming these still all too illiquid assets into at least locally and somewhat liquid ones that the local consumers could come to appreciate as an alternative local currency – at least for all payments due to you.. They want it as money because it increases their ability to pay, based on no more than your ability to deliver your ready-for-sale goods and services for them. And you want it, or should want your own money issue, because it would increase your own ability to pay. In short, not only could you offer it but they would be willing to accept it, providing only your own goods and service offer is large and wide enough. If you combine with other local producers and traders for this issue purpose, it could be, easily, unless a perfect clearing system would already exist, which would accept the clearing certificates of individual issuers. - JZ, 23.3.97, 18.2.09. - Here I included in the “own” money the issues of e.g. shopping centres, whose shops have a common interest in having their customers supplied with sound exchange media. They would be issued in short-term loans, mainly to employers, usually accepting in return as security, or discounting, the claims the employers have against their customers, mostly wholesalers, also to pay their own bills and employees with it, The shop associations could also use these shop currencies to pay their wholesale suppliers withthem. Single shops or individuals could issue their own shop currencies or IOUs only to a limited extent, unless a perfect clearing system would already exist. - JZ, 29.8.02. - Rothbard believed that the economy should adapt itself to only as much money as can be provided by the 100% redeemable gold certificates notes, as an exclusive and, supposedly, the only honest exchange medium. That sound clearing certificates, mediating the exchange of consumer goods and services, using a gold weight unit merely as a value standard, without redeeming the clearing certificates of shop foundation notes otherwise than in goods and services, also priced out in gold weight units, could go far beyond the quantity of exchange media that could be 100 % covered and redeemed in gold coins, and that this could be done this with complete honesty, without defrauding anyone, continuing with sound value standard reckoning, i.e., without creating an inflation, was not seriously considered by him. The only pricing difference between his system of an exclusive exchange medium that is 100 % redeemable and the shop currency or clearing certificate issues, reckoning in gold weight units, would be, that the deflationary pricing under his system would be avoided. Exchangers would not have to use the limited quantity of his favourite exchange media and adapt all their prices to them but could freely exchange without them and quite independent from them as exchange media, even while they used them – but merely as value standards. – Moreover, the inherent costs of their exchange media would only be some paper and ink, not a quantity of rare metal. – So which currency is likely to win in the competition of full monetary freedom? – When even top minds like Rothbard’s do not clearly enough distinguish between sound exchange media and value standards then they do quite inevitably arrive at wrong conclusions. - JZ, 8.2.09. – SOUND VALUE STANDARDS, FREELY COMPETING, PLUS SOUND EXCHANGE MEDIA & CLEARING CERTIFICATES THAT USE THEM & ARE MARKET RATED AGAINST THEM, ALSO REFUSABLE.

MONEY: Money is in fact the root of much good.” - Paul Lepanto, Return to Reason, p.85. - That applies even to the money of monetary despotism, which, within limits and in the absence of something better, does also serve somewhat as money. But without qualifications one should make such statements at most only about the monies of monetary freedom. - JZ, 23.3.97, 8.1.11. - One should distinguish between the money of monetary despotism and that of monetary freedom. Just like one should distinguish between despotic and free actions in all other spheres. – JZ, 31.10.08. - GOOD VS. EVIL

MONEY: Money is indeed the most important thing in the world; and all sound and successful personal and national morality should have this fact for its basis.” – George Bernard Shaw, preface, The Irrational Knot, 1885-87, 1905. - It is only ONE of the most important tools for man. But all the others will not be sufficiently developed, built and utilized until the money tools are also working well, much better than they do when they are monopolized,  controlled and more or less mismanaged and abused by territorial governments, even if these are limited territorial governments and operating in this sphere with the best Rothbardian intentions, or when it is limited to those private note issues which conform to the supposedly ideal and only honest Rothbardian model. - Is it more important than language, or brains, freedom ideas and knowledge? More important than justice, peace? - Under fully developed clearing we would not even need it - but just a value standard that would suit us for our free exchanges, settled via clearing. - JZ, 8.1.11, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money is life. The lack of it has killed many more than all the assassinations combined.” - Free after a comedy film: The Assassination Bureau, which was based on a book with the same or a similar title, written by Jack London.

MONEY: Money is like a 6th sense - and you can't make use of the other five without it.” - Somerset Maugham, N.Y. TIME MAGAZINE, Oct. 18, 1958. – Another version: “Money is like a sixth sense without which you cannot make complete use of the other five.” – W. Somerset Maugham, Of Human Bondage, 1915, 51. – Without quite free exchange, which requires the monies of monetary freedom, humans will remain more or less in bondage. – JZ, 8.12.07. – Under rationing, price controls, taxation and protectionism even your remaining liberties and rights have only a limited value. – JZ, 18.2.09, 8.1.11. - We need all our rights and liberties, not only our monetary and financial ones, to make a reasonable use of all of our senses and abilities. - JZ, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Money is like manure. If you spread it around it does a lot of good. But if you pile it up in one place, it stinks to hell.” – Clint Murchinson Jr., Quoted TIME, 16.6.1961. - If it is hoarded too much and is also a monopoly money, then it does not stink but can cause a currency famine or deflation, with catastrophic consequences. – Under monetary freedom the hoarding of money will be greatly reduced and cannot do any damage, since needed money can then be freshly and soundly issued again, to the amounts required for all free exchanges. - JZ, 8.12.07, 8.1.11. – When a Roman emperor had imposed a tax on toilets and one of his sons objected to it, the emperor replied to him: “Money does not stink!” – JZ, 18.2.09. – But the money of monetary despotism does do much more wrong and harm than a mere stench does. – JZ, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money is MADE - before it can be looted or mooched - made by the effort of every honest man, each to the extent of his ability.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.387. – Alas, the government has outlawed the honest making of genuine money by honest efforts and has, instead, forced its monopolistic and exclusive currency upon us. It could not stand free competition, not even through the advantage of uniformity that it has for a whole country. The government’s money has become one of the main tools for moochers and looters. – And it prevents many people from being gainfully employed and robs the rest. – JZ, 31.10.08. - The money of monetary despotism does not work as well as the money of monetary freedom. It is the money largely of looters and moochers and a means to either deprive honest men of much of their efforts and many of them are even prevented by it from using their talents and knowledge and industry at all or fully under monetary despotism. Only the money of monetary freedom, of which A. R. recognized only the gold coin and gold certificate option, would enable all persons, who are able and willing to work, to earn some of the monies of monetary freedom or even to issue some themselves, to the extent of their ability to deliver goods, services and labour in return for it. - JZ, 23.3.97, 18.2.09.MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM.

MONEY: Money is much too important to be left to the not so tender mercies of politicians and bureaucrats. – JZ, 22.2.03. - POLITICIANS & BUREAUCRATS

MONEY: Money is neither good nor bad in itself: it depends on what is done with it.” - St. Thomas Aquinas. - Only a bad tradesman blames his tools. Money itself does not act. Its owners or robbers or users do. - JZ, 23.3.97, 18.2.09.

MONEY: Money is neither wealth nor ills but merely tickets for the transfer of wealth or ills.” - Robert Anton Wilson, The Illuminati Papers, p.149. - With “ills” he meant, perhaps, dangerous drugs, government spending, governmental education or outright propaganda lies. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: Money is not an end; it is only a means.” – Sir Ernest Benn, Account Rendered, p.29. – But it is a means to acquire almost everything else. Does that mean the love of almost everything (all that can be bought?) is the root of all evil? – JZ, 29.7.93. – Compare Bastiat: “Society is exchange.” Money, or monetary reckoning, as in clearing, greatly facilitates exchange and is, therefore, one of the foundations of society. – JZ, 4.12.07. - LOVE OF MONEY, ROOT OF ALL EVIL?

MONEY: Money is not capital but stands for wealth in the process of exchange.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce. - From the viewpoint of shop-foundation money and the Real Bills Doctrine, it rather represents goods already sold or ready for sale and services ready for sale and debt payment or clearing options. "Wealth" and "process" are sponge words and do not indicate the time limits for an effective currency, either. A turnover facilitator for consumer goods and services in daily demand might be a better description. But possibly no single definition covers all the options. Dr. Pearce's definition does not cover properly either tax foundation money or banking principle banknotes or railway, bus, electricity or petrol money and not even shop currency. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: Money isn't everything - but it's a long way ahead of what comes next. - Edmund Stockdale

MONEY: Money isn't everything. It's just most everything." - Nica Clark – Almost everything? - JZ

MONEY: Money is only a measure of how much of the available wealth a person has access to. If no wealth is available, money is worthless.” - Dr. Mary J. Ruwart, Healing Our World, chapter 2, Wealth is Unlimited. - & WEALTH, SHOP FOUNDATION, EXCHANGE VALUE, FIAT MONEY, LEGAL TENDER, PRINTING PRESS MONEY, CENTRAL BANKING, FORCED CURRENCY, TICKET MONEY

MONEY: Money is only important if you haven’t got it.” – Michael Todd, 1909-1958, - Lore and Maurice Cowan, compilers, The Wit of the Jews, Leslie Frewin, London, 1970, p.102. – ABILITY TO PAY, JOKES

MONEY: Money is power, money is security, money is freedom. It is the difference between the life at the foot of a volcano and the security in the garden of the Hesperides.” - G. B. Shaw, alas, only as retranslated by me from a German translation into my kind of English. - JZ, 15.4.97.

MONEY: Money is preferable to politics. It is the difference between being free to be anybody you want and being free to vote for anybody you want. And money is more effective than politics both in solving problems and in providing individual independence. To rid ourselves of all the trouble in the world, we need to make money. And to make money we need to be free.” - P. J. O'Rourke, All the Trouble in theWorld. – We won’t be free enough as long as we are only allowed to use the money of monetary despotism and as long as we are confined to territorial States, their constitutions, laws and courts. – JZ, 17.2.09. – POLITICS, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM & FREEDOM, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM.

MONEY: Money is so advantageous that only the very worst money is worse than the best barter. - JZ, 24.2.84. - & BARTER

MONEY: Money is something like coined-out freedom of will. …” - Dostojewski, Memoiren aus einem Totenhaus. - (Geld heist so viel wie gepraegte Willensfreiheit, …) – Is it that for a drug addict or a power addict? – JZ, 13.12.07.

MONEY: money is that commodity which serves as a medium of exchange by virtue of its high degree of marketability...” - Paul Stevens, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. – This remark is more true for sound monies than unsound ones. – JZ, 31.10.08, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money is the counter that enables life to be lived socially: it is life as truly as sovereigns and banknotes are money.” – George Bernard Shaw, preface, Major Barbara, 1905. – Sovereigns were not money for much longer and banknotes were often so much inflated that they became largely useless as money. – JZ, 13.12.07.

MONEY: Money is the material shape of the principle that men who wish to deal with one another must deal by trade and give value for value. Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or of the looter, who take it from you by force. Money is made possible only by the men who produce. Is this what you consider evil?” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.387. - Let producers and traders produce money, or clearing certificates, optional, and market rated against a self-chosen sound value standard, a money which they are ready to accept as money from anyone at par with its nominal value! – The money, which we are now forced to use, is that of moochers and looters! – In a general tax strike and monetary revolution we should refuse it, too! - JZ 8.4.85, 20.2.09.

MONEY: Money is the most important thing in the world. It represents health, strength, honour, generosity and beauty as conspicuously as the want of it represent illness, weakness, disgrace, meanness and ugliness.” - G. B. Shaw, Preface, Major Barbara, 1907. - While a tendency in that direction does exist, the contrary is often also true. - JZ, 23.3.97. – We should especially distinguish between the effects of the money of monetary despotism and the monies of monetary freedom. – JZ, 20.2.09. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM & THEIR DIFFERENT CONSEQUENCES

MONEY: Money is the root of all envy.” - John Laws, Book of Uncommon Sense, PAN, 1995, p.65. - & ENVY, DIS.

MONEY: money is the root of all good.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.391. – The money of monetary despotism is rather the root of very much that is wrong, harmful and irrational, as opposed to the money of monetary freedom. – JZ, 31.10.08. – The suppression of governmental money would be the root of much good. While the competitive supply of the sound monies of monetary freedom would be the root of much good. – Alas, the only good alternative that she knew and wrote about was that of gold coins and redeemable gold certificates. That is as primitive but not as criminal a notion as that of the government’s forced and exclusive paper currency. However, over-all, it might even do still more harm than the government’s legal tender paper money because it would make us so dependent in all of our exchanges upon the supply of a single metal. The very possibility of clearing, fully developed, – using whichever value standard for such exchanges, as one finds useful, would free us from the dependency upon the supply of this single metal, which is good as a value standard but not good as an exclusive exchange medium. – Clearing needs only a sound value standard. Then it can mediate an unlimited number of exchanges. - JZ, 31.10.08, 7.1.11. – E.g. shop currencies need no other redemption, cover and security than their ready for sale consumer goods and services. – JZ, 6.11.13. - - Despotic money is the root of much evil. Freedom's money will be the root of much good. This distinction between good and evil, rights and their suppression, should be drawn, too, especially by advocates of individual liberty and rights, as Ayn Rand was. - JZ, 23.3.97. – The only alternative money that she considered, gold coins and gold certificates, is not good enough for all rightful and useful exchange purposes. As an optional money it could satisfy its volunteers. As an exclusive and forced currency it could do much wrong and harm by its limited quantity. Under fully free and developed clearing, using gold weight units, mostly, as an optional value standard, much more could be freely exchanged than under an exclusive gold coin and gold deposit certificate currency. And various clearing certificates and notes, all using sound and optional value standards, i.e., sound exchange media which would facilitate the clearing process, could also mediate many more free exchanges, than gold coins and banknotes redeemable in gold coins could. – JZ, 17.2.09, 8.1.11. - GOOD VS. EVIL, SOUND, COMPETING & OPTIONAL EXCHANGE MEDIA & CLEARING CERTIFICATES VS. ANY EXCLUSIVE CURRENCY, EVEN THE BEST OF THEM, DIS., CLASSICAL GOLD STANDARD, METALLIC REDEMMPTION

MONEY: Money is the symbol of nearly everything that is necessary for man's well-being and happiness ... Money means freedom, independence, liberty.” - Edward E. Beals, The Law of Financial Success. - However, one does not have to be financially successful or able to write best-sellers, in order to publish very much on very affordable alternative media. The fact that one can save very much by these alternatives has not yet sufficiently penetrated the dollar consciousness of anarchists and libertarians, still struggling to get and keep at least some of their writings into conventional print on paper. If they went e.g. for the microfiche self-publishing option then, with a few thousand producers and users of them, fiche could, to some extent, become an alternative exchange medium between them, too, at least for further literature and transmittable service exchanges. And with micro-fiched literature, produced by a few hundred activists, complete freedom libraries and information services could be achieved rather soon - and they could bring about liberty for anarchists and libertarians much sooner than we could expect otherwise. - I am still seeking more people who do appreciate this freedom option. - JZ, 23.3.97. – But now even the floppy disk, CD, DVD and external HDD anarchist and libertarian complete and permanent publishing options have scarcely been used. – JZ, 20.1.08. – I just browsed through the most recent catalogue of Harvey Norman. It offers a 1 TB external HD for $ 79 and a 2 TB one for $ 99. In other words, publishing a whole freedom library on one such book-sized medium, has a price tag for each of millions of books, so reproduced, which comes close to zero. - JZ, 8.1.11. - One should distinguish between monetary success and financial success. At least some people can be financially successful even under monetary despotism. – JZ, 31.10.08. - Many more people can be successful under full monetary freedom. – JZ, 8.2.09.

MONEY: Money is time. With money I buy for cheerful use the hours which otherwise would not in any sense be mine; nay, which would make me their miserable bondsman.” – George Gissing, Winter, The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft, 1903.

MONEY: Money is today the product of a legally created disorder, abuse, exploitation, deception, fraud and repression. - JZ 10.7.77. – The money of monetary freedom would have none of its wrongs and flaws. – JZ, 2.1.08. – MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: Money is too important and too vital to be left in the hands of governments. It should be in the realm of private enterprise where it will be controlled by the people by their purchases in the market place.” - Oscar B. -Johannsen, from the U.S. GARGOYLE, March 73, quoted in PROGRESS, June 73. - GOVERNMENTS & MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY: Money is whatever is locally the common or wide-spread-or convenient and acceptable enough clearing or payment means. (Even the locally less widely used means of exchange are still a local currency, i.e., money. - JZ, 8.1.11.) - It is a means, method and standard of the market, not of the State. - The State can coercively and legally only manipulate, depreciate or outlaw it or prevent the best money from coming into existence - or stop its continued private issuance and acceptance and its use in value measurements, in prices, wages, salaries etc., but it cannot "create" it. Because that, too, would be an abuse of the-language and of genuine rights and liberties. Others, even a territorial government, has no right to impose the use of its money upon anyone. It has no more rights than individuals have and individuals don’t have the right to give their paper money a tax foundation. The issuer of a requisitioning certificate or of an uncovered cheque does not "create" anything, either, but, rather, steals. Even the issue of otherwise sound tax foundation money requires firstly the imposition of wrongful tributes. Is universal acceptance possible or required for money? None of the currently imposed national currencies is universally used in all other countries. Any sound money must by rights only be accepted, at any time and at par with its face value, by its issuer, i.e., it must have only legal tender power towards him, not in general circulation. It is a mistake to call only monopoly money or the issues of the central bank (or mint) "money", because with this kind of money all other kinds of money are outlawed. This is a fact, which ought to be taken into consideration, especially seeing that the money monopoly has almost always been abused. To call it the money of monetary despotism alone “money” and to ignore all other possible and honest monies is like calling only the present "vote" a "vote", although it does not grant use "the" vote on some of the most important aspects of our lives. It only allows us the choice of a master. "No matter who you vote for, always a politician gets in." - You are not free to vote for your individual secession. You are not free to vote yourself out of monetary despotism and exploitative coercive taxation. You have no vote on war and peace, armament and disarmament and international treaties. And still the bastards abuse the language and call it "the vote" or "the franchise", as if no democracy or self-government or self-responsibility or liberty or right could possibly go beyond that. The money of monetary despotism is like the territorial State. It has largely only disservices to offer and forces them upon unwilling consumers, all under the pretence of working for the common good. - JZ, 14.3.91 & 16.4.97, 18.2.09, 8.1.11, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money isn't everything - but then neither is anything else.” - The 1975 Down Under Calendar.

MONEY: Money isn't everything but it comes damn close.” - Eric Bruce Lindsay, GEGENSCHEIN, A Personal Journal, 32, 1977.

MONEY: Money isn’t everything but, whatever comes second behind it, is a hell of a long way back.” – Proverb. - Heard or read first many years ago. - JZ 8.4.85, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Money makes a man free ilka where.” – Scottish proverb. (Ilka = every.) – Not when it is greatly inflated or when one does not have enough of it at one’s disposal. – JZ, 13.12.07.

MONEY: Money makes free. – JZ, 6.9.73. – I should rather have stated something like: Only a sufficient supply of sound enough exchange media and of other forms of property or wealth can make us relatively free – JZ, 4.10.08. – Previously I had commented: The government’s forced and exclusive exchange media and forced and exclusive value standard can make us very unfree and insecure, can deprive us of jobs and property. Only the competitive, optional and market rated monies of monetary freedom can make us free enough. – JZ, 2.4.00. - & FREEDOM

MONEY: Money makes mastery.” - Unknown, Liberality and Prodigality, i, 5, 1602. - Rather, let's master money to set ourselves free. And in this we should not aim at mastering the money of monetary despotism but that of monetary freedom. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: Money makes the man.” - Aristodemus. (Alcaeus, fragments, No. 49; Diogenes Laertius, Thales, Bk. i, sec. 31.) . – Greek proverb, traced to the fifth century B.C., familiar in English since the XVI century. - A scoundrel or a criminal with victims is not turned into an honest and harmless man thereby. - JZ, 8.2.10.

MONEY: Money makes the world go round.” - Old song text, 1928. - As far as government money is concerned, it often brings the economy all too close to a stop or at least into all too many economic crises. And some of these lead to mass murderous clashes. Only sound money can make a go of everything sound. The dishonest and coercive money of monetary despotism spoils almost everything to some extent. - JZ, 23.3.97. – An unfree and insufficient supply of sound money brings all too much of the world’s exchanges to a stop. – JZ, 31.10.08. – But even in the current crisis discarding the system of monetary despotism is not seriously considered by those legally in charge of it and not by most of their victims, either. – Our official money issue and value standard monopolists do abuse their legalized power - as usual. – JZ, 8.2.09. - Did not the Earth already spin around its axle and circle the sun before man invented money? - JZ, 8.1.11. - MONETARY DESPOTISM VS. MONETARY FREEDOM, DIS.

MONEY: Money makes you a slave, Salena. - I could have sworn, she thought, that money was what kept you from being a slave. …” - David Houston, Substance X, 154. - Few slaves worked as hard as those do who work to make much more money than they need. To me this is comprehensible only when they love their job - and its aims. - JZ, 25.1.02. - SLAVERY & FREEDOM

MONEY: Money may be said to be a title to the ownership of a certain specified amount of commodity. - Tandy, Voluntary Socialism, p.101. - Commodities, services or labors. - JZ, 2.7.91, 12.4.97. - Always feel free to add your own comments! Let's improve our exchange media and value standards by first freely exchanging our opinions and references. - JZ, 12.4.97. - Iron or nickel ore is also a commodity - but not of a type that is suitable as the cover or redemption good of a currency. That requires consumer commodities (including services, in the widest sense) that are in daily demand. - JZ, 5.9.02. – However, e.g. claims to ores, in considerable quantities, could be useful in international trade, to buy imports with them, that would then inevitably lead to corresponding exports. – JZ, 20.1.08, 6.11.13. – MONEY AS TICKET MONEY OR GOODS WARRANTS

MONEY: Money may not be the root of all evil, but our predominant monetary system has clearly been the source of a great deal of human misery. Though its purports to support a free-market system, this monetary system is the greatest monopoly of them all (*), and like all monopolies, it is inefficient. Rather than celebrating the supposed grand achievements of capitalism, perhaps we should be astonished that any industrial progress has occurred at all in the presence of such a distorting, disruptive and parasitic economic signaling medium. At the least we should soberly recognize that we have paid a heavy price for our material abundance, and that the vast majority of people who sacrificed were not asked, not even informed they had any choice. - Abraham Lincoln declared that the creating and issuing of money is a government’s greatest creative opportunity. We have seen that the privilege of issuing money (**) need not be confined to governments, in a well-structured monetary system. Healthy monetary systems, supporting positively-directed commerce and enterprise, would indeed provide a great creative opportunity to our economies, and to every person within them.” - Geoff Davies, Economia. New economic systems to empower people and support the living world, ABC Books, Sydney, 2004, p. 381. - (*) The territorial monopoly is larger and it includes the money monopoly! – (**) It is not a privilege but one of the monetary rights, just like the right to refuse the money of others or to discount it is one of the monetary rights. - JZ, 13.9.08. - (Geoffrey F = Geoffrey Frederick Davies ) - CAPITALISM, MONEY MONOPOLY, MONETARY DESPOTISM, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM. ROOT OF EVIL OR PART OF OPPORTUNITY?

MONEY: Money may not buy happiness, but it buys the kind of misery you enjoy.” - P. T., quoted in READER'S DIGEST. - & HAPPINESS

MONEY: Money may thus be defined as anything which at any time and place is accepted by all as a medium of exchange and the measure of value.” - W. A. Dowe, GOOD GOVERNMENT, June 78. - It may be just one among several other exchange media that are also locally accepted. Moreover, foreign exchange does not become valueless because it is not locally readily accepted or even locally outlawed. Even a governmental legal tender money is accepted readily or reluctantly only within it territory, not by all people in the world. - Moreover, a money may be accepted only as a means of exchange but not as a value standard, being accepted only at its market rate against a sound enough and agreed-upon value standard. On the other hand, a gold coin might not be the general local means of exchange. Nevertheless, it could be a locally widely accepted standard of value, in which most prices, wages and other contracts are expressed. I found this flawed definition all too uncritically repeated - thousands of times. - JZ, 21.12.07. - DIS., DEFINITIONS

MONEY: Money means, depending upon whether it is there or is missing, either independent or submissive opinions.” – Graff. (Geld bedeutet – je nachdem es da ist oder fehlt – sowohl unabhaengige als auch unterwuerfige Meinungen.) – Graff - ITS PRESENCE OR ABSENCE, ABILITY TO PAY OR INABILITY TO PAY & FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

MONEY: Money must be sufficiently studied for it to cease being your master and to become your servant.” – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07. – Moreover, once you and enough others are sufficiently enlightened in this way then you must also become free to act upon that knowledge, at least among yourselves. – JZ, 17.2.09. - FROM MASTER TO SLAVE, MONETARY ENLIGHTENMENT, EMANCIPATION & LIBERATION, SECESSIONISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PANARCHISM

MONEY: Money originates from men's desire for INDIRECT exchange. And more, since indirect exchange usually occurs between strangers like Smith and Jones, money must be an object which is mutually valued.” - Paul Stevens, THE FREEMAN, 1/75.

MONEY: Money provides a convenient means of comparing the prices of many different, apparently unrelated, things. You can translate your resources into money and then compare the many alternative ways of using those limited resources.” - Harry Brown, You Can Profit from a Monetary Crisis, p.18. – You could profit still more by helping to prevent or end a monetary and financial crisis! - JZ, 23.3.97, 8.1.11. However, so far only dealings in the money of monetary despotism are legal and it is this money which causes most economic crises. – JZ, 20.2.09. – CRISES, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: Money serves to ease the pain.” - Quoted from film: The Love Bug. - The indiscriminate defence as well as indiscriminate attacks on all kinds of money are ill conceived and misdirected, or at most half-truths, because they defend or attack a generalization, namely "money", a word that does not distinguish between despotic and free money, bad and good money, optional and refusable money, exclusive and competitive money, the money of monetary despotism and the money of monetary freedom. This is like praising or condemning "man" without distinguishing between criminals and innocents, robbers and producers, destroyers and creators, murderers and victims. - Nevertheless, all such opinions should be collected for whatever values they can offer us, even if they might only stimulate us to ponder efficient refutations of them. - JZ, 8.9.02.

MONEY: Money should be among the products and services of a FREE AND RIGHTFUL SOCIETY and civilization but STATES have turned it into a means for systematized injustice, exploitation and repression, a means to introduce expropriation and fraud into free exchanges, or to that extent distorted or prevented exchanges. The State's monetary despotism has turned free markets into unfree ones, stable currency aspirations into deflation, inflation or stagflation, boom times into crises, full employment into unemployment and peace into wars, freedom into despotism. They have turned civilized countries into disaster areas. Germany lost economically as much by the 1913-1923 inflation as through WW I and then as much again, through the Great Depression of the thirties. Moreover, these economic disasters, which would not have happened under monetary freedom, led to Hitler's regime, mass murders and WW II and the Mutual Assured Destruction or "nuclear strength"- MAD policies still practised by our leading madmen today. - JZ, 8.4.97.

MONEY: Money should not be based on debts!” – Popular opinion. - A few word, like these 7, can already express many errors. All economic relationships are based on debts and credits and money or clearing is needed to pay the credits as well as the debts. – Some debts and some credits can and should become effectively monetized by money issues or clearing certificate issues that are based on them. But here one should distinguish between a.) immediately due, b.) short-term debts, c.) medium and long term debts. The short term or immediately due debts can often be effectively mobilized via money tokens or clearing certificates. For instance, by tax foundation money based upon immediately due or soon due tax debts, which are corresponding credits for the government. Medium and long term debts are much better expressed and transferred in various capital securities, with only their regular repayment installments payable in exchange media or clearing account credits. - The above objection against money based on debt fits only money issues based on medium or long term debts. These, indeed, should not be monetized because such a money would not, by its very nature, have an immediate purchasing power or usefulness, a “current” purchasing power as “currency”. Unless, of course, it is monopoly money with legal tender, that one has to use and that others have to accept at its nominal value. The wrongs and damages such “money”, a forced and exclusive currency, can cause, has all too often been demonstrated. Such money is good only to pay one’s taxes with it, one’s imposed tax debt, or tribute to the State and to more or less cheat one’s other creditors with it, since they cannot refuse or discount it down to its market value. - Immediately and shortly due debts were, for centuries, paid with IOUs and bills of exchange, that were mostly cleared, against the goods and services of the IOU issuer or the credit which the IOU or Bill holder has against the issuer, rather than paid in coins or other cash. These notes had thus a credit foundation, a debt foundation, an acceptance foundation or a clearing foundation. Generally, if it is not prohibited, debtors could satisfy their creditors by paying them with assignments or IOUs or personal notes, upon the own goods and services, ready for sale, with these notes offered in convenient money denominations, freely transferable ones and expressing a value standard in which the goods and services of the debtor are also expressed. These notes would have to be accepted at par only by the issuing debtor. Alternatively, the creditor could issue credit notes, in convenient money denominations, which only his debtors would have to accept for due or soon due debts, in clearing against them. If a money would not have a debt foundation, i.e., could not be used to pay debts with it or to pay for consumer goods, services or labor that one has bought, then it would be largely useless. (It might only be used to pay for one or several gift certificates. Then this gift money would involve the debt of the IOU issuer who remains obliged to accept it at par, because he had issued it.) If a money were to express e.g. all the debts of a local shop association and would be redeemed in the goods and services of all or most of the local shops, then it would be a convenient local currency for the local consumers. A money does not have to be generally accepted in a whole country, as a “national” money to be a good or good enough money. Far less would it have to be accepted world-wide. Particular tickets are useful enough in their sphere but not for all performances by others everywhere else and at other times. Under monetary freedom the local shops, best an association of them for this purpose, could and would imitate the action of the ticket issuers and thus issue their kind of ticket money, their own shop-foundation money or shop currency, with “shop foundation”, based upon their ready-for-sale goods and services, in order to pay their debts with, or make short-term loans with, under the inherent obligation to accept their ticket money or purchasing certificates or goods- or service vouchers, in payment for the goods and services bought from them. - Associations of shops could form their own note-issuing banks and issue notes in short term credits to employers, upon their credits received for goods already produced and sold to wholesalers, originally in form of sound commercial bills. The employers could use such shop currency notes to pay their employees with and also some other current debts. These vouchers would directly (wages and salaries) or indirectly get into the hands of the customers to these local shops. Then these customers could use this money to pay their debts for their current shopping to the shops. - Since only the issuers of such debt or clearing certificates would have to accept them at par, they would tend to rapidly stream back to their issuers, the associated shops, where they should be cancelled or destroyed and replaced by new issues, as required. - Another sphere, where the above popular saying does make sense is that of gold certificates. But sound money is most widely needed and thus should not be confined to money-certificates that can be fully covered and redeemed upon demand in metallic gold, i.e. just one product among millions. To attempt to do so would severely restrict the quantity of money in circulation and the quantity of goods and services that can be exchanged via a thus limited issue of exchange media. Quantities or weight units of gold are generally useful as value standards but only somewhat useful as exchange media, namely to the extent that the debtors are supplied with such an exchange medium. Just consider how many or how few of your present or soon coming-up debts you could pay in gold coins. – JZ, 24.10.07. – What is the total value of all the gold available at any time in the world compared with the value of all the wanted consumer goods and services offered ready for sale in the world, at any time? I believe it would come only to a very small fraction. – JZ, 6.11.13. – DEBTS & DEBT FOUNDATION FOR CURRENCIES, “THE” 100% COVERED & REDEEMABLE GOLD STANDARD

MONEY: Money speaks sense in a language all nations understand.” - Aphra Behn. – “But no nations understands money.” - E. M. Shaw, 12.1.84. - Nor does any individual fully understand all forms of money, no more so than he fully understands all forms of capital, all kinds of tools, all kinds of materials and chemicals, all kinds of books. - JZ, 8.1.11. - No nation can understand it because no "nation" exists. Only individuals can understand it, at least sufficiently for practical and business purposes, for only individuals have brains and can use them, although usually, they do not do so on many subjects. Have you made an effort in this direction? - JZ, 8.9.85, 8.1.11, 6.1113. - Almost all people understand SOMETHING about money, i.e. that good money is good for purchases, if one has enough of it. But that does not mean that they understand what money really is and what makes it work. There are thousands of books on the subject and yet no generally recognized monetary theory has emerged. I hold Prof. Heinrich Rittershausen's Geld Theorie to be the best. Alas, his manuscript remained incomplete and I have lost or mislaid the transcript of the first ca. 80 pages of the 5th version of the manuscript. The original should be at the library of the University of Cologne. - JZ, 8.9.85, 4.5.97. – (I digitized what I had of this German manuscript. This edition is on ) Will anyone supply me with a copy of these missing first 80 pages? - JZ, 8.1.11. - This lack of understanding of the real nature of money, of clearing, value standards and their freedom possibilities finds its equivalent in the lack of comprehension of the causes of war and peace, of self-management options, of self-publishing options using alternative and very powerful and affordable media, of the exterritorialist and voluntary alternatives to territorial despotism, and of an Ideas Archive while, according to proverbial “wisdom” and language use, a "free market for ideas" does already exist. What people believe to be sufficient knowledge on a subject becomes an obstacle to really getting to know it. - JZ, 13.9.02. - LANGUAGE, UNDERSTANDING, MONETARY THEORY

MONEY: Money talks.” – English proverb, recent in its present form, but the idea goes back to the 16th century. - If it could really talk, it might enlighten us about the difference between the money of monetary despotism and that of monetary freedom. And if we were to seriously talk about money, we could discover the difference ourselves. – JZ, 13.12.07.

MONEY: Money that is legally monopolized and whose acceptance is enforced, at par with its nominal value, by legal tender legislation, is subject to different laws on its issue and reflux, volume and value, effect on prices and wages and the state of the economy than is money that is competitive, optional, market rated against one or the other of freely chosen optional value standards and also altogether legally refusable (by all but the issuer). It has different laws for its issue and reflux, for its effects, if any, upon prices and wages and upon the economy in general. It is a great mistake to mix the two up and then talk of money as if only one form would be possible and desirable and as if the same kind of economic or monetary laws and consequences applied to all forms of money, those of monetary despotism and those of monetary freedom. Monetary despotism can indeed be effective in preventing production and exchange and the free development of the economy. It can also distort and mislead most economic actions. But it cannot improve upon the results of free market monies. It cannot facilitate production and exchange but, rather, puts them in chains. Compared with these chains its uniformity is of little value. One might as well say that the one-party state is preferable or a society where only one kind of sport or painting, clothing, housing, cooking, music, fashion, dancing, recreasion or architectural style would be permissible, all in the interest of "uniformity"! - JZ, 16.4.97, 6.11.13. – UNIFORMITY RATHER THAN SUFFICIENCY, HONESTY, FREEDOM, JUSTICE, PEACE, RIGHTS & LIBERTIES IN THIS SPHERE AS WELL?

MONEY: Money that is tampered with is energy drained to the degree it is manipulated.” - Joan Marie Leonard, THE FREEMAN, 3/77. - No sound money issue and reflux technique could or should be classed as unsound management, tampering or manipulation. - JZ, 23.3.97. - ISSUE & REFLUX TECHNIQUE VS. TAMPERING, MONEY MANIPULATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONOPOLY MONEY, FORCED CURRENCY, LEGAL TENDER, EXCLUSIVE CURRENCY

MONEY: Money the root of all evil!” - Monopolistic and forced currency causes many evils but the money of monetary freedom does not. It facilitates free exchange and sound value reckoning and as such it is the root of much good in the world, part of the essence of a free society, of property, prosperity, rights, liberties, justice, peace, progress, culture and civilization. – JZ, 1.1.98, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Money to be as abundant as goods, services and labor – as it would be, if it represented them and were issued and accepted by their producers and their customers. – JZ, 6.5.05, 6.11.13. - MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY: Money to the people.” – Howard Katz, 1975. – Money BY the people, through the people, to the people, for the people! – JZ, 12.3.97. By now they should have learnt enough from their repeated and bitter experiences with all governmental monies not to accept any at all, - except the so far unrepentant statists and they deserve to be so paid. All others should be free to opt out from under the totalitarian money system and, to the extent that it is territorial, also the totalitarian political, economic and social system. – JZ, 28.9.08, 8.1.11. - PEOPLE, SECESSIONISM, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: Money today is the product of a legally created disorder, abuse, exploitation, deception, fraud and repression. - JZ 10.7.77. – MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING, LEGAL TENDER, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES INSTEAD OF THOSE OF FULL MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY: Money tokens freely and responsibly issued, by ourselves, could become our tickets to freedom. The money of monetary despotism, on the other hand, amounts to tickets to at least degrees of serfdom and slavery practices, with compulsory attendance and obedience for the involuntary victims of territorial governments and their nation-wide prisons or concentration camps. - JZ, 19.4.93, 15.4.97, 6.9.02, 6.11.13. – Even Russell Means had recognized that and compared today’s USA with a countrywide Indian reservation. I listened to most of his talk on this and related subjects yesterday online. Alas, his mind was then and there still all too full of numerous popular errors and prejudices, false assumptions, conclusions and definitions, whose refutations he had, obviously, not yet encountered or understood b in his long life. General enlightenment efforts towards the masses should, perhaps, start by concentrating on opinion-makers like him. Once they are enlightened, they would then spread enlightenment to the rest of the population. But even that effort might have to start with the compilation of a digitized encyclopedia of the best refutations of popular errors and prejudices in the “social sciences”, which so far, alas, are not social sciences as yet. – JZ, 6.11.13. - MONEY TOKENS, TICKET MONEY, GOODS- & SERVICE VOUCHERS & MONETARY FREEDOM:

MONEY: Money was free (unrestricted) when first issued by private individuals. Today it is everywhere in chains (and turned into a forced and exclusive currency that holds us in its chains). How did this transformation occur? I do not know this in all details. But how could it and we become free again, quite rightly and non-violently? This question I believe to be able to solve. – JZ, free after Rousseau in The Social Contract, On Man. - JZ 5.4.85. - Another version: Money was freely "born", invented or discovered or developed - and everywhere it is in chains - and we, as a result, too. How did this transformation occur? I don't know in all details. But how could it rightly become free again? I believe to be able to solve this question. - JZ, free after a famous passage in Rousseau’s most famous work. - JZ, 5.4.84, 22.3.97.

MONEY: Money was only ever meant to be a token to simplify the exchange of goods and services between people. It has no intrinsic value in itself.” - Sawyer/Wilshire, One Man Band, The best of Peter Sawyer, whistle blower, edited by Brian Wilshire, 1996, Brian Wilshire, PO Box 209, Round Corner NSW 2158, ISBN # 0 646 265117 2, p.37. – The most natural way for its production is to leave it to the suppliers of goods and services, in form of their goods-warrants and service vouchers, accepted by them at their nominal value. This way it will neither be over-issued nor under-issued. It will not be monopolized nor be given legal tender power in general circulation. Naturally, xyz of such local suppliers might combined and use a common exchange medium and the same value standard for their shop currency and for their pricing. Acceptance is voluntary, discounting it is permitted in general circulation, also refusals to accept it – except by these issuers. Obviously, one must accept one’s own IOUs against oneself, as means of payment. Thus natural limits would be set for the issue and circulation of such monies. – With them neither inflations nor deflation can occur. – JZ, 25.3.09, 6.11.13. – MONETARY FREEDOM, LEGAL TENDER, OPTIONAL & DISCOUNTABLE MONEY, ESSENTIALLY CLEARING CERTIFICATES, COMPETITIVELY ISSUED & RAPIDLY WITHDRAWN AGAIN FORM CIRCULATION, LIKE TICKETS THAT HAVE BEEN USED. SHOP FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, GOODS WARRANTS, SERVICE VOUCHERS, SHOP ASSOCIATION BANKS, FREE BANKING

MONEY: Money will cease to be the master and become the servant of humanity. Democracy will rise superior to money power.” – Abraham Lincoln, 1865. - Money ceases its power to do wrong and harm as soon as it ceases to be a monopoly money and a forced currency. That means, the central bank must lose its note-issue monopoly and its power to determine a monopolistic “value standard” through a legal tender law, giving its notes and coins a compulsory acceptance at a forced fiat or fictional or merely nominal value, regardless of how much it has already been depreciated. Under free competition and free market rating exchange media and value standards do become the servants rather than the masters of mankind. – Democracy should never be authorized to decide upon any property rights. These rights and related natural or individual human rights and liberties should be quite inviolable by law. – Except in the case of convicts who are criminals with victims. Then the rights of victims for indemnification out of the property and earnings of their victimizers should be recognized. - JZ, JZ, 13.9.08. – Typically, under Abraham Lincoln’s rule, too, the money issue monopoly was introduced and it was given legal tender power to “finance” the Civil War. There is frequently a very wide gap between what a politician says and what he does. Monetary despotism served HIM more than monetary freedom, although it was a disservice to almost all of his subjects. In this respect, too, he was not a liberator but a dictator. – JZ, 8.2.09. - POWER, PROPERTY, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, INFLATION, LEGAL TENDER, CIVIL WAR, LINCOLN, RULERS

MONEY: Money with and money without legal tender power should be distinguished. So should money with and money without an issue monopoly. Likewise, money that is redeemable in rare metals should be distinguished from money that is merely reckoning, accounting and clearing free exchanges of goods, services and labor in rare metal values as optional value standards, while being redeemable only in wanted goods, services and labor – of the issuers. To the extent that money represents merely clearing certificates to clear the value of exchanges measured by a value standard, the quantity of such exchange media does not matter, except for the fact that it makes all exchanges much easier if it is issued up to the amount where the first discounts or disagio against its agreed-upon value standard does appear. If the total of such a circulation should be double or treble as much as it was at a previous period, then this would not mean that it would have been depreciated but merely that it would have mediated double or treble the quantity of goods, services and labor, all of them having been exchanged, under stable value reckoning. As is already inherent in the concept and practice of clearing, a rise in the total amounts of clearing merely means a greater turnover, if the same and sound enough value standard is used to measure the turnovers. – Just like an increase of primitive barter transactions means more such exchanges, usually just because not enough suitable exchange media are present. To use some analogies: The usefulness of a meter, liter or kilogram measure is not diminished when the number of such measuring tools are multiplied. If, however, the value of a paper currency unit, a mere paper dollar, paper pound or paper mark, is legally given legal tender power, i.e. a forced value, beyond its free market value and also compulsory acceptance, then, indeed, by the multiplication of such a paper money its paper value standard can be depreciated and will be depreciated by its sheer increase in quantity, beyond the quantity required for free exchanges (which would, under free market rating for them be indicated by their first discounts and refusal to accept them) and its imposition as a means of payment and as a “value standard”. If, instead, it were not given monopoly and legal tender power then it could be freely refused, discounted and competed out of existence and could not inflate any prices etc. expressed in sound value standard units. Neither could it then cause a deflation, if under-issued, because other and better means of payment could then be freely issued and take over its prior role. A no longer forced and exclusive paper currency of a state could then retain only whatever value it could have and maintain e.g. as a means to pay taxes with - among the remaining voluntary tribute contributors. The dissenters would have opted out to do their own things, not only in the monetary and financial sphere. Full monetary and financial freedom is just part of general secessionism, based upon individual sovereignty and voluntary associationism under personal law or full exterritorial autonomy. – JZ, n.d. & 20.10.07, 8.1.11, 6.11.13. - QUANTITY THEORY & CLEARING CERTIFICATES OR ACCOUNTS, STABLE VALUE RECKONING

MONEY: Money, in its proper form and self-regulated quantity, is not the root of any evil but the root of much good. It is lack of money, more correctly, lack of the right kinds of money, i.e., of freely competing currencies, that is the root of much evil. In other words, it is only the money of monetary despotism that is the root of many to most evils that are man-made and continue to be -imposed upon us. - JZ, 8.8.85, 3.5.97. - Personally, I consider territorial monopolies and powers to be even greater wrongs. This territorial despotism and suppression of free and voluntary communities, embraces the suppression of alternative and voluntary payment communities, too. - JZ, 8.8.85, 3.5.97. - Ultimately, it leads as to a general holocaust, conducted with ABC mass murder devices or anti-people "weapons", still stockpiled even by "democratic" but still territorially centralized democracies - targets for such "weapons" under ancient misconceptions of territorial or population-wide responsibility of people for the criminal actions of their territorial governments. - JZ, 8.1.11. - THE ROOT OF ALL EVIL OR THE ROOT OF ALL GOOD? MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, LEGAL TENDER, CENTRAL BANKING, MONEY MONOPOLY, ISSUE MONOPOLY, PEOLE AS PROPERTY, TERRITORIALISM, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, NWT

MONEY: Money, like e.g. butter, milk, cheese or bicycles, could not be over-issued and become depreciated if it remains subject to free pricing against a sound value standard, subject to refusals by potential acceptors, who are already sufficiently supplied with them, and if it does not have legal tender power, i.e. compulsory acceptance at a forced value. Then, in the interest of its producers as well, its quantities would be limited to the total amounts the free market is ready to accept of it. Just like the market for capital certificates is limited and of tickets and any consumer good or service. While under censorship and financial despotism only the official ideas and opinions and governmental “insecurities” can be freely spread, regardless of how flawed they are. Naturally when only a monopolist can issue money and can force all people to accept it at its nominal value, then abuses of this monopoly power are inevitable. But under freedom of issue for exchange media and clearing certificates or accounts and also under free choice of value standards, the issuers can only oblige themselves, not other people. They can thus and then only mobilize or liquidify their own readiness to supply wanted goods or services, not that readiness of others. Not can they then force their value standards upon others. – Possibly the best analogy is that of tickets: One can and should be free to issue tickets for the own performance and that freedom is obviously self-limiting. – JZ, 8.2.09. – SELF-LIMITATION OF THE MONEY OF MONETARY FREEDOM, TICKET MONEY

MONEY: Money, not morality, is the principle of commercial nations. –Thomas JeffersonMaking money honestly, like most businessmen, wage- and salary earners do, is one of the most moral actions. It supports individuals and their families by serving others in division of labor and under free exchange, in which these rewards are voluntarily allocated or earned from satisfied customers or employers and their customers. Naturally, the monopoly money and forced currency of monetary despotism is not an honest, economical and prosperity-promoting money but rather the opposite. – JZ, 21.4.13. – MORALITY, EARNINGS, PROFITS, BUSINESS, COMMERCE, TRADE, SERVING OTHERS & BEING SERVED BY THEM, IN FREE EXCHANGES, PROFITS, WAGES, SALARIES

MONEY: Money, th' only power that all mankind falls down before.” - Butler, Hudibras, Pt. iii, conato ii, 1. 1327. - Why do they fall down before the money of monetary despotism and do not bother to raise themselves up with the money of monetary freedom? - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: money, the economic catalyst.” - View of Dr. H. G. Pearce, according to PROGRESS, Melbourne, 7/76. – This pplies only to sound money, not to the great destroyer, that of monetary despotism. Just like a free society is the great catalyst, so the territorial State, in all its aspects, is the great destroyer. – JZ, 31.10.08, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money, the textbooks say, is the fuel that makes business go.” - Richard Cornuelle, Demanaging America, p.69. - But not any kind of money under any kind of conditions. Despotic money is often money that can bring business to a halt or causes large losses or it and could induce it to undertake unwarranted investments, repayable in inflated currency. Most textbooks fail to distinguish between the money of monetary despotism and that of monetary freedom. Few of them see clearly the connection between inflation and legal tender and the issue monopoly. Most merely parrot an oversimplified definition of legal tender without comprehending its opportunities for mismanagement and its usual consequences. The same applies to the issue monopoly. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: Money, to be a currency for current use, must help to clear goods, services or debts of the present and of the near future. Otherwise it can only be a forced currency and will be found unacceptable without that coercion or suffer a discount. It would be widely refused because of that discount, while other monies would be preferred, which stand at part with their good enough value standard on a free market. - JZ, 24.11.84, 21.12.07, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Money, when available, is the "happy medium". - JZ, 1.6.76. – A spiritualist medium may be happy but can money be? Its owners may be happy but hardly their money. It can be a means to become somewhat happy, but degrees of happiness are also obtainable without it. Words and language can be all too misleading. – JZ, 20.1.08.

MONEY: Money, which represents the prose of life, and which is hardly spoken of in parlors without an apology, is, in its effects and laws, as beautiful as roses.” - Ralph Waldo Emerson. - Provided it is the money of monetary freedom, rather than the money of monetary despotism. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: Money! Money! It is the devil. A child of hell, quite certainly. A curse, without a doubt, for mankind, for everyone wants it only for himself. Money is poison, always dangerous, a great evil in the morning and at night. There is only one thing I know of which is worse, namely, when one hasn't any of it.” – (“Das Geld! Das Geld! Es ist der Teufel, // Ein Kind der Hoelle sicherlich, // Ein Fluch der Menschheit, ohne Zweifel, // Denn jeder will es nur fuer sich. // Das Geld ist Gift, gefaehrlich immer, // Ein grosses Uebel frueh und spaet, // Und eins nur weiss ich, das noch schlimmer, // Und das ist: wenn man KEINES hat!“) – Source unknown – Another version: “Money, money. It is the devil itself. Certainly a child of hell. A curse of mankind, without a doubt, for everyone wants it exclusively for himself. Money is poison, always dangerous. A great evil in the morning and late at night. I know only one thing that is worse and that is: when one has none at all!” - German saying. Source unknown. - JZ - ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: Money's worth: Having lost its value, money may no longer be the root of all evil (*): credit has taken its place. The impulse to buy now and pay later admits to a belief that whatever we deny ourselves today will surely cost more tomorrow. Those who still believe in the homely wisdom of living within measurable means can only be regarded as eccentrics. It is not greed or a rampant materialism that motivates so many to irresponsibility; it is the realization that money (**) is now the least durable of life's material possessions.” - Dalton Camp in Saturday Night, quoted in READER'S DIGEST, 10.84, p.67. - Well, the debtors are the winners. The creditors are the losers and we are both, creditors - and editors, even if creditors only for our wages and salaries and pensions. - - (*) It never was. Only monopoly money was the root of much evil. - (**) The government's monopoly money! - JZ, 21.12.07. - CREDIT, WINNING FROM INFLATION OF THE GOVERNMENT'S MONOPOLY MONEY

MONEY: Most people would rather earn much money of any kind, usually only the exclusive and forced currency that is circulating and all too often over-issued or made all too scarce, rather than study and practise monetary rights and liberties. As a consequence they do not earn any sound money, but only the unsound money of monetary despotism, its monopoly money, as such either over-supplied or under-supplied and they lose thereby much of their free and honest exchange options, sometimes in combinations of inflations and deflations, called stagflations. For instance, towards the end of a galloping inflation the note-printing presses can, sometimes, no longer keep up with the demand for more notes, even in large denominations, not to speak of small denominations. Then the notes required to buy food with may amount to a larger volume and weight than the food bought with them. Alas, not only paper and ink as well as sprinting labor becomes thus wasted. – JZ, 22.2.03, 6.11.13. - & MONETARY FREEDOM, INFLATION, DEFLATION, STAGFLATION, FORCED & EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES

MONEY: No clear distinction between money and non-MONEY: It also means that, although we usually assume there is a sharp line of distinction between what is money and what is not - and the law generally tries to make such a distinction - so far as the causal effects of monetary events are concerned, there is no such clear difference. What we find is rather a continuum in which objects of various degrees of liquidity, or with values which can fluctuate independently of each other, shade into each other in the degree to which they function as money. - I have always found it useful to explain to students that it has been rather a misfortune that we describe money by a noun, and that it would be more helpful for the explanation of monetary phenomena if 'money' were an adjective describing a property which different things could possess to varying DEGREES. 'Currency' is, for this reason, more appropriate, since objects can 'have currency' to varying degrees and through different regions or sectors of the population.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.47.

MONEY: No Money, No Power.” Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, heading, p.258. – Monopolistic and forced currency means too much and all too wrongful power. – The money of monetary freedom provides only power over the own affairs. – JZ, 31.10.08. – One should not underestimate the destructive and ultimately self-defeating power of plunder and pillage, especially when it is legally sanctioned, calling regular tribute levies: taxes, “democratically” imposed. But in most “democracies” there is no referendum on most taxes. And if they were the rule, the minorities would still be robbed by the majorities. – JZ, 16.2.09. – Under the money of monetary despotism there can be too much power over others. With the money of monetary freedom one can get more power over the own affairs. – JZ, 18.2.09. - & POWER, TAXES, INFLATION TAX, INVESTMENTS IN TAX SLAVES

MONEY: No money, no Swiss.” (Point d'argent, point de Suisse.) - Racine, Les Plaideurs, Act i, sc.1. - As for the original meaning: One should also have pondered why no trustworthy soldiers were volunteering, so that one had to hire foreign mercenaries. That indicated either a flaw in the regime or in the subjects, most likely the former, rather than one in the Swiss mercenaries. However, if the latter had known about the issue potential of their own currencies, in their own villages and towns, then they would not have had to hire their lives out as unproductive mercenaries for worse foreign governments than their own. - JZ, 23.3.97. - Originally intended as a gibe at the venality of Swiss mercenaries, the phrase is now used to indicate that what one wants must be paid for. – Added by some commentator. – And they and all others should be paid in sound and optional monies rather than in forced and exclusive currencies. – Something that Washington failed to do, when he paid of his soldiers, in inflated paper money, at its fictitious value, after first marching them into the wilderness. Otherwise he might have had a military insurrection at his hands. - JZ, 31.10.08, 6.11.13.

MONEY: No one - and I will repeat that - NO one knows what money is or can cause, given its own will.” - Richard Condon, Money Is Love, p.123. - Indeed, goods and services - are so diverse and so are free exchanges of them that no one can quite predict, in details, what will be exchanged, how it will be exchanged and what will result from free exchanges. One can only generally predict e.g. progress, growth in common wealth, peace, security, order and justice. - JZ, 22.3.97. – Naturally, money does not have its own will. It is a tool of man and all too often one of wrongful legislation and institutions, imposed upon exchangers. Some monies are more like wide-spread arson or scorched earth practices rather than production and exchange tools. -  JZ, 16.11.13. - & ALL ITS OPTIONS, FULL EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM IN THIS SPHERE, MONETARY RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONEY: Nobody can create money or credit out of nothing, no more so than creating energy and matter out of nothing. What appears or is considered as "creation" is either a forced or fiat "value" or a replacement system temporarily substituting suitable bills or notes for unsuitable ones (for general circulation), clearing or fraud. - JZ, 77 & 97. - & CREDIT “CREATION”?

MONEY: Not everything can or should be monetized, e.g. not mere capital values. (Their equivalent issue media are capital securities, not currencies.) Most of what could be soundly monetized hasn’t been as yet, while much of what should not be monetized at all, has been and still is. (E.g. governmental medium and long-term securities, or, rather, insecurities.) No wonder then that we have landed ourselves in many economic troubles. Monetary and financial despotism still prevail everywhere, even in democracies, instead of monetary and financial freedom. – JZ, 25.12.92, 8.10.08. - Even relatively sound tax-foundation paper monies have been largely forgotten. They still used a sound value standard but their legal tender applied only to the State. Thus they provided a clearing option between government spending and the immediately or soon due tax levies. - Naturally, even such money could not make the wrongfulness of compulsory taxation right. – JZ, 6.11.13. - ASSET CURRENCIES, MONETIZATION, COVER & BACKING OF CURRENCIES, TAX FOUNDATION, SHOP FOUNDATION, SHORT-TERM DEBT FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, CLEARING FOUNDATION, UNEMPLOYMENT, EXCHANGE MEDIA, MONETARY FREEDOM, SHOP FOUNDATION CURRENCIES.

MONEY: Not the least of its virtues is that it destroys base people as certainly as it fortifies and dignifies noble people.” - George Bernard Shaw, Major Barbara, Preface, 1905. – Can one say quite the same about the money of monetary despotism as about the money of monetary freedom? – JZ, 8.12.07.

MONEY: Nothing but money is sweeter than honey.” - Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard, 1735. – Some artificial sweeteners are! – JZ, 31.10.08. – One with only a few cents in his pocket will not consider them to be very sweet. - JZ, n.d. & 18.2.09.

MONEY: Now when the stars were open, nobody wanted another hell-planet. In money terms - which, ultimately, means in terms of value received for effort expanded - it wouldn't pay.” - Poul Anderson, Planet of No Return, p.22. - & PROFIT

MONEY: Now, let's take a look at another aspect of the general economy which upsets the fair distribution of goods and labor - namely, money, or the medium of exchange. So long as people exchange goods for goods and labor for labor - or barter it - the two people making the exchange can mutually decide what is a fair deal for them. But barter is clumsy and awkward - it's hard to exchange milk for coal and dress fabrics for butter. So we use "money" to represent goods. This makes it convenient and everyone would be better off for it, IF the money we used accurately represented the goods and labor we exchange with it.” - Mildred Loomis, Moving into the Front Ranks of Social Change, p.63. - & BARTER

MONEY: O accurst craving for gold!” - Virgil [Publius Virgilius Maro], Aeneid, III, p.57 – Accursed? - It is not really a craving for gold but the desire to become able to pay - with any kind of sufficiently acceptable means of payment. - JZ, 13.10.02. - GOLD, HUNGER FOR GOLD, EXCHANGE MEDIA, ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: One of the measures of most things, as exchange medium and as a value standard embodied in it. Alas, we have allowed governments to monopolize its issue as exchange medium and to depreciate its value standard! – We have put up with this kind of monetary despotism and depreciation by our supposed guardian of the national currency for almost a century already. Isn’t it about time to finally consider and practice the monetary freedom alternatives? – JZ, 6.3.99, 25.9.08. – MONETARY DESPOTISM, Q.

MONEY: One of the worst aspects of the present and despotic monetary system is that all the different kinds of money that are rightful, useful and possible are not seen, understood, distinguished, properly issued and maintained by a sufficient demand for them, i.e. utilized as exchange media and clearing options to settle debts. It is almost as if all the various medicines in a pharmacy were mixed with each other and the resulting concoction would then be offered as a general cure and would be accepted and swallowed in the expectation that it would cure every disease - and then complaining that it does not cure any of them. – JZ, 29.8.06, 17.9.08. – Actually, the monies issued by governments combine only the worst features of monetary despotism and have none of the essential features of monetary freedom. – JZ, 8.2.09. - MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM & QUACKERY, MEDICINE & DISCRIMINATION

MONEY: One should look down on money but never lose sight of it.” - Andre Prevot fl. 1911. – We should look down only upon the money of monetary despotism and lose sight of it – as soon as possible! – Not distinguishing between the monies of monetary despotism and the honest monies of monetary freedom is like drawing no distinction between incomes from crimes and incomes from productive or creative work. - JZ, 17.2.09. Or like not distinguishing between health and sicknesses, between cripples and able-bodied persons, between mad people and sane people, between poisons and healthy food. – IMPORTANCE, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM,

MONEY: Only the monies that you issued yourself will come back to you, almost inevitably, and also soon (apart from some hoarding, the better they are and some withholding by collectors of notes and coins), especially when you put a short time validity limit on them. They would have and need no other foundation than your own readiness to supply wanted goods services, or labor or receipts for debt payments to you. – JZ, 22.2.03, 21.10.07. – Money that is universally acceptable will not automatically come back to the one who issues it. But his own IOU’s and clearing certificates or other notes, covered by his goods, services or labor, will, for that is the foundation of their value. It assures their “reflux”, their “shop foundation” or their “readiness to accept foundation”. That applies even to tax foundation monies, as long as such tributes can still be  imposed and levied. – JZ, 17.2.09, 6.11.13. - MONEY ISSUES, PRIVATE & COOPERATIVE ONES, MONETARY FREEDOM, REFLUX TO THE ISSUER

MONEY: Overheard on my way to the Post Office: “What do you want?” – “Give me some money!” the ca. 2-year old replied, still held by both his hands, by what seemed to be his grandparents. He, no more so than, probably, his parents and grandparents, had given any thought to making distinctions between various kinds of money and their inherent or legally imposed characteristics, especially its monopolistic and coercive features, the distinction between money as value standard and money as exchange or clearing medium, and its possible competitive supply, combined with free choice of value standards. They would not have pondered whether, under a competitive supply of both, exchange media and value standards, the supply of exchange media would be more plentiful and the value standards and also that of wanted goods and services, would be more plentiful. I wondered: will he ever have an intelligent conversation with his parents, grandparents, teachers or mates on the subject of money, exchange media, value standards and clearing, credit and capital? Under present conditions I doubt it. He will hardly ever encounter it in his school years either and only very rarely when he is at a university, studying economics. How much will the lack of sufficient thoughts on money – and the resulting monetary policy, most likely that of monetary despotism rather than monetary freedom, come to influence his life and how much would it be changed for the better, should he be so lucky, if a thorough monetary freedom revolution occurred during his lifetime? – JZ, 15.3.05, 17.9.08, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Pay a person in his own coin.” - 16th century saying. - That is the "reflux principle" for currencies in a nutshell. - JZ, 23.3.97. – Reflux principle of money: only the issuer has always to accept it at par with its nominal value. That fact tends to prevent over-issues. – JZ, 18.2.09. – TICKET MONEY, FREE MARKET MONIES

MONEY: Plainly labor cannot be free, unless the laborers are free to hire all the money capital that is necessary for their industries. And they cannot be free to hire all this money capital, unless all who can lend it to them, shall be at liberty to do so. - In short, labor cannot be free, unless each laborer is free to hire all the capital - money capital, as well as other capital - that he honestly can hire; free to buy, wherever he can buy, all the raw material he needs for his labor; and free to sell, wherever he can sell, all the products of his labor. Therefore labor cannot be free, unless we have freedom in money, and free trade with all mankind.” - Lysander Spooner, A Letter to Grover Cleveland, p.51, Works I. - Note, that here he does here write only about financial or capital freedom, not about monetary freedom, e.g. freedom to issue, accept, discount, refuse and clear. Nor does he discuss laborers as potential issuers at least of clearing certificates upon their labor or as acceptors for shop foundation money in wage payments to them. But then L. S. never clearly enough distinguished between capital and currency and did imagine that all capital could be turned into currency. In this he did not serve the cause of monetary freedom very well but rather provided a disservice. - JZ, 23.3.97, 29.8.02. - FREE TRADE, LABOR & CAPITAL, CREDIT

MONEY: Point out that money is morally neutral – it’s what you do with it that counts.” - Margaret Thatcher, Statecraft, 2002, HarperCollins, – p.435. - Alas, the money of monetary despotism is not morally neutral. It is itself evidence of a major crime and it does also causes numerous major and minor crimes. – The money of monetary freedom is evidence of a major economic right, even of a major economic duty, to provide, if one can, the means of exchange required in one’s sphere. How such money, once it earned, is then spent, is up to the values of the individual. But individuals will be less morally corrupted if circulation is competitively and sufficiently supplied with the sound exchange media that it requires. The shortage of and consequent greed for monopoly money would have largely disappeared. – Almost everyone will have it relatively easy to earn some of the money of monetary freedom because then the sale of wanted labor, services and goods for such money will be easy, because it would have them as is cover and redemption fund, just like tickets for wanted performances. - JZ, 8.10.07, 6.11.13. - MORALITY

MONEY: Presently, the money supply, or the lack of it, and its centralized, monopolized and coercive issue, causes inflations deflations and stagflations, all with involuntary mass-unemployment. Thereupon some freedom lovers asserted an alternative money and clearing system, consistently applying freedom principles in this sphere, too, would be essential to avoid these crises and the problems they bring with them, - that it would even promote peace on earth. They do hold, upon theoretical considerations and reviewing the historical evidence, that you, like everybody else, should be free to issue your own money - if you can. Whether you would find any takers for it, none or many, would indicate your capacity to issue it, alone, or in association with others, whether your kind of cover, acceptance foundation, convertibility, debt foundation, short term reflux arrangements or clearing options and chosen value standard would suffice to make it acceptable at par, at least as one among several local currencies, to make the issue worthwhile for you, sufficient to proceed with it and for others to accept it and to use it to some extent as an alternative currency. For the others would remain free to refuse to accept it altogether or only at a discount. They are not your monetary slaves but trading partners with equal rights and liberties. While you try to make the best possible use of your free enterprise monetary freedom options, they remain sovereign consumers towards your exchange media, value standard and clearing offers, as they are towards your goods, services and labor power, upon which your monetary offers would have to be based. Your offers could be taken or refused or would encounter alternative proposals - until you finally agreed upon terms or agreed not to trade with each other. Others would tend to take your money tokens only if they were entitling them to the range of consumer goods and services (including labor) that they do want. Even then they would tend to refuse them if you managed your money issues so badly that your money tokens would fall below par (with its nominal value standard) in general local circulation. For they would have no legal tender (forced acceptance and forced value) towards them. Only towards you would your issues have legal tender power. You would have to price out your goods, services and labor in the value standard you adopted and expressed in your exchange media and clearing certificates and would have to accept them, at any time, at par with your value standard. That obligation is implied in the issue of any kind of IOUs. One must recognize one's own debt against oneself, in full, in any payment. Anything else would be fraud. Most of your potential customers and acceptors for your notes would not want to acquire rare metals with them - unless you were a gold and silver smith or jeweler. But they want to buy your services, goods and labor from you with your certificates - provided only that your certificates are, towards you, AS GOOD AS GOLD, i.e., accepted by you at any time (during shop or office hours) and from anyone, with whom you are associated in this respected, as IF they were corresponding gold weight units or coins, IF you adopted SUCH units as your value standard, in all payments due to you. - Naturally, at least initially, you could assure a greater acceptance for your notes if you combined your readiness-to-accept-foundation with that of others for the issue of a common exchange medium and agreed upon a common value standard for your pricing and your exchange medium, i.e., if you formed, together with them, a bank of issue and acceptance or private or cooperative payment community. It would discount your short-term turn-over debts with its notes and would do the same for other local businesses, tradesmen, professionals, service suppliers and employers, so that they could pay e.g. their suppliers and their employees with them. The same self-monetizing, self-liquidating and self-limiting and stable value reckoning issue, acceptance, reflux and clearing process would be set in motion that existed formerly under the free banking principles based upon sound commercial bills, often also called the "real bills doctrine". (RBD) It could be realized purely, i.e., without any mixture with "currency -principle" practices, by referring note holders for any other convertibility, e.g. convertibility into gold coins, that they might desire, not to the issuer of the notes and his at best rather limited gold stocks, but, instead, to all the gold stocks on the free gold markets of the whole world and thus to one of their local agents. Any exchange medium that stands at par, locally, with its nominal gold weight value, could also be locally exchanged with anyone who deals with gold, locally. That is a division of labor specialty that need not be mixed up with the issue of any sound exchange media and with the choice of any value standard, not even the value standard of gold weight units. The readiness to accept one's notes and clearing certificates just like one would accept corresponding gold coins, and the pricing of one's goods and services in gold weight units, would be enough to achieve and maintain the par value of one's notes with their nominal gold weight values, as long as one has not over-issued one's notes in relation to one's capacity to issue them, with sufficient "shop foundation" and the readiness of one's potential customers to accept them for the goods, services and labor one have to offer, together with one's associates. The market rating of one's notes etc. against their value standard would be an essential pricing signal for the issue, acceptance and reflux of one's notes. While the par value is maintained, one could still safely continue to issue and would find acceptance at par. As soon as one's notes would suffer a discount (possibly only among some money-exchange offices or clearing houses or in wholesale trading), one would, in the own interest and to avoid a massive reaction of potential acceptors against any further issues, stop further issues - until the par value is restored. With any considerable and lasting discount the number of potential acceptors in general circulation would be greatly and lastingly reduced. Only those who could still pay debts to the issuer with them, and this, naturally, at par, would then be still willing to accept them, to that extent. The whole system could be as free and self-limiting and self-regulating as is the issue and acceptance of tickets. - Is this a spleeny, futuristic or utopian proposal? You can already issue your own cheques or have your different credit card arrangements, all optional for their potential acceptors. All your debts are thus accounted against you, whichever non-cash payment and clearing avenue you use. But in these choices you are limited to using only the prescribed legal tender "value standard" and monopolized "medium of exchange" (a medium largely to prevent free, easy and honest exchanges! - JZ, 12.9.02.) and are legally obliged to deliver the equivalent amounts in scarce legal tender when a creditor demands this. Thus you, your debtors and your creditors are made dependent on the paper money issued by a monopoly supplier and his forced currency and forced paper value standard. - JZ, 3.5.97, 8.1.11, 6.11.13. - MONEY AS IT SHOULD BE & AS IT IS: MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY- DESPOTISM

MONEY: Pride and dignity come from money in the pocket, and not just a hole.” - TIME. – But it also matters what kind of money is involved or lacking! – JZ, 31.10.08. - SELF-RESPECT, PRIDE & DIGNITY, OPPORTUNITY, ABILITY TO PAY ONE'S WAY, INDEPENDENCE, MONEY OF MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONEY OF MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: Product money”, a term used by J. B. Say. The term is not too closely related to the term "commodity money", which is usually only applied to metal coins. - If it is not made out of just one commodity but, instead, represents a large enough choice of various consumer goods and services, locally supplied, then it can become a local currency. Money could be defined as representing and entitling to a variety of daily wanted consumer goods and services. - JZ, 18.12.93, 2.5.97. - TICKET MONEY, TOKEN MONEY, GOODS WARRANTS, SERVICE VOUCHERS, DEFINITION, LOCAL CURRENCY, PURCHASING POWER, LIQUIDITY, CASH, HIGHEST LIQUIDITY

MONEY: Purchasing media: Forms of money or money substitutes.” - Harry Brown, You Can Profit from a Monetary Crisis, 394. – Did he, closely enough, observe all the options for this? – JZ, 31.10.08. – Money notes that keep at par with their nominal gold weight value are not merely gold coin substitutes but something better and more convenient, also cheaper to produce. It is wrong to deny such notes the name of money and to call them merely money substitutes or even fiat money, as some are inclined to do - who cannot think beyond 100 % gold covered and gold redeemable notes. – JZ, 8.2.09.

MONEY: Put not your trust in money, put your money in a trust.” - Oliver Wendell Holmes. - One cannot trust the money of monetary despotism to risk placing it into any long-term investment without risking being paid back in its depreciated form. - JZ, 13.10.02. – Value-preserving clauses for investments are all too often and quite wrongfully outlawed. – JZ, 6.11.13.

MONEY: Q.: You got the right money? A.: Unfortunately, no, but it is in the right nominal amount. – JZ, 10.2.00.

MONEY: Ready money is Aladdin’s lamp.” – Lord Byron, 1788-1824, Don Juan, XII, 1823 (1819-24, 12.12.) – Not when it is greatly inflated, deflated or stagflated. – Sufficient credit or free clearing could do almost as well. And under full monetary freedom competitive sound monies would be widely available to those who have wanted goods, services or labor to offer or could even be issued by themselves. – Money is so important that significant characteristics of it should not be so often overlooked. – JZ, 13.12.07, 6.11.13. - See: APHORISMS ON THE MONEY PROBLEM by Ulrich von Beckerath. Monetary & financial freedom, combined with all other rights and liberties, could act for us almost like Aladdin’s lamp in the fairy tale, producing the greatest “economic miracle” ever. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONEY: Redeemable, sound, fiat, cheap, easy, hard and paper money are not sufficiently descriptive terms because they do not clearly enough state whether they are e.g. a forced and exclusive currency or a competitive, market-rated and refusable one and whether their value standard is a prescribed and flawed or a freely chosen one and whether all the issue and reflux arrangements for it are sound or unsound, e.g. whether they are sufficiently based on honest clearing transactions. – JZ, n.d., & 19.8.08.

MONEY: Since there are so many different kinds of money, rightful and wrongful ones, very useful ones and hardly usable ones, too, we should try to list and number all the varieties and from then on, when we speak of money, always add the number that refers to the meaning we want attached to it. If we did so then wrongful generalizations, laws and observations on money would, gradually, become rarer and our insights on money would tend to increase. The same could and should be arranged for every other significant monetary term, e.g. "means of exchange", "standard of value", "legal tender", "tax foundation", "debt foundation", "acceptance foundation", "convertibility", "cover", "currency", etc. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: Sir”, said Dr. Johnson (as arranged by H. C. Biron) “it is in general better to spend money than to give it away; for industry was promoted by spending money (*) than by giving it away.” – Samuel Johnson. - Anyhow, should we assume that the money we give away will not be spent? – Perhaps, what Johnson meant to say, instead of “spend” was “invest”? – Money that is given away, e.g. to help the needy, is mostly not productively invested but, instead, spent, soon, on consumer goods, which does not always assure more investment in more productive equipment and higher output. – Mere spending might also mean more expenditure on alcohol and tobacco, narcotic drugs, excess food consumption leading to obesity and sickness, more weapons for more wars, even spending on mass extermination devices, more spending on bureaucracies, i.e. more waste and destruction or obstacles are “achieved”. However, spending money on wastrels is also a way to get it fast into the hands of people who will make better use of it. – Our language more often misleads us rather than enlightens us. – (*) rather? - JZ, 5.4.89, 6.12.07. - CHARITY, SPENDING & INVESTMENTS, DIS.

MONEY: So far from being the root of all evil, money is the acid test of sincerity.” - THE INDIVIDUAL, Oct. 80.

MONEY: So long as people exchange goods for goods and labor for labor - or barter it - the two people making the exchange can mutually decide what is a fair deal for them. But barter is clumsy and awkward - it's hard to exchange milk for coal and dress fabric for butter. So we use 'money' to represent goods. This makes it convenient and everyone would be better off for it, IF the money we used accurately represented the goods and labor we exchange with it.” - Mildred Loomis in "Moving into the Front Ranks of Social Change”, p.63.

MONEY: So long as the government doesn't interfere with the price system, any amount of money can get the job done. If people become fearful and decide they want to increase their cash holdings, this means that each dollar bill will change hands less frequently. In general, prices will tend to fall. But that means that the same per capita amount of cash will now have a higher purchasing power, which is exactly what the so-called hoarders wanted.” – A typical remark in: “Cut Taxes for the Right Reasons”, Mises Institute, Daily Article by Robert P. Murphy - Posted on 2/16/2009. – Will they fall fast enough? Will e.g. all wages and salaries fall fast enough and correspondingly, and all rents? Will there be no deflationary spiral, with falling prices increasing the amounts hoarded money and the number of people confining their purchases to necessities only? In the meantime x firms might go bankrupt or lay off many of their employees, for lack of sales. So production becomes reduced and to that extent will sooner or later lead to higher scarcity prices. Under monetary despotism the re-employment of these laid off people is obviously not easy and fast, either. Under these conditions it might take years and also require the retraining of many of the unemployed before they are fit for new jobs. - Under monetary freedom all hoarded money could be rapidly replaced through new issues and deflationary price falls could be avoided. – Why should we have to adapt all our prices, wages, rents, salaries, fees etc. to those only, which are made possible by a money supplied by a central bank with an issue monopoly? Why should we not be free to express our prices in stable value units, chosen by ourselves and payable in monies, clearing certificates or account transfers of our own choice, all of them freely and competitively issued and voluntarily accepted? – The amount of exchange media active at any particular time does matter. Think of an entirely hypothetical and extreme case: All money except a single US dollar bill would be hoarded in the US. How much turnover could that single dollar achieve, even if its circulation speed could be very much increased? It certainly could not achieve light speed in its circulation. - JZ, 17.2.09, 8.1.11, 6.11.13. - HOARDING, MONEY CIRCULATION, ITS SPEED, QUANTITY, PRICE ADAPTATION.

MONEY: Some people argue as if there were only a choice between monetary despotism and the total abolition of money. Apparently, they are still unaware of the monetary freedom options. Their proposals are comparable to the “free choice” between the abolition of life and a life in slavery, not taking into consideration a life in freedom at all. – And to the extent that we have still not bothered to compile a comprehensive list of all genuine individual rights and liberties, including also all monetary and financial rights and liberties, into an ideal declaration of this kind, we are all at least somewhat guilty of this omission. – JZ, 1.2.98, 29.9.08. - MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM OR ABOLITION OF MONEY?

MONEY: Still the most efficient labor saving device.” - Franklin P. Jones. - Provided it is sound enough and in sufficient supply. Otherwise, both in inflation and in deflation, in their extreme cases, one might be reduced to very labor intensive and inefficient barter transactions and the kind of poverty that go with these insufficient and difficult exchanges. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: Stop money pollution by the government: Stop Legal Tender! - JZ, 27.10.78, after reading Leonard E. Read on the government as "the polluter of money", in "Let Freedom Reign", p.7. - POLLUTION OF MONEY & LEGAL TENDER

MONEY: Subject to a kind of disease, which at that time they called lack of money.” - Francois Rabelais, Garguntua and Pantagruel, II, Rabelais to the Reader, ch. 16. - The inability to pay, under conditions of monetary despotism or monetary ignorance, is, indeed, a great plague. - The great monetary crises may, indeed, harm even more people than great plagues do. - JZ, 13.10.02. - CURRENCY FAMINE, DEFLATION, POVERTY, INFLATION, STAGFLATION

MONEY: Supports the human need to buy and sell, save and spend.” - Peter T. White, THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, Jan. 93. - It does so well enough only if not monopolized, mismanaged and imposed by governments or other privileged issuers. - JZ, 24.6.93, 14.4.97. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: That is the best money, therefore, which will be most widely accepted." (From Tandy: Voluntary Socialism?) - Money must not only be good from the viewpoint of the acceptor but also of the issuer. What the issuer can always easily issue are assignments upon his own goods and services. Even when and if these assignments are obviously not universally and, most likely, not nationally acceptable and when they may not even locally be generally acceptable to others, for him these tokens are still the best money to pay his debts with, to the extent that he can find acceptance for it either at par or close enough to par. But it would be against his own interest to have to issue them one moment at a discount, of, let us say, 10 %, and the next moment have to accept them from one of his debtors at 100 %. To that extent he is not interested in over-issues. Even when his general profit margin would permit him to cover a small discount, during his issue of it, there is a secondary disincentive for him. With the money so discounted, he will immediately find only many less acceptors for it. And the fact of that discount will be well and fast publicized locally and also remembered. Consequently, he does reduce good will towards his business and would assure a still more wide-spread refusal of his future issues, even though they might be fully covered then by his goods and services. Since businessmen want to stay in business, as a rule, they will not risk that good will or creating this degree of distrust which would follow his over-issues, with a resulting temporary discount. - On the other hand, if the discount is only very temporary and considered to be trivial, compared with the services and goods that he offers and their prices, then it will not last or matter. The possibility of discounts must exist for the system to function well enough. (Just as well as for the discounting of the prices of goods and services. – JZ, 20.1.08.) Any artificial stabilization of the exchange rate of private issues (apart from the issuer's-acceptance obligation at par, and that of his debtors, by contract with him) would destabilize the issue and reflux situation and would make considerable over-issues not only possible but likely. - JZ, 2.7.91, 12.4.97. – Legal tender money must be accepted in the country of its issue, not matter how much it has been depreciated, at its nominal value. Or it may be under-issued, due to the monopoly for its issue and then, too, it is not the best kind of money. One should always also ask: Best for the payer or best for the payee? If it is, temporarily best for the payer only then it is, in the long run, not even best for him. – JZ, 20.2.09, 8.1.11. - & ACCEPTANCE FOUNDATION OR READINESS-TO-ACCEPT-FOUNDATION OR DEBT FOUNDATION, LEGAL TENDER MONEY IN INFLATIONS & IN DEFLATIONS, MONOPOLY MONEY VS. THE HONEST & COMPETITIVE MONIES OF MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY: The abuse of buying and selling votes crept in and money began to play an important part in determining elections. Later on, this process of corruption spread to the law courts. And then to the army, and finally the Republic was subjected to the rule of emperors.” - Plutarch (46 A.D.-127 A.D.) Historian of the Roman Republic. – Sent by C. B. – Money should not be blamed for this but rather the exclusive currency system, which made money scarce, combined with a territorial i.e. monopolistic and coercive power system in which power or privilege could be bought via bribery. Only those in power have to be bribed. In free exchanges one does not have to bribe anyone. – JZ, 27.12.07. - & POWER & CORRUPTION, VOTING, GOVERNMENT SPENDING, TAXATION, INFLATION, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: The almighty dollar, that great object of universal devotion throughout our land, seems to have no genuine devotees in these peculiar villages.” - Washington Irving. The "almighty" dollar was never that and has been fast depreciating for decades. - JZ, 13.10.02. - To speak only of money as if there could be only one form of money does ignore the majority of monetary freedom possibilities. It accepts monetary despotism in the same way as slavery and serfdom were mentally accepted for all too long as natural and inevitable. And yet both were, to a large extent, possible only under monetary despotism and its deflationary consequences. - JZ, 26.11.02. - DOLLAR, INFLATION, DEPRECIATION

MONEY: The amount of exchange media should grow with the amount of the values to be exchanged. – A greater usage of cinema, theatre, opera, bus, railway and airline seats requires more tickets, if all seats are sold and filled. Or should we leave them unsold for want of tickets? The reduction of the ticket price that becomes possible by the use of such seating to its full or almost full capacity usage would mean more tickets are needed and sold for a greater usage of such transport facilities but it would not mean a depreciation of the purchasing power of such tickets. All would still be fully redeemable in the service capacity that they do represent. With additional other goods and service warrants it is similar. As long as they are still standing a par with their nominal value and the goods and services that they can be redeemed in are also priced out in the same sound value standard, their multiplication has not reduced their purchasing power and driven up the prices of their goods and services, expressed in a sound value standard. – JZ, 6.6.00, 6.10.08. - QUANTITY THEORY, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE BANKING. TICKET MONEY, GOODS- & SERVICE WARRANTS, SHOP FOUNDATION MONEY, MONEY VOLUME, INFLATION

MONEY: The best things in life cost money.” - Bumpersticker, seen in 1977. – The worst things in life do cost us much money, too. – JZ, 31.10.09. - Not only marriage celebrations but even funerals have become very expensive. Although not as expensive as territorial governments that are mis-running our lives and charging us highly for this disservice. - JZ, 8.1.11.

MONEY: The CHIEF VALUE of money lies in the fact that one lives in a world in which it is overestimated.” - H. L. Mencken, quoted in THE READER'S DIGEST, 12/65, p.156. - Are all forms of money over-estimated or only some? And are not also some forms of money underestimated, those which should be of interest to libertarians and anarchists? - JZ, 23.3.97. – When one sees the consequences of monetary despotism and the opportunities of full monetary freedom, one will hardly go on underestimating either of them. – JZ, 31.10.08, 20.2.09. – Can the ability to pay be really and generally overestimated? – JZ, 2.1.08. – While the money of monetary despotism is still all too widely overestimated, the monies of monetary freedom are still all too widely underestimated! – JZ, 17.2.09.

MONEY: The crying need of the nation is not for better morals, cheaper bread, temperance, liberty, culture, redemption of fallen sisters and erring brothers, nor the grace, love and fellowship of the Trinity, but simply for enough money. And the evil to be attacked is not sin, suffering, greed, priest-craft, kingcraft, demagogy, monopoly, ignorance, drink, war, pestilence, nor any of the consequences of poverty, but just poverty itself.” - G. B. Shaw, Major Barbara, 1907. - Shaw remained unaware that without monetary freedom there will be neither enough nor sound enough money around and that the abolition of the money monopoly is one of the most important steps towards the abolition of involuntary poverty. - JZ 8.4.85. - While his remark contains considerable truth, it does not provide sufficient light e.g. on how sound money can be provided to all those willing to work for it or how to insure oneself against the risks of life, nor how sound money would do away with many causes of poverty or how ignorance, popular errors and prejudices prevents it from coming into existence. - It seems to be a detailed description of many causes and yet it is misleading on its main message and does not offer a useful solution. The Welfare State and its money and finance system, if one can rightly call them that, were certainly not the solution to the problems of the poor. They rather conduct their own kind of impoverishment policies and wars against the poor. - JZ, 23.3.97, 6.11.13.

MONEY: The different kinds of money and currency existing now are more lived with or rather suffered under than known and understood. Due to this adaptation tendency, to the existing forced monopoly currency, only few do ever imagine the sound alternatives, which would be possible. E.g.: How often have you read the inscription on your notes on their “legal tender” “quality” and thought about the meaning and consequences of this clause, if ever? - JZ 2.3.79. – LEGAL TENDER

MONEY: The element that makes stupidity shine.” - Russian saying. - Ideally, only the wise people would make money and only the stupid ones would never gain much would lose it fast. Then, obviously, the stupid ones could not shine with it for very long, unless they happened to be very lucky. - JZ, 16.3.78, 7.4.85. - "A fool and his money are soon parted." - Actually, with OUR money (earnings and property) the politicians are clever enough give themselves the air of wisdom and benevolence - and the voters are stupid enough to continue to believe in them, continue to vote for them, while they tax us and mismanage their exclusive and forced paper currency at our expense. Such stupidities are certainly outstanding or even glaring. - JZ, 23.3.97. - & STUPIDITY, WELFARE STATE, TAXATION & GOVERNMENT SPENDING

MONEY: The government monopoly of the issue of money was bad enough so long as metallic money predominated. But it became an unrelieved calamity since paper money (or other token money), which can provide the best and the worst money, came under political control.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.25. – Actually, at least the monies of monetary despotism have done away with the centuries of persistent money shortages, summed up with the old saying “the cursed hunger for gold”, which prevented fully monetary economies and led to the persistence of barter transactions into modern times. On the other hand, they lead, inevitably to many large inflations, with the facilities of modern printing methods for legal tender monopoly monies. – JZ, 6.11.13. - PAPER MONEY & POLITICAL CONTROL

MONEY: THE INDIVIDUALIST has constantly pointed out that a fundamental defect of our system is that fresh money is not lent to industry, but is spent into circulation. (*) When money is issued only as a loan, the borrower is obliged to produce and sell goods in order to repay his loan; and the production of goods therefore keeps pace with the money issued. (**) When money is spent into circulation (***), it remains there, subject only to the clawing back in taxes and the sale of government securities. Neither the government spending of money, nor the clawing back of taxes is a trustworthy guide to the need of commerce for money. Hence all our woes. ...” - Henry Meulen, THE INDIVIDUALIST, 8/78, p.48. - Alas, Meulen was not aware that only short term loans could be a sound basis for money issues and these only when they are undertaken on the basis of securities that represent goods that are already produced and sold and ready for sale – as well as corresponding service offers, waiting for the consumers in the retail stores. - JZ 7.4.85.) - (*) Which means that it has not sufficient reflux, especially when it is legal tender. – (**) It should, mainly, be issued not on goods to be produced but on goods already produced and sold and ready for sale in the shops. – (***) Forcing a kind of requisitioning certificates upon anyone is hardly "spending"! – But a shop association should also be free to pay its staff, its suppliers and its taxes with its own shop currency, as long as it stands at par with its nominal value and the recipients are willing to accept these notes. – But most of its issues should be granted in short term loans to other employers for use in their wage and salary bill. – In these issues the shop association bank would discount the claims that the employers have out of the sales of their products and services. - J. Z., n.d. & 17.2.09. – Real bills doctrine: discounting claims for already produced goods, sold to wholesalers, with banknotes issued for this purpose and using a sound value standard. - JZ, 8.1.11.SHOP FOUNDATION, REFLUX, READINESS TO ACCEPT, IMMEDIATE USEFULNESS TOWARDS THE ISSUER, CLEARING AND BANKING PRINCIPLE VS. CURRENCY PRINCIPLE

MONEY: The love of money and the love of learning seldom meet.” - George Herbert, Jacula Prudentum. - Luckily, there are at least some exceptions. If people really loved their money so much that they hesitate to invest it in freedom literature printed on paper then at least some of them should become interested in reproducing some of their favorite titles on microfiche only, where a page on a microfiche duplicate may sometimes cost them as little as 0.03 cents per page. Their purse strings should not be too tight for such opportunities to promote their ideals on the cheap. - JZ, 23.3.97. – This freedom option was never sufficiently used, but then even the floppy disk options for books and that of CDs, DVDs and external HD for whole libraries are not yet sufficiently used, either. – JZ, 20.1.08. - While so many freedom options are still outlawed, this one is still quite legal in most countries and, nevertheless, not yet sufficiently utilized by supposed freedom lovers for their purposes. - Imagine having all pro-freedom information, properly sorted and evaluated, also automatically searchable, with a desktop search engine, in a book-sized external HDD on your desk! - JZ, 8.1.11. - LEARNING, PUBLISHING & LIBERTARIANS

MONEY: The love of money is the root of all good.” - quoted in INTEGRITY, Nov.71. - LOVE OF MONEY, EVIL & GOOD

MONEY: The money supply, like the supply of any other tools, must also become subject to free competition and its users must come to enjoy full consumer sovereignty towards it, just like towards any consumer goods or services. Only then can abuses become rare and limited or even altogether prevented. Monetary despotism is a standing invitation to abuses and usually is very much abused. Even with the best intentions and the best administration it still amounts to a severe abuse of the economy. Free exchange should never be restricted, not even with through measures based upon good will. – JZ, 8.2.09. – MONEY SUPPLY, EXCHANGE MEDIA SUPPLY, FREE CHOICE OF VALUE STANDARDS

MONEY: The monopolistic, coercive and despotic laws on monies and currencies, value standards, indexes, clearing and credit will, finally and largely be replaced, by the advocates of full monetary freedom, i.e. by the natural laws, liberties and rights on money, value standards, credit and clearing and by private and cooperative contracts quite in accordance with these rights and liberties. But at first only within their own experimental and voluntary payment communities, or panarchies, leaving the believers in central banks and monetary despotism alone to continue to suffer under their beloved systems. – JZ,24.10.07. - CURRENCY LAWS TO BE REPLACED BY FULL MONETARY FREEDOM, ENDING LEGALIZED MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: The most convenient thing in the world. One of the most useful contrivances ever invented.” - G. B. Shaw. - If it is sound enough and in sufficient supply! - Quite free and extensive to comprehensive clearing is even better and makes one independent of the supply of physical exchange media. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONEY: The nerve of all things.“ - Nervus rerum. - Demosthenes.

MONEY: The now more widely used expression that money is the most liquid asset comes, of course (as Carlyle ... pointed out as early as 1901), to the same thing.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.46.

MONEY: The only way to get money out of politics is to get politics out of money-making.” – Richard M. Salsman - & POLITICS

MONEY: The poor man's credit card.” - US saying.

MONEY: The price we pay for money is paid in liberty.” - Robert Louis Stevenson, Familiar Studies, p. 138. - But money can also buy liberty. Not only in G. B. Shaw's meaning of "liberty is leisure!" - JZ 7.4.85. – Generally, we do pay for it with our leisure options. But we can also buy other leisure options with the money so acquired. Thus, in balance, our options are often significantly increased and thereby our liberty. But people who aim at becoming rich and neglect in this struggle for the current forced and exclusive currency, living, learning and activities in the freedom struggle, and often promise to become active freedom writers only after their retirement, do often pay too high a price for the riches they strive for, even when they manage to obtain them. The successful struggle for success, expressed in money terms only, often indicates the main failure of a life. - JZ, 23.3.97. - & LIBERTY, SUCCESS, DIS.

MONEY: The seven deadly sins ... Food, clothing, firing, rent, taxes, respectability and children. Nothing can lift those seven millstones from man's neck but money; and the spirit cannot soar until the millstones are lifted.” - Bernard Shaw, Major Barbara, Act iii, 1907. - Shaw often defended MAKING money but never ISSUING it. - JZ, 23.3.97. - He did not realize, either, that monetary freedom would, largely, solve these problems for everyone able and willing to be productive. – JZ, 2.1.08.

MONEY: The survival of a free market is dependent on the preservation of a sound money. If sound money is to be restored and our freedom preserved, government must surrender its monopoly over money and allow gold to once again serve buyers and sellers in the market as our medium of exchange. Gold is legal, BUT it is not yet money.” - Robert G. Anderson, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. - Why only one sound money? Did we ever have sound money only, of all kinds, or only more or less exclusive or quite even exclusive forced currencies? Did we ever have a free market in the absence of full monetary freedom? Why only gold as a medium of exchange and standard of value? - I have still to see e.g. the first march or demonstration protesting against legal tender, the central bank and its issue monopoly and not demanding gold as if it were or should be the only legal alternative or the only economically possible one. - Why provoke all the enemies of gold? Why not let them have their thing - while allowing all others to do their things for or to themselves? Tolerance for all honest or self-concerned actions regarding money and finance, too. - To each his monetary and financial religion - and their consequences. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: The thing that differentiates people from animals is money.” – Gertrude Stein. - Money isn't really needed for free exchanges, but clearing is, even if it is done with various money tokens. - Moreover, government money is not really an achievement but, rather, a continuing cause for man-made economic disasters! - JZ, 26.11.06. – Doesn’t reason and morality and the ability to speak and write also play a small role? – Did she really notice no other distinctions? - JZ, 17.2.09. Not just any money, least of all the money of the State. It has to be the competing currencies and clearing systems of free market monies – to fully achieve all possible and desired free exchanges while using freely chosen value standards for goods, services, exchange media and clearing accounts. – There are only very few free exchanges among animals and none of them are monetary ones. - JZ, 20.4.13. – CIVILIZATION, MAN, ANIMALS, FREE EXCHANGE, PEOLE, CLEARING

MONEY: The three faithful things in life are money, a dog and an old woman.” – Pardo’s Postulate No. 2. – Well, inflated money is not faithful to creditors and deflated money not faithful to debtors. And good monies are still not free to compete with bad monies. As for dogs: At least some of them are sensible enough to run away if they are too badly treated by their masters. Those still remaining obedient to bad masters, rather than biting them, are not to be admired. As for old women: They may be faithful with regard to sex – but do all of them keep their faith in their husbands and are they on quite friendly terms with them? – JZ, 4.12.07.

MONEY: The truth is that without the instrument of money-choice a free society cannot operate or a free man exist." - ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS, The Uses of Money, Dec. 3, 1966. - Money-choice exists fully only when there is free choice in monies, i.e., free choice of exchange media and value standards. And this requires free enterprise and free trade or free banking or monetary freedom or freedom of issue for their supply. - JZ, 16.5.97. - FREE CHOICE, FREEDOM, FREE MEN, FREE SOCIETIES

MONEY: The universal regard for money is the one hopeful fact in our civilization. Money is the most important thing in the world. It represents health, strength, honour, generosity and beauty as conspicuously as the want of it represents illness, weakness, disgrace, meanness and ugliness. ... Not the least of its virtues is that it destroys base people as certainly as it fortifies and dignifies noble people.” - George Bernard Shaw, Major Barbara, preface, 1905, 1907. - It is not really universal. And all too high regard for government money issues is accompanied by all too low regard for potential private or cooperative money issues. - JZ, 22.3.97. - Alas, it is so far largely only the misplaced respect for the government’s inevitably mismanaged coercive monopoly money, causing one crisis after the other: inflations, deflations, stagflations. – JZ, 8.12.07. – Weren’t his genes good enough to be preserved in children and grandchildren? – JZ, 31.10.08. If we were to concentrate on the remaining errors of famous people and refuted them systematically and referred in all future publications to these corrections or even included them (economically possible in digital publishing ), then the enlightenment process would, probably, be speeded up considerably. As it is, their utterances are still all too often accepted, unquestioningly, on their supposed authority on all points. We are actually already lucky if each of us becomes an authority on one point or is correct on one opinion, idea or fact. Thus our all too dispersed real insights must become combined as much as possible and act as a corrective influence everywhere where they are needed. – JZ, 20.2.09, 6.11.13.

MONEY: The use of money is all the advantage there is in having it.” - Benjamin Franklin. – The money of monetary despotism is, rather, using or abusing us – because we have become so dependent upon monetary exchanges. – JZ, 31.10.08. – I suppose that the originators of most famous statements did utter them in several versions during their lives. Not always only in writing. – And what their listeners understood of them and remembered them as saying and later stated as such will also be different. – See the following version. - JZ, 20.2.09. - The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money.” - Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790, Hints to Those That Would be Rich. - To be sure of having or of having the chance to acquire or issue enough money to use not only today but tomorrow, next year and in the next decades of one's remaining life, with perhaps something left over for children and grandchildren, means also usage, but postponed usage and the possibility of increasing the value of one's savings. If governments would not interfere, we could all become multi-millionaires through an ordinary working life and savings and investment program for our old age. Imagine also, how all that capital, productively invested, could increase our productivity and thus our current earnings. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: The value of money is that with it we can tell any man to go to the devil. It is the sixth sense which enables you to enjoy the other five.” - W. Somerset Maugham, 1874-1966. - - “Money is like a sixth sense - and you can't make use of the other five without it.” - Maugham, according to N.Y. TIMES MAGAZINE, Oct. 18, 1958. - Can we tell that even to the tax gatherer or the judge or the men or authorities coming to conscript us, imprison us or kill us? Certainly not in all instances. At most we can hire the best lawyers and tax consultants and private guards. - JZ, 23.3.97, 6.11.13.

MONEY: The value of paper money obviously can be regulated according to a variety of principles - even if it is more than doubtful that any democratic government with unlimited powers can ever manage it satisfactorily.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.25. - A government with full power over money does usually find itself powerless to solve all its financial problems and to prevent inflation and unemployment. On the contrary, this power so corrupts it and all its activities, that it causes mass unemployment for prolonged periods, depressions, inflations and stagflations - and territorial monopoly government see not other "ways out" than further despotic monetary measures. The monarchs of money are usually unable to perceive that their monetary and financial problems arise from monetary despotism or monetary authoritarianism or monetary monarchism. Their very power blinds them to the realities of it and to the freedom alternatives to it. - But wonders will never cease: Some Federal Reserve Banks in the U.S. have actually published some writings by monetary freedom advocates among their employees and these have not been fired for expressing such views! And a former libertarian, Alan Greenspan, has become the top man in the Federal Reserve Bank board. But its seems that this job has taken so much hold of him that he has come acts like a monetary despot rather than like a monetary liberator. It must be admitted, though, that he could not unilaterally repeal all the laws of monetary despotism or enlighten all its supporters, even if he himself were fully enlightened on these matters. - To his credit it must be said that under his reign inflation has been somewhat reduced. - But when it comes to monetary policies, all he seems to have to offer now is either a raise or a maintenance or a reduction of the interest rate. Has the extensive use of cathode tube computers in his job and their various radiations damaged his brain? Or have the alcoholic drinks in his numerous official dinners done their trick to his brain cells? The smallest quantity of alcohol consumption does already kill thousands of brain cells. Although we possess many, their number is still limited and only few new brain cells are ever grown, as recent brain research revealed. Could a radical advocate of monetary freedom do more in his position? Or would he simply have to resign? Does he consider himself and his limited options merely as the lesser evil? Prof. Heinrich Rittershausen once wrote a classic treatise on the central bank system, in the hope to help achieve the least possible abuses by this institution. In this he may have partly succeeded - for in Germany, at least for a few of its post-war years, its inflation was zero or very low. - JZ, 23.3.97. - VALUE & PAPER MONEY, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY: The want of money is the root of all evil.” - Samuel Butler, 1835-1902. – Inflation is, actually a shortage of sound money – while the unsound monopoly money of the government, with legal tender power, is being over-issued and drives up nominal prices and wages. – JZ, 21.5.13. - WANT OF MONEY, POVERTY, NEED FOR MONEY, MONEY SHORTAGE, CURRENCY FAMINE, DEFLATION.

MONEY: There are few sorrows, however poignant, in which a good income is of no avail.” - Logan Pearsall Smith, 1865-1946. - THE HEALER

MONEY: There are few ways in which a man can be more innocently employed than in getting money.” - Samuel Johnson, Remark to Dr. Strahan, in Boswell's Life of Johnson, 1775. - "Making" money is a better expression than "getting" money, as many have noticed already, since "getting" could today also mean "stealing" it. – JZ, n.d. - MAKING money is better and ISSUING money is still better. Otherwise, one may waste hours in bad company, flattering a rich uncle, in order to get one day a higher inheritance. Or one might lobby a politician for a subsidy or hand-out. – Or as a robber, thief or confidence trickster one might “get” money in their ways. - One should not only distinguish MAKING, TAKING and FAKING money but also ISSUING money. - JZ, 23.3.97, 17.2.09. - EARNING, MAKING, TAKING, ISSUING MONEY, BUSINESS, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM OR MONEY MONOPOLY

MONEY: There are three faithful friends - and old wife, an old dog, and ready money.” - Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790, in Poor Richard, 1738. - The old wife may be faithful but she is not necessarily a friend. - Money in the form of financial securities, not yet due but transferable into ready money when due, is not exactly an enemy, either. - JZ, 23.3.97. – He, too, did not distinguish between the money of monetary despotism and that of monetary freedom. By now all of us should. But, do we, sufficiently? – JZ, 31.10.08. - CASH, ABILITY TO PAY

MONEY: There is no fortress so strong that money cannot take it.” - (Nihil tam minitum [munitum?], quod non expugnari pecunia possit.) - Marcus Tullius Cicero, In Verrem, No.1, sec. 2. - Under monetary freedom few fortresses would be built or could be maintained and these few, with the money of monetary freedom, could soon be taken, in many cases without any bloodshed. One can offer deserters a better pay and career than despots can. Thus one can offer them to vote with their feet. What is it worth in money terms to us when thus one soldier or officer changes sides, using his individual sovereignty? How, otherwise, should we respect his individual sovereignty - and patriotism? See: ON PANARCHY, in my PEACE PLANS series. Monetary freedom is just one aspect of panarchism. - JZ, 23.3.97. - I believe that the proverb: “A gold-laden jackass is strong enough to climb every wall”, may be older still. Buying the allegiance of subjects of a despotic enemy, if it is not offered freely anyhow, is much cheaper in every way than fighting them. - JZ, 26.11.02. – Naturally, the money does not take the fortress but the one who cleverly uses it does and this with a minimum of loss of lives and property on both sides. – The besieged might also pay the potential conqueror a bribe, or tribute, in form of taxes, to leave them alone, like a satisfied mugger would. However, compare the old saying: “Whoever pays Dane-Geld will never get rid of the Dane.” – JZ, 20.20.09. - BRIBERY, CORRUPTION, GOLD, BUYING ALLIES, CONQUESTS, TREASON RATHER THAN FIGHTING, SELLING OUT, TRIBUTES, TAXES, DANE GELD

MONEY: There is no moral or economic reason why money, based upon wanted and ready for sale goods or services should ever be in short supply – if only the owner of these goods and the providers of these services are quite free to issue claims to them in form of goods warrants and service vouchers in convenient denominations, just like there is no reason why tickets to performances should ever be in short supply as long as the providers of these performances are free to issue them. – JZ, 21.5.13.

MONEY: There is no one money system that was ordained by God. … They were all invented by human beings and can be improved by human beings.” - R. A. Wilson, Schroedinger's Cat III, p.138. – They can also be turned into the worst possible money systems and become legally imposed as such. – JZ, 20.2.09. –

MONEY: They are either gold coins or can be exchanged on a free gold market for gold coins (a much better option than redemption by the issuer) or they can buy, on a general free market, as much as a gold coin would, e.g. as sound bank notes, issued on the Real Bills Doctrine, still reckoning in gold weight units as value standard. - They might merely have, in a limited market or payment community, the full value of a gold coin there, for every payment or clearing purpose, whilst in other circles they might have a discount, which would speed up their reflux to their issuers, who would have to accept them at par. They might be merely soundly issued token money, goods warrants, clearing certificates etc. – JZ, 8.4.04, 19.10.07, 20.2.09. - EXCHANGE MEDIA AS GOOD AS GOLD, GOLD REDEMPTION & GOLD VALUE CLEARING, COMPETITIVE MONIES UNDER MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY: They who are of the opinion that Money will do everything, may very well be suspected to do everything for Money. - George Savile - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. – How much of the existing dishonesty, corruption and crime can be ascribed to the conditions and attitudes developed under monetary and financial despotism and would disappear under full monetary and financial freedom? – JZ, 25.3.12.

MONEY: This definition was established by Carl Menger (43), whose work also ought to have finally disposed of the medieval conception that money, or the value of money, was a creation of the state. Vissering (61), p.9, reports that in early times the Chinese expressed their notions of money by a term meaning literally 'current merchandise’. (*) The now more widely used expression that money is the most liquid asset comes, of course (as Carlyle {8} pointed out, as early as 1901), to the same thing. To serve as a widely accepted medium of exchange is the only function which an object must perform to qualify as money, though a generally accepted medium of exchange will generally acquire also the further functions of unit of account, store of value, standard of deferred payment, etc. The definition of money as 'means of payment' is, however, purely circular, since this concept presupposed debts incurred in terms of money. Cf. L. v. Mises (45), pp.34ff. - The definition of money as the generally acceptable medium of exchange does not, of course, necessarily mean that even within one national territory there must be a single kind of money which is more acceptable than all others; there may be several equally acceptable kinds of money (which we may more conveniently call currencies), particularly if one kind can be quickly exchanged into the others at a known, though not fixed, rate.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalisation of Money, p.46. - (*) They had "street money", "teahouse money", "restaurant money", "bordello money", etc. – The over-all name seems to have been “street money”. - JZ, 18.2.09. – SHOP FOUNDATION MONEY, CURRENCY, ACCEPTANCE FOUNDATION, READINESS TO ACCEPT FOUNDATION, CONSUMER GOODS & SERVICES AS COVER & REDEMPTION FUND

MONEY: Those who don’t have enough of it are only aware of what it can buy them. When you finally have enough of it you become aware – acutely aware – of all the things it can’t buy … the really important things … like youth, health, love, peace of mind.” - F. Paul Wilson, The Tomb, 1984, 1985, New English Library, p.135.

MONEY: Though mothers and fathers give us life, it is money alone which preserves it.” - Ihara Saikaku. – Human beings managed to live, although only primitively in most instances, long before the invention of money. – JZ, 18.2.09. - Possibly, there are still some primitive tribes around somewhere, who manage to survive without money. - JZ, 8.1.11.

MONEY: Thus, money is that commodity which serves as a medium of exchange by virtue of its high degree of marketability. - The task of discovering WHICH commodity will be most valued by and most acceptable to men as medium of exchange can only be accomplished through a MARKET...” - Paul Stevens, THE FREEMAN, 1/75. - The market, when quite free, discovers several means of exchange as well as several goods and services. Even the most popular among them do not succeed in driving out all others, everywhere. They, too, have their role to play and satisfy their producers and users enough to go on producing and offering and accepting and then canceling them, like tickets. Even the best should never have an exclusive, not even the best speaker or writer or mint master or engraver of notes. - JZ, 23.3.97. E.g. some negro tribes had an early index currency standard, which they had only in their minds and priced out their goods and services in: the “makuta”, an imagined basket full of their kind of staple foods. It sufficed for their purposes and made them independent of the quantity of rare metal units they had among themselves, if any. – JZ, 7.11.13.

MONEY: To abjure money is to abjure life. - George Orwell, Keep the Apidistra Flying, p.731 in the Octopus/Heineman edition of 1980. – Only if one abjures not only forced monopoly monies but also all kinds of alternative sound monies, all competitively supplied and, as sound monies, also using sound value standards. – JZ, 23.9.13, 6.10.13. 

MONEY: To begin, we don't have money any more; we have what Mr. Schiff calls ‘un-money’ ...” - John Chamberlain, THE FREEMAN, 5/76, p.312. – The money of monetary despotism, issued by a monopoly bank, the central bank and legally given compulsory acceptance and a forced and fictitious value, called “legal tender”. – JZ, 31.10.08. – INABILITY TO PAY, ABILITY TO PAY” LIQUIDITY. – SEE MONEY MONOPOLY, MONETARY DESPOTISM, MONETARY FREEDOM, LEGAL TENDER, FORCED CURRENCY

MONEY: To pay a person in his own coin.” - 16th. century proverb. – This is the essence of the fundamental reflux principle: The issuer must accept his own notes at any time at their nominal value, regardless of their value in the market place. – JZ, 22.1.08. – Even if it has been depreciated – he will still have to accept it at par with its nominal value! – JZ, 31.10.08. – Each has to fully recognize his own IOUs. – Only the government has the power and legal backing to depreciate money and not to accept older notes at their former value. – JZ, 20.2.09. – Statist subjects do all too readily put up with this. It does not shake their faith. Just like religious people persist with their religion, even though their “God” never seems to listen to their prayers or pays any attention to them. – JZ, 20.2.09. – LEGAL TENDER, REFLUX PRINCIPLE, DISCOUNTING MONEY AGAINST A SOUND VALUE STANDARD

MONEY: To say that "money is the root of all evil" omits an important specification. What St. Paul - the author of the observation - actually wrote (in his First Epistle to Timothy, 6:10) was that , "the love of money is the root of all evil". Only he who is obsessed by money and worships it makes it a source of unhappiness and evil.” - R. Brasch, Mistakes, Misnomers & Misconceptions, 1983, Fontana Books, p.206. - & EVIL

MONEY: To serve as a widely accepted medium of exchange is the only function which an object must perform to qualify as money, though a generally accepted medium of exchange will generally acquire as the further functions of unit of account, store of value, standard of deferred payment, etc.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.46.

MONEY: To the Austrians money is the most marketable good a person can acquire.” - Hans F. Sennholz, REASON, Oct. 71. - Is the money of monetary despotism really the most marketable good a person can acquire? Does it really deserve the terms money and marketability? Forced and exclusive currency may be, compulsorily, the most marketable good in its country, but it is not the most marketable currency in the rest of the world, where and when it is not an exclusive and forced currency. The money of monetary freedom may be most marketable only in a locality, as at least one of the local currencies, but also, through a good clearing system, somewhat marketable in the rest of the world, although it has only the optional - and for the issuer obligatory - acceptance foundation. - JZ, 23.3.97. – That does not always apply to severely inflated government money – which drives us back to primitive barter transactions. – JZ, 31.10.08.

MONEY: Today, as in the past, a sound money system is the condition of man’s freedom and they key to his future.” – Jacques Rueff, The Age of Inflation, Gateway Editions, Henry Regnery, Chicago, 1964, p.XIV. – “Today, after forty years of inflation, freedom will be saved by the rehabilitation of money.” – J. R., ibid, p. 29. – “Money will decide the fate of mankind.” – Ibid, p.VII. - “… no free, civilized way of life without a genuine, inflation-free currency.” – Ibid, p. 15. - But I doubt that Rueff saw, sufficiently, the connection between inflation and legal tender and between deflation and the issue monopoly. – Money cannot be lastingly rehabilitated through a territorial government. Territorial governments will almost always abuse any privileges and powers granted them in this sphere. - JZ, n.d. & 8.2.09. – Honest of governments in this sphere, too, is the exception rather than the rule. – JZ, 7.11.13. - SOUND MONEY, CURRENCY, INFLATION, CIVILIZATION, FREEDOM, MAN’S FUTURE

MONEY: Too little of good money is the root of all evil. – D.Z., 14.8.76. (He was close to 14 then.) – Too much of bad money is also the root of much evil. – JZ, 17.2.09. - EVIL & GOOD, DIS.

MONEY: Turn money into tickets and allow everyone to issue his own tickets – if he has something to offer that other people want and can find takers for his tickets. He could either try to do this on his own or find others, in a similar position and then issue, together with, them a common kind of tickets that each of them in this private payment community would accept. Between them they would have to offer a wide enough range of goods and services or performances, like any shopping centre does, so that their common tickets are widely enough acceptable and not used mainly only against one or a few of the members of such an association. All these tickets should bind only the issuers or the issuing association and entitle the holders only to the kind of satisfactions that are offered in them. Such ticket money, freely offered, accepted and used in short- term credits to promote turnovers and facilitate wage and salary payments, could promote the sale of all goods, services and labor and create an additional demand for labor, thus increasing employment. Using the term tickets for such alternative currencies indicates also that they are not to remain permanently in circulation but are returned to the issuers and not re-issued but replaced by new issues to the extent that these are useful to issuers and acceptors. The term ticket is also not automatically associated with a government’s usually untrustworthy paper value standard. Other and better value standard could and should be used freely used in them. – JZ, 4.10.98, 8.1.11, 7.11.13. - TICKET MONEY

MONEY: Under monetary freedom all ready-for-sale goods could, obviously, become more exchangeable, or even liquid or self-selling, when sufficiently “monetized” - since then offers of them can be freely expressed and circulated in form of token or ticket money, goods warrants, purchasing vouchers, clearing and service certificates, IOUs, shop-foundation money etc. They would oblige only their issuers to deliver their goods or services for them, which is usually their intended business anyhow. It is property they want to part with - in order to obtain, with it, other properties. This property is already a means for exchange for them - only so far, under monetary despotism, they were not free to turn it into proper means of exchange. - Since their own property and that of free other persons is involved, they should, obviously, also be free to determine the kind of value standard they want to use in their own exchanges, instead of meekly submitting to whatever standard the supposed monetary authorities and experts want to legally impose upon them. In this way no one can impose his property or his value standard upon others. It will only be accepted if others do want his goods or services, at market prices, expressed in the chosen value standard - or know others who do and to whom they can pass on these money-like property – consumer goods or consumer service claims. Without this kind of money issue - discounting and money-refusal freedom, no one is fully free as a proprietor and trader, no one experiences full freedom of contract and a fully free market and free enterprise, free trade and free exchange. Only this freedom will set property and the market fully free. But to argue, in the absence of this freedom, that "money is property", is often absurd, when it is a governmental monopoly issue, one that can rightly be used only against this issuer, in payment of its tribute levies and charges for monopolized services, and also a currency that is mostly continuously depreciated or mismanaged and sometimes intentionally kept in short supply or inflated, thus causing frequent sales difficulties, bankruptcies and mass unemployment. Should the unemployed and bankrupt then say that it is their money of which they still hold a few notes, although this kind of money has not been issued by them or managed by them and although this kind of despotic money may have made them bankrupt or unemployed unemployed or partly expropriated them, when debts were “paid” to them in such depreciated money, at their nominal legal tender value? - JZ, 19.3.96, 19.3.97, 7.11.13. – MONEY AS PROPERTY NOTION

MONEY: UNMONEY. The money of monetary despotism should not be honored with the term “money”. “Requisitioning certificate” is a better name for it. Or “forced currency”. “Fiat money” or “money created out of thin air” do not yet sufficiently describe its confiscatory, monopolistic, taxing and despotic nature. – JZ, 18.2.09, 7.11.13.

MONEY: Vissering ... reports that in early times the Chinese expressed their notions of money by a term meaning literally "current merchandise". – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.46. – SHOP FOUNDATION CURRENCY

MONEY: We are mastered by money instead of mastering it. - JZ 6.7.82. We are mastered by money (exclusive and forced currency) instead of mastering money (free enterprise or free market money). - JZ 6.7.82, 7.11.13. – CENTRAL BANKING, MONOPOLY MONEY

MONEY: We have heads to get money, and hearts to spend it.” - Farquhar, The Beaux's Stratagem, Act i, sc. 1. - Unfortunately, we have not good enough heads, in most cases, to ponder how to cover, print, redeem and then to issue our own sound money. Then we could freely spend it to the extent of our ability to supply wanted goods and services for it. Ponder the fate of the present ca. one billion unemployed and underemployed in the world and then have a “heart” and really start thinking about money, not only the money of monetary despotism but that of monetary freedom, and of the differences that would make. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: We talked about cheap money, … but we’ve never made it really cheap.” - Fay Weldon, Darcy’s Utopia, Collins, London, 1990, p.214. – Cheap does not mean valueless, or useless as e.g. cheap pens and digital watches and computer disks demonstrate. Cheap and competitively produced exchange media can, nevertheless, be sound exchange media with a relatively stable value standard. They should not be mixed up with government monopoly money and forced currency, which costs the government only paper and ink, which is almost constantly over-issued and thus depreciated and with which we can buy less and less. – JZ, 18.9.07, 7.11.13. – Shop currency, like tickets, would be cheap to produce but that does not reduce its purchasing power or value as a ticket to a performance. – JZ, 7.11.13. - CHEAP MONEY? WHAT KIND OF CHEAP MONEY? Q.

MONEY: We want it in order to get rid of it for what we want.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce. - That could lead to an interesting Quizz question: What do we want only in order to get rid of it? - Sometimes we also want it in order to get more of it. - JZ, 5.8.76. - Alas, this notions applies to e.g. garbage bags, food and drink, too. Some would even apply it to spouses, lovers, friends and children. - JZ, 23.3.97.

MONEY: What is money? Everything that can greatly facilitate free, i.e. voluntary exchanges and sound value reckoning. - JZ, 18.7.96. - Not what any government or central bank by fiat or special legislation tries to declare and pretend to be genuine money. - JZ, 19.3.97. – DEFINITION, MONEY MONOPOLY & LEGAL TENDER LEGISLATION, CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY: what money has always meant. A measure of performance.” - Sam Nicholson: Scrooge in Space, ANALOG, 8/80, p.68. – Monopoly money with legal tender power is not a good enough as a measure of performance! It also prevents many performances and often wrongly pays those who perform. Its issuer gets something for nothing but scrap paper or inferior metal coins. More and better performances would occur under full monetary freedom. – JZ, 31.10.08, 8.2.09.

MONEY: What we need is moral money: money that retains its value and can be trusted. The discretionary government fiat money regime has miserably failed on that score. We can do better. A good starting point is to recognize the limits of monetary policy." – James A. Dorn, The Limits of Monetary Policy Call for Moral, Sound Money, - Cato Institute: Commentary, - 20 12 08. - VALUE STANDARDS, MORAL MONEY, FREE BANKING, MONETARY FREEDOM VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM, OF CENTRAL BANKING

MONEY: What we want in order to get more of it. - JZ, 5.8.76. - & CAPITAL

MONEY: When I was young, I used to think that money was the most important thing in life; now that I am old, I know it is.” - Oscar Wilde, 1854-1900. - The money of monetary despotism is of negative importance, that of monetary freedom has positive significance. - JZ, 26.11.02. – Not money is important but free exchange – and the money of monetary despotism often spoils free exchanges. Bastiat considered free exchange so important that he said: “Society IS exchange!” – JZ, 31.10.08.

MONEY: When it is a question of money, everybody is of the same religion.” - Voltaire, 1694-1778. - He did not foresee that by now we would have hundreds, if not thousands of different – and almost religiously held views of money. - JZ 7.4.85. - They do agree all only insofar as most people simple want enough or more and more even of the worst kind of money. But when it comes to decide which kind is the best possible or a good enough kind of money and how it should be established and maintained - then a great variety of religious and sectarian faiths on money become revealed, most of them quite worthless or even wrongful and harmful. - JZ, 23.3.97, 7.11.13. - Unfortunately, not, for we have not yet introduced the equivalent to religious liberty and tolerance in this sphere. If we had, the supply of sound exchange media and of sound value standards would be as little of a problem as e.g. the supply of tooth brushes and of measuring tapes. - JZ, 13.10.02. - Opinions do greatly differ, even among monetary freedom advocates and other monetary reformers, not only among the opinions of advocates of monetary despotism. - (They only agree on certain coercive and monopolistic features of their supposedly ideal monies. - JZ, 8.1.11.) Monetary faiths and convictions may be even more varied than beliefs in the religious sphere. - People just want more of useful money, i.e., they want their ability-to-pay increased. Unfortunately, mostly they do not sufficiently ponder how this can be achieved. Mere continued arguing, writing, lecturing, theorizing or hypothesizing will not achieve agreement fast enough, neither on exchange media nor value standards nor on issue and reflux, cover and redemption techniques. But, freedom for volunteers to experiment in this sphere could achieve and spread sufficient enlightenment fast. - However, we have still to achieve sufficiently wide-spread agreement even on that. - JZ, 26.11.02, 8.1.11.

MONEY: When no coercion, monopoly or fraud is involved, then all monetary transactions are merely an advanced form of multilateral and, largely, anonymous bartering of goods and services for goods and services, or more or less advanced and generalized clearing of their agreed-upon values against each other, even though we do all too often loose sight of these underlying facts. Even capital and securities represent, essentially, only goods and services and would be valueless without them. Goethe, when contemplating the free exchanges in Florence, considered them as miraculous as a "wagon way through the air". - JZ, 3/97, 7.11.13. - & CLEARING

MONEY: When the silver ran out the (prosperity?) ran out. - From film: The Outlaw Josie Wales. - Apart from the law of fluctuating rare metal quantities, applying to whole countries, rare metal coins, once spent from one community in other communities, do not return necessarily, fast or completely enough, to the community which spent them. However clearing certificates and shop currencies or goods- and service vouchers issued by a community, do have an inherent and very strong tendency to lead to their rapid reflux to that community - in payment for whatever it has to offer. That is one other aspect, which the "gold-bugs" have not yet sufficiently considered. Moreover, communities can produce as much of such monies of their own as they have wanted goods or services to offer for "export", regardless of how well or badly they are supplied with rare metal coins or corresponding rare metal deposit and redemption certificates. They can thus render themselves monetarily independent from the possession of enough rare metals for monetary purposes, on the rare metal redemption model, while still pricing their goods and services as well as their token money in gold or silver weight units. - Money as good as gold or silver coins or gold or silver-certificates - and even better in some respects, is not impossible but merely outlawed - and not yet recognized as an honest and sound possibility by the "gold bugs". - JZ, 21.12.07. – Even if gold weight units were to offer not only a relatively stable but the best possible value standard, that still would not make them best as exclusive means of payment. – JZ, 7.11.13.

MONEY: When you print un-backed money you print trouble. - D.Z., 3/82. - If it has legal tender "quality". If it is subject to a free market rate, the refusal option and free competition, and has no acceptable backing at all, then its acceptance will be simply and soon refused, like a very doubtful cheque. - JZ, 3/82. - It will be replaced, either coercively, by legal tender currency, a still worse condition, legally imposed upon the whole population of a country, or, in the absence of legal tender and the note issue monopoly, by one or the other sound and competing free market currency or a variety of local currencies, all circulating among their voluntary acceptors. - Your own money should at least be backed by your own readiness to supply wanted consumer goods and services for it. - JZ, 2.4.82, 2.1.08, 31.10.08, 8.1.11, 7.11.13.

MONEY: Whoever has no money has no courage, either. He fears to be disadvantaged everywhere, he believes to have to submit to every humiliation and appears everywhere in a most unfortunate light.” – Knigge, Ueber den Umgang mit Menschen, 2,11.4. (Wer kein Geld hat, hat auch keinen Mut. Er fuerchtet, ueberall zurueckgesetzt zu werden, glaubt jede Demuetigung ertragen zu muessen und zeigt sich allerorten in unguenstigem Licht.) – Red Indians had no money in our sense, apart from wampum, but courageously fought back against the white invaders - but their bows and arrows were, mostly, no match for repeating rifles and revolvers. – JZ, 22.1.08. - COURAGE

MONEY: Whoever imagines that money, the money of monetary despotism, distributes itself readily and evenly to all who have something worthwhile to offer, has not studied e.g. the fate of inventors nor observed deflations, where “surplus” foodstuffs are burned while some people remain hungry. – JZ, 7.4.85. – Yesterday on my Facebook page I found even the assertion that every fifth child in the USA often suffers from hunger. I think that this is merely one of the numerous exaggerations to be found there. Perhaps the statistician involved included children who are very hungry before the meals are served. Mass unemployment does often exist during deflations - even when people are prepared and allowed to work for low wages. Potential employers do not employ them then because they cannot be sure of the sale of the additional products. Deflation phenomena are all too often simply ignored or denied by some members of the Austrian school. – JZ, 18.2.09, 7.11.13. – AUSTRIAN SCHOOL, CRISES, DEFLATION, CURRENCY SHORTAGE, STAGFLATION, POVERTY, UNEMPLOYMENT, SALES DIFFICULTIES, HUNGER WHILE FOOD IS DESTROYED

MONEY: With his own money, a person can live as he likes – a ruble that’s your own is dearer than a brother.” – Maxim Gorky, The Zykovs, 1914, 4. – A greatly inflated ruble, too? – A brother that is worth less than a gold or silver ruble to oneself cannot be much of a brother or one is not much of a brother to him. - JZ, 13.12.07. – He should have said: With enough of his own money … - JZ, 18.2.09.

MONEY: With monetary freedom, money could become your servant rather than remain your master, as happens inevitably under monetary despotism for all too many people.” – JZ, 22.2.03., 21.10.07. - MONETARY FREEDOM & MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONEY: With regard to money issues, value standards, credit, clearing and finance most States have remained despotic rather than liberating and have led to even greater abuses in these spheres than ever occurred before. Full monetary and financial emancipation is still to come. – JZ, 23.3.06, 30.10.07. - CURRENCY & THE STATE, EXCHANGE MEDIA & VALUE STANDARDS, MONETARY DESPOTISM VS. MONETARY FREEDOM

MONEY: Without a trustworthy medium of exchange, the whole economy falls into shambles.” – Leonard E. Read: Who's Listening? – Who can possibly listen to all the messages for freedom, justice, peace, progress, when they are not readily accessible to everyone in any desired selection, together with all the refutations against the usual objections based upon popular errors, myths, prejudices, false premises and conclusions? Even serious freedom-, peace-, justice- and tolerance lovers have not yet heard of all sound and radical ideas on the subject. Our market for them is still so incomplete and hard to access that they missed out for decades on ideas that might have changed their lives, their convictions, their actions. They certainly do not hear about all of them through the mass media and in alternative media they are still all too widely dispersed and even on the Internet they are not yet sufficiently sorted out and brought together through any of the search engines that I have heard about or used. – It seems to me that the information revolution has only just begun. - JZ, 20.2.09. – I made some suggestions on this, for libertarians, in my 2010 digitized book manuscript, not copyrighted and not yet online but only available from me as a zipped email attachment of 306 KBs. We have and still are neglecting many advocacy and enlightenment options which are affordable and can be realized with sufficient interest in them and collaboration between libertarians, at least as labours of love. – JZ, 7.11.13.

MONEY: Without legal tender and an issue monopoly more money cannot be FORCED into circulation. Because then only optional monies can exist and are market rated and thus limited via their issuers and potential acceptors, like e.g. shares and bonds and mortgage letters are. They are even more so limited, for every potential acceptor can easily test their validity by taking them to the nearest shop, exploring their "shop foundation". That is what makes optional, market-rated and competitive money a very hard or stable money, in practice. But that sound practice is outlawed. Legal tender and issue monopolies and official regulations of issuers must be ended because they permit bad monies to be forced into circulation, maintained in it and do not permit sound monies to compete the bad currencies out of existence. - JZ, 3/97. – One should not ignore that with each of his free issues, that is accepted by some people, the issuer does oblige himself to deliver wanted goods, services or debt payment receipts. Thus he would not issue his notes without the inherent self-restraint that is involved by this obligation. – Under that condition he could no more issue notes amounting e.g. to a thousand-fold his capacity to deliver goods, services or debt payment receipts, than he could promise to marry a thousand women and find a thousand women ready to accept such a promise. (Well, unless he is e.g. a movie star, famous singer or other sex symbol and the acceptors would be ready to join such a large harem.) - JZ, 20.1.08, 8.1.11. – MONEY FORCED INTO CIRCULATION, FORCED CURRENCY, LEGAL TENDER, FIAT MONEY

MONEY: Worshiping “the” dollar is as wrong as worshiping any other abused and abusing monopoly. What most people still ought to learn to respect is freedom to exchange, independent of the possession of any government’s forced and exclusive currency. – JZ, 16.9.99. – They have also to learn to appreciate or at least tolerate sound but not exclusive alternative value standards, freely chosen for themselves by at least some people. – JZ, 7.11.13. - WORSHIPING THE DOLLAR, STRIVING FOR RICHES – EXPRESSED IN DEPRECIATED CURRENCIES

MONEY: Would you know what money is? Go borrow some.” - English proverb. – “If you would like to know the value of money, go and try to borrow some.” - Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790. - Alas, practice does not always sufficiently enlighten. Otherwise, soldiers and other war victims should be most enlightened people on how to achieve peace. - Compared with most organized peace activists, with their particular sectarian peace dogmas, they are often relatively enlightened - but by far not yet enough, in most cases. – Businessmen, too, do study salesmanship, accounting, management and the stock market rather than monetary theory, practice, history and futurism. - JZ, 23.3.97, 8.1.11, 7.11.13. – Many people have borrowed or lent or invested money. But, have they fully understood it? – JZ, 31.10.08.

MONEY: Yes, ready money is Aladdin's lamp.” - Lord Byron, (1788-1824), Don Juan, Canto xii, st.12. - Adam Smith called it (its non-cash form) "the wagon way through the air." – (Goethe made a similar remark.) Why do most people rather read, listen to or view the story of Aladdin's lamp than provide themselves with its nearest humanly possible equivalent, via their own private or cooperative money or by demanding or accepting such money and seeing to it that it becomes legalized? – Sound clearing certificates could be even better for the whole economy than gold- and silver coins – and their redeemable certificates, as exclusive currencies. – JZ, 31.10.08, 18.2.09.

MONEY: You must spend money, if you wish to make money.” - Plautus, Asinaria - You must spend money that is issued by yourself or your own payment community in order to earn or make money by the easy sale of your wanted goods and services. - JZ, 13.10.02. - He probably thought only of financial and productive investments being required to make more money than most people could merely through working for money provided by others. - The vagueness of expressions on money, finance, credit and clearing largely prevents sufficient enlightenment on such subjects. - JZ, 26.11.02. - SPENDING, MONETARY FREEDOM, FREE MARKET MONIES

MONEY: You owe three or four million dollars?” She stared at him now in open wonder. “I’d never sleep, not one minute would I be able to sleep …” - - “Money isn’t for spending”, he explained. “There is a limit to the amount of food you can eat, or clothes you can wear. Money is a game, the biggest most exciting game in town.” – Wilbur Smith, Hungry as the Sea, p.162. – And yet, curiously enough, many people are satisfied with playing only with monopoly money, unaware of and uninterested in the different kinds of games that monetary freedom would make possible for them, too. - JZ, 8.8.03, 7.11.13. – Some are even satisfied with playing the game “Monopoly” only for its otherwise worthless money tokens. - Anyhow, W. S. meant capital accumulation rather than money as currency and exchange medium or clearing certificate and shopping voucher. – JZ, 19.9.07. - FINANCE, & ACQUIRING WEALTH - AS A GAME

MONOCULTURE IN AGRICULTURE: Monoculture is largely the result of “cash-crops” being one of the few avenues for many agriculturalists to get ready access to considerable cash amounts. Under full monetary and financial freedom the sale of produce would be much less of a problem. Then the greatest variety of food items would be much easier to sell, locally and world-wide and the risks of agriculture would largely be reduced to the natural ones. Ready-for-sale-produce, in the usual varieties, fresh or somehow preserved, could then also be largely used as cover for the issue of privately or cooperatively issued local money tokens and clearing certificates and thus assure its sales, rather than having to battle for payment in scarce monopoly money. – JZ, 26.3.95.

MONOLOGUES: 1.) Thanks, Bob. Now, what do you think – Ruth? – 2.) Bob, you’re sure doing a lot of talking. Let’s hear from some of the other people!” – Source? - RED.

MONOLOGUES: It is all right to hold a conversation but you should let go of it now and then.” – Richard Armour. , POLITELY INTERRUPTING THEM, RED., JOKES

MONOPOLIES: A company trying to hold a monopoly on a truly free market is like a football team trying to remain premiers for ever.” - John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.174.

MONOPOLIES: A monopolist can always blame the customer. Or ignore his protests – and usually does, when he fails in “his” job. – JZ, 3.9.98. – What come-back have we got against our territorial governments? We can only throw one set of rascals out, only to get another set into the same criminal jobs. – JZ, 30.11.07. – VOTING, MONOPOLISTS:

MONOPOLIES: A monopoly on the means of communication may define a ruling elite more precisely than the celebrated Marxian formula of ‘monopoly on the means of production’." - Since man extends his nervous system through channels of communication like the written word, the telephone, radio, etc., he who controls these media controls part of the nervous system of every member of society. The contents of these media become part of the contents of every individual's brain.” - Wilson/Shea, Illuminatus III, p.244. - It is still up to individuals to accept or reject opinions etc. offered by the mass media. - JZ, 21.12.07. - The monopoly and coercion involved in governmental monopoly money with legal tender power is much more dangerous. We are not free to discount it or to refuse to accept it at all and insist upon other means of payment and value standards. - JZ, 8.1.11. - CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, LEGAL TENDER, MONOPOLYT MONEY.

MONOPOLIES: a monopoly, public or 'private', is attained by legislation, often very subtle, varying from outright bans to taxes, occupational licences and so on. Without such leg-ups as these, it never works and the history of monopolies and monopoly attempts makes fascinating reading. There is no market power, only political power. The monopolies of the huge and well established nationalized industries are protected by statutes prohibiting competitors, because the Government knows their market power is precisely nil!” - Terry Arthur, 95 % Is Crap, p.191, chapter "Economic Crap".

MONOPOLIES: According to Tucker this is exactly what a monopolist does: 'A monopolist is any person, corporation, or institution whose right to engage in any given pursuit of life is secured, either wholly or partially, by any agency whatsoever - whether in the nature of things or the force of events or the decree of arbitrary power - against the influence of competition.” - DANDELION, Spring 77. - COMPETITION

MONOPOLIES: After an undercutting price war the largest firm might temporarily succeed. But it will have to recover its losses and when it does so by higher prices it will invite unintentionally, new competitors to come in. The more often this is repeated, the higher will be the incentive for future competitors to come in. - Moreover, "nothing prevents an entrepreneur from now seeking out dissatisfied customers and getting them to pledge long term contracts to him … at competitive but not at undercutting rates. … Once he has gotten enough customers, there is little the monopolist can do to hurt him … The threat alone of such an occurrence is enough to keep the monopolist relatively honest - if not at first, then once he's seen it elsewhere. - The long-term contracting principle is capable of demolishing almost any monopoly in the long run. Even General Motors - were it charging $ 8.000 per car - would be vulnerable, once enough long term patronage contracts had been collected by a competitor. The only case where this approach would not hold involves the monopolization of a non-substitutable natural resource. …” - LIBERTARIAN YEARBOOK, 72, p.18/19. - Usually land is considered as a non-substitutable natural resource and natural monopoly. However, land, unless it is in government hands, is almost everywhere on sale, daily. - A long-term purchase contract, on a stable value basis, is always a possibility for employees who want to become owners and self-managers and, as such, could run an enterprise as a rule more profitable than the owner could or capitalists who make a take-over bid for the firm. - JZ, 21.12.07. - PRICE WARS

MONOPOLIES: All that is necessary to abolish monopoly is that the government abolish its own creations.” - Murray N. Rothbard, Power and Market, p.59. – It would be enough if it simply declared that it would no longer protect them against any competition. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONOPOLIES: Among all the monopolies that for fire fighting is probably the most wrongful and stupid one. - JZ 10.11.02. - By now we have also "achieved" it in Australia! - JZ, 22.11.02. - FIRE FIGHTING

MONOPOLIES: And so evolved education in the State of New York. At the beginning of the century, it was primarily a voluntary undertaking. By the end of the century, it was virtually a state monopoly. Yet, contrary to popular opinion, mass education was already an accomplished fact many decades before that monopoly became established.” - Duncan Yuille, in leaflet Public Education. - PUBLIC EDUCATION

MONOPOLIES: any loss incurred by a state trading agency is recouped by higher charges or increased taxes, both imposed by government dictate. It is a cause of force and fraud parading as justice.” - GOOD GOVERNMENT, 4/76. - BOARDS, PUBLIC SERVICES, ORDERLY MARKETING, STATE ENTERPRISES, NATIONALIZED INDUSTRIES & SERVICES

MONOPOLIES: As for businessmen, if they had the "monopoly" power to raise prices, why didn't they do so a long time ago? Why do they raise prices by a certain percentage every year, and not grab everything at once? In short, what limits them from raising prices still further?” - McBride: A New Dawn, p.24. - At least in this passage he did not mention the effect of the money monopoly and its inflationary practice upon nominally raising prices, which have to be expressed in its monopoly money and "value standard". - JZ, 21.12.07. - PRIVATE? MONOPOLY PRICES?

MONOPOLIES: As long as there are dozens of millions of potential employers to choose from, one could not speak or write about “monopoly capitalism” and one remains, largely, independent from the accumulated and invested capital. – JZ, 10.8.05. However, both, employers and investors on the one side and employees and consumers on the other side, should be very much concerned about all of the remaining real and legalized monopolies. The worst of them is that of territorial statism and among its economic flaws the worst are the monetary despotism of central banks and the tribute levying powers of the State. – JZ, 29.10.07. - CAPITALISM, EMPLOYERS COMPETING WITH EACH OTHER FOR LABOR, TAXATION, CENTRAL BANKING, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: As we are beginning to realize, governments are the only true monopolists; and monopolies affect the welfare of all their suppliers (*), being cruelest to the smallest.” - Charles R. LaDow, THE FREEMAN, 2/75, p.99. - (*) And all their other victims. - JZ, 21.12.07. – Many of its financial beneficiaries are also victimized by it. It conducts its territorial war against the poor as well, blocking many of their self-help options, e.g. by monetary despotism, compulsory licensing, regulations, taxation. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MONOPOLIES: Being absolute, and maintained by police force, a Government monopoly need not please its customers.” - Rose Wilder Lane, The Discovery of Freedom, p.42.

MONOPOLIES: But what is the record of the world's experience? That governments have been the champion aggressors from all time, and still remain so. How much, we ask, of this individual wrong-doing is the direct result of our positive institutions, our bands of confederated criminals, our governments? What poverty and incitements to crime have they not caused by their monopolies of land and currency, by their protective laws of every description, by their class legislation, their brutal coercion, their corrupt practices and robberies, their army of parasitic officials?” - J. Donovan, quoted in Bob James, Australian Anarchism, p.20.

MONOPOLIES: certain men have recourse to the law in order to abridge the natural prerogatives of this freedom on the part of others. This kind of plunder is called privilege or monopoly.” - Bastiat, in G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.240. - PRIVILEGES & THE LAW, MONOPOLY, PLUNDER

MONOPOLIES: Communism is like one big phone company.” – Lenny Bruce – However, even big phone companies still provide services and only to their subscribers, while territorial governments, whether communistic or democratic or republican, impose also many unwanted or even disservices upon their dissenters. The State socialists or State communists merely do this on a larger and more extensive scale. – JZ, 7.11.13. - COMMUNISM, STATE SOCIALISM, TERRITORIALISM, DEMOCRACIES, NATIONALIZATION, STATE “ENTERPRISES”

MONOPOLIES: Crazily, the government which is supposed to step in and protect us from monopolies, actually creates the worst of them.” - John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.173.

MONOPOLIES: Each free to labor as he pleases! - Reflect on freedom as thus defined. Without a resort to force, that is, in the absence of violence, no laborer or any combination of laborers, regardless of roles, could monopolize any activity. Monopoly is possible only when force is employed to inhibit free entry. Where and when there is free entry, there is competition - a fair field for everyone, no favors for anyone. Exploitation of some by others, possibly only by a resort to violence, becomes nonexistent. - This laborer chooses freedom, and has some background experience for so doing.” - Leonard E. Read, Then Truth Will Out, p.66. - UNIONS, LABOR, FREE LABOR, PICKETING AGAINST "SCABS" OR STRIKE BREAKERS

MONOPOLIES: Each new hierarchy initially produces considerable competence but eventually matures into a bureaucracy of ineptitude. Each has its day before it deteriorates into dynamic inactivism. Postal and telegraph systems, railroads, telephone monopolies, airlines, gas and electric utilities – each was a shining example of competence before Hierarchal Regression set in.” - Dr. Laurence J. Peter, The Peter Prescription, p.43. - HIERARCHIES, ORGANIZED INCOMPETENCE, STATISM

MONOPOLIES: Economic monopoly has declined as transportation, communication, and market sizes have increased; …” - Julian L. Simon, The Great Breakthrough and Its Cause, The University of Michigan Press, 2000 – 2003, p.184. - MONOPOLY

MONOPOLIES: Equal rights to none. Special privilege to some.” – Rev. George B. Brinkmann, in ANALYSIS, May 1945, Slogan Dept. - PRIVILEGES VS. RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MONOPOLIES: Every coercive monopoly that has ever existed was created and made possible only by an act of government … by legislative actions which granted special privileges ... to a man or a group of men, and forbade all others to enter that particular field.” - Ayn Rand, in O'Neill, Ayn Rand, p.58. - Every coercive monopoly was created by government intervention into the economy: by special privileges, such as franchises or subsidies, which closed the entry of competitors into a given field, by legislative action.” – Ayn Rand - VIA LEGISLATORS & GOVERNMENTS, COMPETITION

MONOPOLIES: Every monopoly and all exclusive privileges are granted at the expense of the public.” - Leslie Snyder, Justice or Revolution, p.132.

MONOPOLIES: Every monopoly necessarily rests on force.” – Gustave de Molinari, The Production of Security. - Except that established and maintained through superior services. - Would it be difficult or relatively easy, to supply superior services to any of the present States, provided the field would be thrown open to such enterprises and experiments, to communities of volunteers? At least most of the motives and facilities for nuclear wars, conventional wars, civil wars, violent revolutions and mass murders, including terrorist acts, would then tend to disappear and this rather fast. To each his own utopia - at the own risk and expense! That would keep them so busy with their own problems, among their own volunteers, that they would hardly have any time, energy, manpower and resources left to try to run the affairs of others as well. Moreover, continued interventionist attempts would then encounter an overwhelming resistance by all other communities united in this respect - for none of them wants to be interfered with. And in few of them would defence and protection be monopolized and taken out of the hands of their members. - JZ, 21.12.07. - PANARCHISM, EXTERRITORIALISM, TERRITORIALISM, META-UTOPIA, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND CONTRACT IN EVERY SPHERE – FOR ALL

MONOPOLIES: every surviving monopoly is a Government grant, protected by the police. Without that protection, no monopoly could exist.” - Rose Wilder Lane, The Discovery of Freedom, p.244.

MONOPOLIES: Federal, state, and local governments have created far more monopolies than they've destroyed.” - Angus Black, A New Radicals Guide … p.5. - TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: For Adam Smith the monopolist was the most despicable of men.” - Silvert, Man's Power, p.122.

MONOPOLIES: Force grew out of monopoly.” – William Godwin, quoted in Sprading, p.101. - Rather the reverse is true, I believe: Monopoly grew out of force. - JZ, n.d. - It also continues to be maintained by force. Without that protection it would soon disappear. - JZ, 21.12.07. - & FORCE

MONOPOLIES: Free enterprise destroys monopolies faster than can government control.” - FREEDOM MAGAZINE, Summer 74. - But it does not do so always fast enough, in all spheres. E.g., it took ca. 100 years before machine-produced nails completely replaced manually hammered ones. Libertarians have still not provided many reference works needed, urgently, for their enlightenment campaigns, although it would be quite legal now, in many countries to do so and also quite cheap and without any considerable risk, to provide them electronically. - For ten thousands of libertarians, all providing some labor of love, it would not be too difficult. It could also be done with the most expensive and efficient equipment, like GOOGLE uses, which requires only 8 minutes to scan-in a book - if ten thousands of libertarians and anarchists combined some of their purchasing power for this purpose. - JZ, 21.12.07. – Libertarians could have reproduced all their writings on microfiche, floppies, CD’s and external HDD’s long ago but they haven’t! – JZ, 18.2.09. - COMPETITION, FREE ENTERPRISE, CONTROL, GOVERNMENT

MONOPOLIES: From the objectivist point of view, laissez-faire capitalism does not, contrary to popular opinion, inevitably lead to the concentration of wealth in the hands of the few or to the restriction of competition through the establishment of coercive monopolies. - "A 'coercive monopoly'," states Greenspan, "is a business concern that can set its prices and production policies independent of the market, with immunity from competition, from the law of supply and demand. ..." Such a monopoly is able to restrict entry to competition, is largely exempt from the normal pressures of competition, and is therefore free to earn (*) artificially high profits. - In point of fact, such monopolies are entirely impossible in a free market.” - O'Neill, Ayn Rand, p.58. - (*) Earn or wrongfully obtain? - JZ – OBJECTIVISM, AYN RAND

MONOPOLIES: From the unending arguments over taxation, school boards, sex education, etc., one might suppose that the only question about public education concerns the kind of public education we should have. However, the issue that should really be debated today is whether we should have a state-run, compulsory system at all. Throughout history, genuine progress in every other area - science, industry, medicine, the arts - has been the product of the free society, not of state monopoly.” - Duncan Yuille, leaflet on Public Education. - All the more this applies to the comprehensive monopoly of the territorial State, which in numerous sphere excludes competition with itself. Nothing should be the monopoly of any State - but its own voluntary membership and the laws and institutions these members wish for themselves, as long as they can stand them and as long as they do not interfere with the self-concerned activities and institutions of other voluntary communities. - JZ, 21.12.07. - EDUCATION, PUBLIC, SCHOOLS, "FREE & COMPULSORY", TERRITORIALISM VS. PANARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, VOLUNTARISM

MONOPOLIES: government … has done far more to promote monopoly than to promote and permit competition.” - Benjamin A. Rogge, Is Economic Freedom Possible? - THE FREEMAN, 10/74. - COMPETITION & GOVERNMENT

MONOPOLIES: Government creates and sustains monopoly, and the way to eliminate it is to remove government from the economy.” - Phillip B. Demattais, SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 1/77. - Not only from the economy but from the political and social spheres as well, at least as a territorial monopolist over involuntary subjects. For volunteers and at their expense and risk it should remain. They do need many further lessons of its practice, but from now on at their own expense and risk only. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: Government maintains any monopoly.” - Rose Wilder Lane, The Discovery of Freedom, p.243.

MONOPOLIES: Government ought to be as much open to improvement as anything which appertains to man, instead of which it has been monopolized from age to age, by the most ignorant and vicious of the human race. Need we any other proof of their wretched management, than the excess of debts and taxes with which every nation groans, and the quarrels into which they have precipitated the world?" – Thomas Paine. - However, even T. P. was not yet clear about the exterritorialist and voluntary alternatives to territorial monopoly governments. - I doubt that he ever saw a translation of Fichte's 1793 book about the French Revolution, where he defended individual secessions from the State as a characteristic of every rightful revolution and provided precedents for its practicability. - Paine died in 1809. When ideas do not cross frontiers, warriors will. - JZ, 26. 11. 06, supplementing Bastiat's saying: “When goods do not cross frontiers, armies will.” – PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM: GOVERNMENTS ON THE TERRITORIAL MODEL

MONOPOLIES: Government, itself, is the one true monopolist.” - Charles R. LaDow, THE FREEMAN, 9/74.

MONOPOLIES: Governments cannot “fight” monopolies but only coercively or with legal compulsion establish and maintain them. They themselves constitute the worst, most wrongful and harmful monopoly of all, namely that of their own territorial rule. – JZ, 27.2.89, 5.12.07. – GOVERNMENTS, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: I am always perplexed when people tell me they hate it, and fight against companies whom they feel have monopolies on goods and services. When I say to them the one organization that has the greatest monopoly on just about everything, Currency, Health care, Education, Utilities etc., is the entity known as government, they look at me like I just said I like to BBQ babies. Funny how it's taboo to go against the government for having monopolies, but it's okay to fight evil companies for trying to build up a business. - Trevor Murray on Facebook, 24.3.12. - GOVERNMENTS, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: If government were not afraid of its position, it would not declare itself a monopoly, thus making it illegal for you and me to compete with it.” - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, 17. – PANARCHISM, COMPETING GOVERNMENTS, COMPETITION WITH GOVERNMENTS

MONOPOLIES: In fact, government monopoly is more authoritarian and oppressive than any industrial monopoly. It is more complete and more powerful, and it can fail without seeming to do so by financing its losses with public funds.” - Charles Heath, The Golden Egg, p.85.

MONOPOLIES: In the whole history of the world there have been two chief methods of maintaining a monopoly - (1) By supplying goods of such quality and/or price in every market that no one else is willing to compete in that line, and (2) By persuading the government to provide a privileged position - tax exemption, tariff or quota protection, subsidies, government franchise or licence, supply of government services at below cost, government purchasing agreements, legislative prohibition of competition or special concessions for powerful friends. - If all government protection of monopolies were removed the only remaining monopolies would either be so efficient that they would be a benefit to consumers, or so short lived that their effect would be negligible. We propose to remove monopolies by removing their protection.” - Progress Party Platform, Australia, 4.4 Monopolies. – LIBERTARIAN PARTIES, PANARCHISM, SECESSIONISM, POLYARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: Isn't it strange that government pretends to hate monopolies while itself - the only real monopoly - zealously guarding its 'right' to so cruelly mismanage those things under its direct control?” - Clell (?) Porter, in LEFEVRE'S JOURNAL, Fall 77. - In every State the greatest monopoly is the State's territorial monopoly. - JZ, 21.12.07. - GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: It is a free market that makes monopolies impossible.” – Ayn Rand. - Alas, we never had a fully free market as yet anywhere. Ayn Rand herself opposed it, e.g. in the sphere of monetary freedom and choice of value standards, as well as in the free enterprise of providing "governmental" services and in that of consumer sovereignty towards such services. - If she had clearly taken the next logical steps of her limited libertarianism, then the world might already be a much more free, peaceful, just and advanced world by now, for her influence was great, thus her omissions had very severe consequences. - She was a great thinker and writer, but we should not rest on her laurels. - JZ, 26.11.06. - Alas, we never had as yet free markets in every sphere. Ayn Rand even considered “competing governments” to be absurd. If members of communities and societies of volunteers establish monopolies within them, then they do deserve the consequences.  – JZ, 25.4.13. - & THE FREE MARKET, MONOPOLIES, EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES, COMPETING GOVERNMENTS & AYN RAND

MONOPOLIES: It is better to abolish monopolies in all cases than not to do it in any.” – Thomas Jefferson, Letter to James Madison, 1788. - MONOPOLY

MONOPOLIES: It is interesting to note that the term monopoly originally meant: an exclusive grant or franchise from the king to operate in a given area free from competition.” - R. J. Ringer, Restoring the American Dream, p.188. - The greatest monopolist of all, the territorial one, granting monopolies to some of its subjects at the expense of all of the other of his subjects. And the victims are foolish enough to play zero-sum games even for amusements, via betting, gambling and lotteries etc. - JZ, 20.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: It is not by monopolists, but by their victims, that monopolies are maintained.” – Bastiat, Economic Sophisms, p.134. – Compare Ayn Rand’s remarks about the “sanction of the victim”. – Ulrich von Beckerath used to remark that monetary despotism represents the monetary religion of the people. Also that its “experts” and leading functionaries are its priests. – Unfortunately, all religious do have a tendency to maintain themselves, regardless of the immoral and irrational notions and practices that they do contain, and this even in the competition between them practised by religious liberty or religious tolerance. How fast or how slowly will the future panarchistic practitioners of State Socialism etc. become converted by the much more successful panarchies of those who practise many or even all economic liberties and rights? – JZ, 18.2.09. - PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM, STATISM, PREJUDICES, MONOPOLY

MONOPOLIES: It is not competition, but monopoly, that deprives labor of its product. Wages, inheritance, gifts and gambling aside, every process by which men acquire (*) wealth rests upon a monopoly, a prohibition, a denial of liberty.” – Benjamin R. Tucker, Why I Am an Anarchist, 1892. - - (*) excessive wealth at the expense of others. – JZ – MONOPOLY, COMPETITION

MONOPOLIES: It is not, as people think the monopolist, but the monopolized, that sustain the monopolies.” - Bastiat, in G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p. 250 - Bastiat, Economic Sophisms, p.152. - Compare what Ayn Rand said about “the sanction of the victim”. Statists are voluntary victims of statism. Law-abiding and law-revering citizens are voluntary victims of all too many “positive” laws, that they have not even the time and energy to read. – JZ, 6.12.07. - Even obvious hostages do, all too often, sympathize with their hostage takers, this displaying their slave mentality. - JZ, n.d. & 8.1.11. - STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, THE SANCTION OF THE VICTIMS, SLAVE MENTALITY

MONOPOLIES: It seems contradictory but territorial governments, which themselves form the greatest monopoly in every State, do also legalize, promote and protect all kinds of monopolies - and then appear as protectors against them. Why do they do this? They find it, probably, easier, to control, regulate and exploit monopolies rather than free enterprises. – And they are another opportunity of “jobs for the boys” for them. – If they themselves remained the only monopoly in existence then their own continued existence would not be so secure as it still seems to be. – It might be a continuance of the ancient policy of “divide and conquer!” - JZ, 18.2.09.

MONOPOLIES: It was not until 1819 that an effective movement to educate the general public on these matters started and it was in the end due to the devoted efforts of a few men who dedicated themselves to spread the message by an organized Free Trade Movement that what Smith had called 'the insolent outrage of furious and disappointed monopolists' was overcome.” – F. A. Hayek, Denationalization of Money, p.101. - If all the freedom writings, opinions, pro and con, facts and proofs and best arguments for liberty were combined and made quite easily accessible, perhaps via single HD of 320 Gbs, which could contain the page equivalent of more than a million books, how long would it take then, until sufficient enlightenment from such a cheap source would spread widely enough? A complete freedom library, with an inbuilt search engine, at the size of a single book and the price of a single expensive text book! One should imagine that anarchists and libertarians would rush and collaborate to create such an enlightenment tool. Instead, almost all of them seem to yawn at the mere mentioning of it! Well, at least David Hart, a former Australian academic, now working in the USA, is currently trying to publish all classical liberal writings online. - JZ, 21.12.07. - By now even a 2 TB external HD is offered for as little as A$ 78. - For how many more decades will "Freedom Lovers" avoid making all their knowledge, ideas, proposals, platforms and projects, books, papers, pamphlets etc. cheaply available on such discs? A whole special freedom library - book-sized and affordable! - JZ, 8.1.11, 7.11.13. - FREE TRADE VS. PROTECTIONISM, LIBERTARIAN LIBRARY ON A DESK

MONOPOLIES: It's your fault if you don't get service after you granted them a legal monopoly first. - JZ, 20.6.74. - Here we have the largest sphere for the abolition of what Ayn Rand called "the sanction of the victim". – JZ, n.d. – STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: Large company providing outstanding service.” – THE FREE RADICAL 2. – Market-domination through the supply of popular services, not necessarily the best ones. – Both formulas indicate popular misunderstanding of genuine monopolies, apart from the patent and copyrights monopolies, which may be involved. – JZ, 4.12.07. - MONOPOLY, BIG BUSINESS, CORPORATIONS, DIS., MULTINATIONALS

MONOPOLIES: Manufacturing and commercial monopolies owe their origin not to a tendency imminent in a capitalist economy but to governmental interventionist policy directed against free trade and laissez faire.” - Ludwig von Mises, "Socialism". - BASED ON LAWS & REGULATIONS: FREE COMPETITION DOES NOT LEAD TO THEM, FREE MARKETS, FREE ENTERPRISE, INTERVENTIONIST “PROTECTIONIST” POLICY DIRECTED AGAINST FREE TRADE & LAISSEZ FAIRE

MONOPOLIES: Monopolies are like babies: nobody likes them until they have got one of their own.” - Lord Mancroft, b. 1914. - One of my great disappointments occurred on reading up on the Hansa Federation: It had almost always tried to achieve not competitive free trade but rather a monopoly for itself. Mankind has been obsessed with monopolies and their supposed benefits just like with religions, for all too long. Few have clearly seen the benefits of fully free competition in all spheres. - JZ, 20.12.07. - SELF-INTEREST, VESTED INTEREST, FREE MARKET, LAISSEZ FAIRE

MONOPOLIES: Monopolies are odious, contrary to the spirit of free government and the principles of commerce and ought not to be suffered.” - Maryland Declaration of 1776, referring to the grants of monopoly by royal decree.

MONOPOLIES: Monopolies are the most expensive and dangerous way to achieve disservices. – JZ, 17.1.92, 8.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: Monopolies interfere with social justice (*) only when laws, regulations, practices create the Un-Equal Rights and Un-Equal Responsibilities ensuring significant privileges. It is only then that we become concerned with their influence. - George Hardy, PROGRESS, 2/78. – Are there any genuine monopolies without government protection? At most and temporarily only a very large market share is achieved by some firms. - (*) ? - JZ, 18.2.09. – LAWS, “SOCIAL JUSTICE”

MONOPOLIES: Monopolists, as well as their victims, can mostly be relied upon to vote for the continuance of monopolies.– For instance: After suffering under the postal monopoly for centuries, how many would be prepared to vote for its abolition? However, under individual secessionism and full minority autonomy there would be a growing number of people with their own and competitive postal services. Not to speak of the email, other computer and the mobile phone options they do now already possess. - JZ, 25.3.86, 18.2.09, 7.11.13. – SANCTION OF THE VICTIMS, SECESSIONISM, VOLUNTARISM, CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY, PERSONAL LAW

MONOPOLIES: Monopolizing improvement means stopping or even reversing them. That’s what governments usually do. – JZ, 17.7.76. – When under the pretence of progress they stopped whatever there was already of some degrees of free banking and introduced central banking, they really went backwards rather than forwards and introduced full monetary despotism – just like Marx and Engels had proposed in their Communist Manifesto in 1848. – JZ, 7.12.07. - MONOPOLY, GOVERNMENTS, POLITIAL PROCESS, BUREAUCRACY, TERRITORIALISM, CENTRAL BANKING, MONETARY DESPOTISM, MARX

MONOPOLIES: Monopoly capitalism is no more compatible with liberty than fascist corporatism or communist collectivism.” – Massimo Salvadori, Liberal Democracy. - MONOPOLY CAPITALISM

MONOPOLIES: Monopoly has generally evolved into state monopoly.” – Nicolai Lenin: Speech before the All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party, May 7, 1917. – There is no evolutionary process involved but merely a legislative one. – JZ, 13.12.07. And under territorialism legislation is also a monopoly. – JZ, 7.11.13.

MONOPOLIES: monopoly is a product of politics.” - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, Why We Have Socialism, p.158.

MONOPOLIES: monopoly is impossible in nature and under liberty.” - Benjamin R. Tucker, quoted in Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p160.

MONOPOLIES: Monopoly is impossible without government.” - Owen Warrington, Sydney, 9/72. (He drank up to 25 cups of coffee every day. So I doubt that he is still alive today. – JZ, 22.1.08.)

MONOPOLIES: Monopoly", Mill wrote, "in all its forms, is the taxation of the industrious for the support of indolence, if not plunder", while competition, despite its evils (*), prevents greater evils … every restriction of it is an evil, and every extension of it, even if for the time injuriously affecting some class of labourers, is always an ultimate good." - Lauchlan Chipman, QUADRANT, 4/76. - (*) What evils? Under close examination the supposed evils of competition are, as a rule, due to the remaining monopolies, which restrict competition all too much. For instance, the centuries of anti-truck legislation have prevented the development of sound alternative media to pay wages with, and thus restricted the monetary demand for labor. Just imagine all shop owners, shopping centers and supermarkets being free to make short-term loans to employer for the purpose of wage and salary payments and this with their own shop currencies with their shop foundation. The monetary demand for productive labor that could thus be issued and rapidly stream back for purchases of consumer goods and service would be enormous and by making such exchange media optional and market rated, inflation as well as deflation would be avoided. A beginning could have been made by a consumer cooperative of workers becoming a bank for local employers, granting them loans for wage- and salary payments. Thus, and indirectly, the employees could provide the employers with wage and salary payment means, and assure the sale of their products, labor and services. - JZ, 20.12.07. – CONSUMER COOPS MONETIZING THEIR GOODS & SERVICES AS WAGE PAYMENT MEANS WITH SHOP FOUNDATION

MONOPOLIES: My own preference is clear: of all monopolies, that of opinions is worst.” - Stigler, The Intellectual and the Market Place, p.74. - Does such a monopoly really still exist in most countries, or is there, rather, such a multitude of different ideas and opinions that most people remain, as a result, insufficiently enlightened, because the flawed ones are not sufficiently and systematical as well as publicly refuted. - JZ, 21.12.07, 8.1.11. - ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS OF POPULAR ERRORS, PREJUDICES ETC.

MONOPOLIES: Nevertheless, after long centuries of suffering, as enlightenment spread through the world, little by little, the masses who had been smothered under this nexus of privileges, began to rebel against the privileged, and to demand liberty; that is to say, the suppression of monopolies.” – Gustave de Molinari, The Production of Security, p.7. - The masses or some enlightened individuals and minorities? - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: No decisions, actions and relationships are to be monopolized. Let us make and enjoy or suffer our own friends and enemies, internationally as well as internally. Under that condition no new enemies would arise and they old ones would tend to disappear. There would be almost no bone of contention left, none strong enough to motivate us to war. Nor could we any longer raise the funds and conscripts for military adventures. Wars, revolutions, civil wars and terrorism would run out of ready followers. The productive and creative alternative actions of their individual choices would snatch them away. Why fight someone else when you could do what you want to do? The few remaining individual aggressors and criminals would face competitively developed defence and protection measures and organizations of the vast majority. Neither official nor private crimes would any longer pay. - JZ, 5.2.93. - MONOPOLIZED DECISION-MAKING, SELF-DETERMINATION DOWN TO INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY & SECESSIONISM, OR, RATHER, UP TO THEM, VOLUNTARISM & PERSONAL LAW VS. TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: No monopolies shall be granted or allowed among us, but of such new inventions that are profitable to the country, and that for a short time …” - Massachusetts Body of Liberties, 1641, point 9. - INVENTIONS, PATENTS

MONOPOLIES: No monopoly or privilege for any State, parliament, government authority or department. - JZ, 6.7.91.

MONOPOLIES: No monopoly! No church is the centre of the world. This universe has many centres.” - Reimar Lenz in a leaflet reprinted by the Mackay Society, Germany, Oct. 75. - CENTRALIZATION

MONOPOLIES: No one, states Nathaniel Brand, ‘has been able to establish coercive monopoly by means of competition in a free market’."- O'Neil, Ayn Rand, p.58. - COMPETITION

MONOPOLIES: Nobody should have exclusive powers – except over his own person, his property, earnings and whatever has been individually entrusted to him. – JZ, 12/72.

MONOPOLIES: One has to realize that the approval or toleration of a single monopoly means the denial of a really free market and free competition. – Solneman, Drei Kernfragen zur Vermoegensverteilung, S.28. - One has to realize that the approval or toleration of every single monopoly means the denial of a really free market and of free competition, free trade, free enterprise, freedom of association and freedom of contract. – “Vermoegensverteilung” = Wealth Distribution. – Alas, K. H. Z. Solneman = K. H. Zube, my father, in some respects, still thought in such terms. In particular when it came to land reform, of the type he envisioned. Although he was a panarchist, he did not apply panarchist thinking to land reform but, rather, wanted his kind of land reform imperialistically applied all over the world! – See his Manifesto for Freedom and Peace: - JZ, 7.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: Our freedom of choice in a competitive society rest on the fact that, if one person refuses to satisfy our wishes we can turn to another. But if we face a monopolist we are at his mercy. And an authority directing the whole economic system would be the most powerful monopolist conceivable.” - Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom. - COMPETITION, FREEDOM OF CHOICE, AUTHORITARIANISM, PLANNED & DIRECTED ECONOMY, STATE SOCIALISM

MONOPOLIES: Our government employs thousands of bureaucrats to track down and break up monopolies on the grounds that monopolies stifle competition and thereby produce bad products at high prices. Doesn’t it strike anyone strange that the same government protects its own monopoly in education? And stranger still, that nearly everyone accepts this state of affairs as normal - as something that has always been and must always be? - Jennifer A. Grossman - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. - EDUCATION & TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: Plunder consists in prohibiting by force or fraud, freedom of exchange, in order to receive a service without rendering one in return.” - Bastiat, Sophisms, p.132. – PLUNDER, EXPLOITATION

MONOPOLIES: Professor Mises' theory that no abusive monopoly is possible without the help of government in one form or another.” - Sylvester Petro, THE FREEMAN, 2/74.

MONOPOLIES: State monopolies are the worst and no wrongful private monopoly can persist without State support. – JZ, 15.2.86. – See e.g. the patent and copyrights monopolies.

MONOPOLIES: Take the subject of monopoly. Communism makes much of it, although by a strange twist of logic it sees in State monopoly all the virtues lacking in private monopoly. Capitalism, in theory at least, equally condemns monopoly, on the ground that any restriction of competition lowers the general level of production and is a deterrent to human aspirations. An examination of the anatomy of monopoly reveals that its vital organ is the power to restrict production, and the source of this power is the State. Without some law favorable to its purpose every monopoly would disintegrate.” – Frank Chodorov, One Is A Crowd, p.81. - CAPITALISM & COMMUNISM

MONOPOLIES: The best protection we can have is the free and open competition of a free market.” – John Singleton with Bob Howard, Rip Van Australia, p.176. - Otherwise it means privileges for a few at the expense of the many. - JZ, 21.12.07. - PROTECTIONISM, TARIFFS, QUOTAS ETC., VS. FREE TRADE

MONOPOLIES: the biggest monopolies of all are the "unions" of politicians who form governments.” - Duncan Yuille, in tape: "Producers & Parasites". - UNIONS, TRADE UNIONS, PROFESSIONALS, POLITICIANS, GOVERNMENTS, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: The communists’ all-embracing monopoly is the worst of all. – JZ, 10/72. – It, too, is only a particular form of the territorial monopoly. – JZ, 18.2.09. – TOTALITARIANISM, COMMUNISM, TERRITORIALISM, STATE SOCIALISM, STATE CAPITALISM

MONOPOLIES: The conclusion of this and the previous chapter, taken together, is clear. Monopoly power exists only when a firm can control the prices charged by existing competitors and prevent the entry of new ones. The most effective way of doing so is by the use of government power. There are considerable element of monopoly in our economy, but virtually all are produced by government and could not exist under institutions of complete private property.” - David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, p.60.

MONOPOLIES: The disease of Society is monopoly and State Socialists seek to cure it by monopoly.” - Bob James, Australian Anarchism, p.31. – STATISM, STATE SOCIALISM, TERRITORIALISM, LEGISLATION

MONOPOLIES: the evidence in both America and Europe points to no general or substantial increase of monopoly during the last 50 years. The size distribution of firms in the last half century has remained much the same. Nor is it obvious that the problem of the so-called technical monopolies is increasing. …” - Russel Lewis in Dr. Rhodes Boyson, editor, Right Turn, p.48. - BIG BUSINESS

MONOPOLIES: The fact that monopoly is the product of politics, and that (*) socialism was the ultimate of politics, did not occur to them, …” - Frank Chodorov, Out of Step, p.246. – (*) State - JZ

MONOPOLIES: The fundamental principle of monopoly: That demand can't call forth supply.” - Dr. H. G. Pearce.

MONOPOLIES: The great monopoly problem mankind has to face today is not an outgrowth of the operation of the market economy. It is a product of purposive action on the part of governments. It is not one of the evils inherent in capitalism (*) as the demagogues trumpet. It is, on the contrary, the fruit of (**) policies hostile to capitalism and intent upon sabotaging and destroying its operation.” - Ludwig von Mises, Human Action. - (*) Which genuine and inherent evils? – (**) government - JZ, 21.12.07. - GOVERNMENT POLICIES, MARKET, COMPETITION & CAPITALISM

MONOPOLIES: The liberty of the citizen to do as he likes so long as he does not interfere with the liberty of others to do the same, which has been a shibboleth for some well-known writers, is interfered with by school laws, by the Post Office, by every state or municipal institution which takes his money for purposes thought desirable, whether he likes it or not.” – Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., 1905, in the case of Lochner v. New York; Commager, 1973 ed., p.41. – OWH made this statement in favor of such interventions! – JZ - COMPULSORY EDUCATION, POST OFFICE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS & TAXATION, LIBERTY, FREEDOM, LAISSEZ FAIRE

MONOPOLIES: The majority has the right to compel the minority to respect order: but everything which does not interfere with order, everything which is merely private, such as opinion, everything which, in the expression of opinion, does not harm others, whether by provoking physical violence or by denying a contrary expression; everything which, in the sphere of industry, allows rival industries to operate freely - all this is individual, and cannot legitimately be subjected to the power of society.” – Benjamin Constant, quoted in Arblaster/Lukes, The Good Society, p.87. - MONOPOLY, POWER, MINORITIES, ORDER, EXPERIMENTATIOIN, FREEDOM OF ACTION, MYOB, LAISSEZZ FAIRE, CAPITALISM, COMPETITION, FREE MARKET

MONOPOLIES: The man who possesses a monopoly by which he thinks he gains is not open to argument.” – John Bright, 1879. – SELF-INTEREST, EGOISM, SPECIAL INTEREST, VESTED INTEREST

MONOPOLIES: the monopolist to fear most is government itself.” - FREEDOM MAGAZINE, Sum. 74. - GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: The monopolist, based on the compulsory acceptance for his inferior product and the exclusion of every competition, can resort to the most unbelievable abuses. - Solneman, Drei Kernfragen zur Vermoegensverteilung, S.16.

MONOPOLIES: The motive for the governmental territorial monopoly is that free people could provide and also buy better services than a territorial government can offer its subjects. Otherwise there would be no sense at all in upholding a territorial monopoly. If the territorial governments were to offer the best services and most cheaply, too, then their subjects would not have to be forced to “buy” them. Public services should thus be renamed: Public Disservices. – Just like taxes should be called by their real names: Tributes. - JZ, 74/75, 31.7.78, 7.12.07. - MONOPOLY, TERRITORIAL, TAXATION, TRIBUTES, PUBLIC DISSERVICES OF GOVERNMENTS

MONOPOLIES: the object of monopoly is exploitation, … the state, in establishing the special privileges which spawn monopolies, is the guilty one. … might go so far as to declare the state - even the "dictatorship of the proletariat" - the only exploitative factor in any economy.” - Frank Chodorov, Fugitive Essays, Let's Teach Communism, p.171.

MONOPOLIES: The object of monopoly, in any field, is to compel the customer to accept the services offered by the monopolist at his own terms. It is a take-it-or-leave-it arrangement.” - Frank Chodorov, The Income Tax, p.87.

MONOPOLIES: The only dangerous "monopoly" is the one that government protects against competition.” - FEE, Free Market Economics Syllabus. – TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENT-GRANTED LEGALIZED PRIVILEGES

MONOPOLIES: The only kind of monopoly, which can exist under laissez-faire capitalism, is a non-coercive monopoly. These are not really "monopolies" at all, because they are fully dependent upon the laws of supply and demand and exist solely on the basis of superior productive efficiency. They are therefore good. Indeed, "no one can morally claim the right to compete in a given field, if he cannot match the productive efficiency of those with whom he hopes to compete." (*) It is absurd to condemn a company for hampering competition by its superior enterprise, efficiency and foresight.” - O'Neil, Ayn Rand, p.59. - (*) Is there no room for inferior painters, poets or musicians, to be active in these spheres for their own enjoyment and that of those who do appreciate their minor talents or limited achievements? - Should only the top medical people be allowed to practise medicine? - JZ, 21.12.07. – Only one super-competent doctor for the whole world? Because, compared with him all the others are incompetents and should not be allowed to practice medicine? – JZ, 18.2.09. - The most efficient firms, with the largest market share, do, naturally, not prevent such competition. - JZ, 8.1.11.

MONOPOLIES: The people of a community cannot be expected to acquiesce for long in the state’s monopoly of force if the state is not adequately performing its protective function. When the state’s protection breaks down, the “natural: right of self-defence reasserts itself. It is useless to deplore the rise of vigilante groups and to attack the possession of handguns when the fear of crime is pervasive.” – Joseph F. Johnston, Jr., The Limits of Government, Regnery Gateway, Chicago, 1984, p.209. - MONOPOLY FOR THE USE OF FORCE, VIGILANTE GROUPS & GUN CONTROL LAWS

MONOPOLIES: The root and great feeder of monopoly is the State, and all monopolies are simply appendages of it.’ - Consequently, radical reformers who would destroy inequality must first slay its parent, authority.” - Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.160, quoting B. R. Tucker.

MONOPOLIES: the spirit of monopoly: a spirit at once selfish, stupid and cowardly - for it dare not face competition.” - Frank Dupuis, PROGRESS, 11/75.

MONOPOLIES: The State is a compulsory monopoly in which payment is separated from receipt of service.” – Murray N. Rothbard, Power & Market, p.106. - The territorial State. Voluntary or competing governments, communities and societies, that are only exterritorially autonomous, under personal laws, do not fall under that judgment. - JZ, 8.1.11. - MONOPOLY STATE, STATE, TERRITORIALISM, TAXATION, PUBLIC SERVICES

MONOPOLIES: The States’ monopolies for territories, peoples, currencies and laws must be abolished.” – Thomas Mueller, in ESPERO, 4/5, Oct. 95. – PANARCHISM, TERRITORIALISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, SECESSIONISM

MONOPOLIES: The tale is told of a tolerant Roman Catholic chaplain, who said to his Protestant opposite number: “Yes, we are both serving God; you in your way, and I in His.” – The competing supplier might address a public-spirited monopolist in much the same terms: “You are serving your customers in your way; and I in theirs.” – Anthony Flew, The Politics of Procrustes, p.167. - Central banking serves the interest of the government. Free banking serves rather the former victims of the monetary despotism of territorial governments. - JZ, 9.1.11, 7.11.13. - MONOPOLY, JOKES, COMPETITION

MONOPOLIES: The true alternative to a private monopoly is not a nationalized monopoly but no monopoly. – JZ, 4.4.74. - MONOPOLY, NATIONALIZATION

MONOPOLIES: there are too many monopolies - The Monopoly of Government? Well, who do I object to about that?” - George, Humbert's Revenge, 1973. – TERRITORIALISM, GOVERNMENT, STATES

MONOPOLIES: There is far more danger in public than private monopoly, for when the government goes into business, it can always shift its losses to the taxpayer.” - Thomas A. Edison, quoted in SOUTHERN LIBERTARIAN MESSENGER, 10/79. - But to the extent that the private monopoly is legally protected (protected industries, protected against foreign competition, protected from the preferences of its customers for foreign goods), they are, indirectly, also public monopolies, or private monopolies that are permitted to charge taxes in form of monopoly surcharges upon their goods and services. If a private monopoly service or supplier exists, e.g. a private power plant at a privately built dam in a suitable location, then it could always shift its losses or its monopoly surcharges to all the customers who are dependent upon it. - JZ, 8.6.82, 9.1.11. - - The best counter-measure would consist in transforming such a company into an open cooperative. It might pay its customers to buy it up for this purpose, even if they would have to pay a monopoly price for it. They might also start a class action against such a company, for having monopolized a natural resource, namely e.g. a suitable location for a dam and the rain and water-ways filling it. In an open coop the investors are rewarded in accordance with their investments and the workers and other employees according to their work input. They are also open, as far as possible, to investors and employees and anyone else with a vested interest in their production or services. - See the writings especially of Theodor Hertzka and Ulrich von Beckerath on this. - JZ, 21.12.07. – NATURAL MONOPOLIES & OPEN COOPERATIVES

MONOPOLIES: There is only one way of driving a monopoly out of business: Supply what it is monopolizing.” - From ACCESS TO ENERGY, quoted in LIBERTARIAN OPTION. - 9/75. - Provided one can do so, freely, better and cheaper. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: There is, however, a way of achieving a monopolistic position (exclusiveness in the market) that beneficially affects all concerned. Indeed, all progress rests upon this way. Become superior, that is, surpass others by excellence, which is to say, achieve leadership by the voluntary followership of others." - Source? – Leonard E. Read of FEE? Some specialists possess, at least temporarily, a monopoly concerning certain services. - In both cases the popular concept of monopoly and exclusiveness is used, which ignores that competition is still potentially and effectively present and that only time is required to bring about more effective, cheaper and extensive competition for or replacement of the present single best producer by another single but still better producer or several. In reality we have here no real monopoly, no exclusiveness, but merely a temporary market domination through best services. Everybody remains free to compete - if he thinks he can, and will tend do so if he can do so profitably. - JZ, n.d.

MONOPOLIES: There would be, of course, little need for government under Spooner's system. He called for an immediate end to the state monopolies over currency, post offices, and the administration of justice. Such services could be best performed by voluntary stock companies. As many companies as the market would bear could be organized and, in the competition, a citizen could shop for the cheapest and most effective service. What government would remain would evidently be broken into small subdivisions with its functions clearly distinguished; a citizen could then pay only for those services he used.” - Introduction by Charles Chiveley to Lysander Spooner, Works, I/54, - Alas, L. S. was still of the opinion that even medium and long-term capital certificates could be rightfully and economically monetized. – JZ, 7.11.13. - PUBLIC SERVICES, GOVERNMENTS & COMPETITION

MONOPOLIES: This country would not be a land of opportunity, America would not be America, if the people where shackled with government monopolies.” – Calvin Coolidge: Speech of acceptance, Aug. 14, 1924. – The militia or national guard has long been under government control, as well as the other armed forces and there are, supposedly, more than 20 000 gun control laws. Territorialism is the worst governmental monopoly, followed by the taxation privilege and the money issue monopoly, now practised there by the Federal Reserve System. Nor should e.g. the postal monopoly be forgotten and the xyz compulsory licensing systems. – JZ, 13.12.07, 7.11.13.

MONOPOLIES: To monopolize any goods or services can never be in the interests of the consumers – nor of any of the alternative producers under real free enterprise. – JZ, 11.10.76, 7.12.07. - CONSUMERS

MONOPOLIES: To take the management of affairs which do not concern him is called monopolizing.” - The Texts of Taoism, II/196.

MONOPOLIES: True monopoly, then, as the objectivists see it, "entails more than the absence of competition; it entails the impossibility of competition. That is a coercive monopoly's characteristic attribute - and is essential to any condemnation of such a monopoly.” - O'Neil, quoting Ayn Rand, in his book on A.R., p.58.

MONOPOLIES: Two centuries ago Adam Smith understood that producers prefer monopoly to competition in the markets in which they sell. Governments, as suppliers of services, seek to monopolize the markets in which they provide services, either by rules that prohibit entry or by pricing below cost of production. Again, the question occurs: Why does the public permit the restrictions on entry and the loss of efficiency to persist and even to grow?” - Allan H. Meltzer, Why Government Grows, p.6. - TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the third kind of monopoly, state monopoly. State monopoly occurs when competition is prevented in one way or another by the government. It is far and away the most important kind of monopoly, both historically and presently. Ironically, one of its most common causes - or at least excuses - has been the attempt to prevent or control monopolies of the first two kinds.” - David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, p.48. - TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: What men value in this world is not rights but privileges.” – H. L. Mencken - In the absence of monetary freedom a private monopoly is the only way to somewhat assure an income in form of the government's monopoly money. Under monetary freedom one's own note issues, IOUs or clearing certificates would, inevitably, stream back to oneself in payment for the goods, services or labor one has to offer. To that extent at least one's sale problem is then solved. - JZ, 9.1.11. - PRIVILEGES, STATISM & MAN

MONOPOLIES: When important issues affecting the life of an individual are decided by somebody else, it makes no difference to the individual whether that somebody else is a king, a dictator, or society at large.” – James Taggart (1992) – It makes a very great difference whether e.g. “society at large” is “represented” by territorial democratic or republican governments and their laws and regulations or by individual free consumers, buyers, producers etc., engaged only in voluntary exchanges. – JZ, 7.1.08. - It also makes a great difference whether the services one wants are competitively package deals, freely chosen by oneself, like a travel, accommodation and restaurant deal, supplied by communities or societies of volunteers (competing or voluntary governments) or by territorial governments, to whose decisions, services and disservices one is compulsorily subjected. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MONOPOLY OF DECISION-MAKING, GOVERNMENT, SOCIETY, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, STATE SOCIALISM

MONOPOLIES: When the monopolist controls one of the vital conditions of human survival, he has the power to starve to death all those who do not obey his orders.” – Ludwig von Mises, Human Action. - In totalitarian States, not only in their concentration camps and prisons, the territorial governments control the food supply, even the water supply. And they do make use of that power, not only of their power to control the exchange media and the value standard, in their own interest and not in that of their involuntary victims. - The non-totalitarian but also territorial States have still all too much in common with the totalitarian States. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MONOPOLY, COMMUNISM, NATIONALIZATION, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: When the police do not interfere with the natural uses of human energy, no economic monopoly is safe.” - Rose Wilder Lane, The Discovery of Freedom, p.24.

MONOPOLIES: Wherever there is a government monopoly, there is inefficiency, bad service, and an opportunity for (*) profits.” - David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom, p.109. – (*) unearned! - JZ, n.d. - Or black market profits by serving volunteers with those services the government has outlawed. - JZ, 9.1.11.

MONOPOLIES: Whosoever expects good service from a monopoly service deserves all the bad service he will get. – JZ, 23.7.75. - TERRITORIALISM, CENTRAL BANKING

MONOPOLIES: Why the Federal government is nothing but a profit-making business monopoly, and why he has paid no income taxes since 1973.” - Schiff, The Biggest Con, from the cover. - I wonder whether he copyrighted this book and thus made a monopoly profit from it, although he was certainly not the first to attack government as a monopolist and coercer. - JZ, 21.12.07.

MONOPOLIES: With impeccable logic, Tucker argued that monopoly is never present in nature but only in organized society in which power has been concentrated in the hands of government.” - Reichert, Partisans of Freedom, p.160. - TERRITORIALISM

MONOPOLIES: Without Government assistance," notes Greenspan, "it is impossible for a would-be monopolist to set and maintain his prices and production policies independent of the rest of the economy." A free capital market guarantees that a monopolist whose profits are based on high prices instead of low costs will provoke competitors to invade his territory.” - O'Neill, Ayn Rand, p.58. – Did Greenspan run the FED for all too many years or did the FED and its bureaucracy and mythology run him and all his utterances supposedly on its behalf and that of all its USA and international victims? To central banks and their powers and monopolies – as well, naturally, as to all territorial States, the old saying applies: “No institution can help being an institution.” All of us have become more or less institutionalized by central banking – and its monetary and financial despotism and are not free as yet to opt out from under it. – Alan Greenspan, at least once he was in this powerful office, failed to stand up for fully free competition in the monetary and financial sphere. For years he seemed to be unable to think of anything better than a change in his interest rate policies! - JZ, n.d.

MONOPOLY CAPITALISM: As long as there are dozens of millions of potential employers to choose from, one could not speak or write about “monopoly capitalism” and one remains, largely, independent from the accumulated and invested capital. – JZ, 10.8.05. However, both, employers and investors on the one side and employees and consumers on the other side should be very much concerned about all of the remaining real and legalized monopolies. The worst of them is that of territorial statism and among its economic flaws the worst are the monetary despotism of central banks and the tribute levying powers of the State. – JZ, 29.10.07. - EMPLOYERS COMPETING WITH EACH OTHER FOR LABOR, FREE ENTERPRISE, CAPITALISM – AS THE UNKNOWN IDEAL, SELF-MANAGEMENT OPTIONS, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES

MONOPOLY MONEY: Another strange notion pervading whole peoples is that the State has money of its own; and nowhere is this absurdity more firmly fixed than in America. The State has no money. It produces nothing. It existence is purely parasitic, maintained by taxation; that is to say, by forced levies on the production of others. 'Government money,' of which one hears so much nowadays, does not exist; there is no such thing. (*) One is especially amused at seeing how largely a naïve ignorance of this fact underlies the pernicious measures of 'social security' which have been foisted on the American people. In various schemes of pensioning, of insurance against sickness, accident, unemployment and what-not, one notices that the government is supposed to pay so-much into the fund, the employer so-much, and the workman so-much … But the government pays nothing, for it has nothing to pay with. What such schemes actually come to is that the workman pays his own share outright; he pays the employer's share in the enhanced price of commodities; and he pays the government's share in taxation. He pays the whole bill; and when one counts in the unconscionably swollen costs of bureaucratic brokerage and paperasserie, one sees that what the workman-beneficiary gets out the arrangement is about the most expensive form of insurance that could be devised consistently with keeping its promoters out of goal." - Albert J. Nock, Memoirs of a Superfluous Man, available in the Mises Store. - (*) It would be wonderful if the government's monopoly money would suddenly become outlawed or ignored and replaced by the competing monies of monetary freedom. What he meant was rather government "funds", based on official and legalized robbery. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MONEY OF THE STATE, GOVERNMENT SPENDING GOVERNMENT MONEY, MONETARY DESPOTISM, CENTRAL BANKING

MONOPOLY MONEY: No exchange medium that is legally monopolized and given legal tender power, i.e., compulsory acceptance and a force value, is as good in preventing inflation, stagflation and deflation as well, as are the kinds of monies that are quite freely and competitively issued, in a decentralized way, under freedom in general circulation to refuse their acceptance or to discount them against any sound and freely chosen value standard. Only their issuers would always have to accept them and this at par with their nominal value. That limited acceptance might be sufficient to keep them at par in general local circulation or not. If it does not, these issues will soon cease and harm only the issuer, who might be driven into bankruptcy, but stable value reckoning and a competitive and sufficient supply of exchange media will go on. – JZ, 8.9.11, 26.2.12. - EXCHANGE MEDIA, MONEY ISSUE MONOPOLY, LEGAL TENDER, FORCED CURRENCY, FREE BANKING VS. MONETARY DESPOTISM

MONOPOLY POWER: No good has ever come from granting monopoly power to the state to use aggression against the people to arbitrarily mold human behavior. Such power, when left unchecked, becomes the seed of an ugly tyranny. This method of governance has been adequately tested, and the results are in: reality dictates we try liberty." - Ron Paul, quoted by Wally Conger – Facebook, 15.11.12. - STATE, GOVERNMENT, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM

MONROE DOCTRINE: I have ever deemed it fundamental for the United States never to take active part in the quarrels of Europe. Their political interests are entirely distinct from ours. Their mutual jealousies, their balance of power, their complicated alliances, their forms and principles of government, are all foreign to us. They are nations of eternal war.” – Thomas Jefferson (1823) – Alas, in the meantime, the USA, as a territorial State, has also become a Warfare State itself, attempting imperialistically, to act as a policeman for the whole world, and this without full knowledge and appreciation of all individual rights and liberties and of a liberation program for all, one that deserves the name. Majoritarian democracy, even if purely conducted, is neither rightful, good or attractive enough to all the diverse peoples in the world. – At least there are some armistice periods between their wars! - JZ, 18.2.09, 7.11.13. – VOTING, DEMOCRACY, MAJORITIES, TERRITORIALISM, NON-INTERVENTIONISM, WARFARE STATE, WAR AIMS, LIBERATION, IMPERIALISM, TERRITORIALISM

MONUMENTS: Don't support monument savers with tax funds. - JZ, 10/76, 711.13. - CONSERVATIONISM

MORAL DUTIES OF MAN: Man, no doubt, owes many other moral duties to his fellow men; such as to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, shelter the homeless, care for the sick, protect the defenseless, assist the weak, and enlighten the ignorant. But these are simply moral duties, of which each man must be his own judge, in each particular case, as to whether, and how, and how far, he can, or will perform them.” – Lysander Spooner - The primary duty is to see to it that all self-voluntary help options are no longer blocked by numerous laws, e.g. in the sphere of insurance, credit, banking, self-defence, education, militias for the protection of all genuine individual rights and liberties. How much need for charity would then still remain? - How come that so many, who speak and write so much about morality and human rights, have still avoided collaboration in finally compiling an ideal declaration of all genuine individual rights and liberties? - The laissez-faire advocates have even avoided clearly declaring all economic rights and liberties, especially all the monetary and financial rights. - JZ, 9.1.11, 7.11.13. – VS. LEGALLY IMPOSED DUTIES, WELFARE STATE, TERRITORIALISM, LAWS. ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, SELF-HELP, SELF-RESPONSIBILITY, FREE ENTERPRISE & CONSUMER SOVEREIGNTY IN EVERY SPHERE, PRIVATE INSURANCE & CREDIT ARRANGEMENTS AS PRIMARIES, RATHER THAN PRIVATE CHARITY & ALTRUISM

MORALE: Morale is when your hands and feet keep on working when your head says it can't be done.” - Admiral Ben Moreell, b.1892, Andrews Quotations, p.308.

MORALITY: A code of values accepted by choice is a code of morality.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.940. - How come that among over 6 000 million human beings either not good enough codes of values have so far either been compiled or not yet widely enough adopted? Among really moral beings one should have imagined this to be one of their prime preoccupations, until they have finally succeeded with this important job. Instead, I find everywhere a general lack of interest in it. - Did Ayn Rand attempt to draft a comprehensive code of individual rights and liberties? Did anyone in her "objectivist" movement? - JZ, 22.12.07. - For most people their religion is an obstacle to such attempts. But Ayn Rand was not religious and most of her objectivist followers aren't, either. Unless one classes "Objectivism" as a new religion and A.R. as its prophet. - JZ, 9.1.11. – As far as I know, most other libertarians have also failed and are still failing in this respect. None has shown me any serious interest in completing my anthology of over 130 private human rights drafts (PEACE PLANS 589/590, offered digitized by me, in email attachments, until it appears online or one a disc. Its reproduction on a disc at does not function for me. – JZ, 7.11.13.) and using them and all others to finally compile a comprehensive and clear declaration of all individual rights and liberties. – JZ, 7.11.13. - CHOICE, CONSENT, VALUES

MORALITY: A conscience is the price of morality, and morality is the price of civilization.” - Tom Clancy, in Patriot Games. - CIVILIZATION, CONSCIENCE

MORALITY: A just man is not the one who does not commit an injustice, but who could commit it but does not want to.” – Menander, Sentenzen in Monostichen, 638. (Ein gerechter Mann ist nicht der, der kein Unrecht begeht, sondern wer es tun kann, aber nicht will.) - JUSTICE.

MORALITY: A man's ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy, education, and social ties; no religious basis is necessary. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hope of reward after death. - Albert Einstein - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. - ETHICS & RELIGION, HEAVEN & HELL NOTIONS

MORALITY: A person may be qualified to do greater good to mankind, and become more beneficial to the world, by morality without faith than by faith without morality.” – Joseph Addison, THE SPECTATOR, Aug. 16, 1712.

MORALITY: Acton … insisted that historians 'maintain morality as the sole impartial criterion of men and things, and the only one on which honest minds can be made to agree'.” - Herbert Read, Anarchism and Order, p.211.

MORALITY: All human progress, even in morals, has been the work of men who have doubted the current moral values, not of men who have whooped them up and tried to enforce them. -  H. L. Mencken, in  - However, moral changes should be tried out only among volunteers and not enforced upon dissenters. – JZ, 27.3.12. – However, they can be rightfully defended against any criminals and other aggressors. – JZ, 1.11.13. - & PROGRESS, DOUBTS, SKEPTICISM, FORCE, COMPULSION.

MORALITY: All is not lost yet as long as at least some people can still get excited about moral questions. – JZ, 21.5.76.

MORALITY: All moral laws are merely statements that certain kinds of actions will have good effects.” – G. E. Moore, Principia Ethica, v, 1903. – Oh, how they slander, avoid or misunderstand concepts like Right, Human Rights and Individual Rights and Liberties! – JZ, 18.2.09, 7.11.13. - UTILITARIANISM, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, PRAGMATISM, PRAXEOLOGY

MORALITY: All religions begin with a revolt against morality, and perish when morality conquers them.” - George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950. - As if the "morality" before the "morality" of the various religions had been much better and as if "morality" were now already sufficiently clarified and realized. Shaw, certainly, was not aware of all economic and political liberties and rights. - JZ, 22.12.07. - & RELIGIONS

MORALITY: All the civilized nations of the world agree in the great points of morality.” – Joseph Addison, THE SPECTATOR, Aug. 16, 1712. – If they really sufficiently agreed, they would have formulated an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties long ago. – JZ, 13.12.07. – Do they agree e.g. on Tyrannicide, Abortion, International Law, Human Rights, Monetary and Financial Freedom, the wrongfulness of nuclear “weapons”, the wrongfulness of territorialism and of the State as protector of rights and defender of liberties? – You make your own list! - JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: Always do right. This will surprise some people and astonish the rest.” - Mark Twain - RIGHTS

MORALITY: Americas sickness is erosion - not of the soil, but of the morality.” - Tom Anderson, STRAIGHT TALK, Dec. 29, 77. - When and where was morality every quite predominant and clear enough? - Just look at how flawed most human rights declarations by governments still are and how few individuals have so far tried to draft better ones or to collaborate with others in such efforts. - JZ, 20.12.07.

MORALITY: an abstract, conceptual code of values and principles.” - Ayn Rand, Art and World Treason, p.10. - Where and under what title has she published her code of human rights and liberties? – If she ever tried to compile one at all? - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11, 7.11.13.

MORALITY: And humans develop as humans and make progress only in this condition of individual freedom and voluntary association established by adherence to these moral principles. Therefore, these moral principles are antecedent to and take precedence over all man-made laws and customs.” - Orval Watts, THE FREEMAN, I/76. - Did Orval Watts state the moral principles sufficiently comprehensively? In this essay? - I only know that, somewhere, he was one of the few who reworded Gresham's Law properly. - Here is a short extract from the same article in all its incompleteness: "Living by these principles requires that we fulfill our contracts, that we speak the truth, and that we revere the laws of Life and Nature. The human need for this reverence appears in the first four of the 'Ten Commandments'.” - JZ, 22.12.07. – People, who refer to them, are usually, hung up on them and not interested in many to all the individual rights, liberties and duties not included in the T. C.’s. – JZ, 7.11.13.

MORALITY: And if you wish to go on living, what you now need is not to RETURN to morality - you who have never known any (*) but to DISCOVER it.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.938. – I assert that she did not discover and state all of it, either. - (*) all of it! - JZ, 18.2.09. - & SURVIVAL, KNOWLEDGE OF & APPRECIATION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MORALITY: Any individual or agency, which violates property boundaries, regardless of the name or alleged function of the person or agency, is committing a wrongful, immoral act. Moral behavior would consist of contenting one's self with the control of himself and what is his. Friendship, love, cooperation, and contract can all be offered to others and obtained. But the willful crossing of the property boundary of another is always wrong.” - Robert LeFevre, The Libertarian, p.31. - See also his booklet: Property, An Absolute Concept. - & PROPERTY BOUNDARIES

MORALITY: Apparently, morality is absolutist in everyday circumstances, teleological in emergencies, and in each context blind to the other alternative. This blindness itself is probably adaptive: rules couldn't do their everyday job of maximizing adaptive behavior if people thought of them as less than absolute, yet it would also be maladaptive to cling to rules on those rare occasions when doing so would be catastrophic. We are of two minds, and there the matter ends. - Michael Levin - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. – Should it rest there or should the morality of emergency situations also become clarified? – JZ, 25.3.12. - & EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

MORALITY: A man's ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy, education, and social ties; no religious basis is necessary. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hope of reward after death. - Albert Einstein - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. - ETHICS & RELIGION, HEAVEN & HALL NOTIONS

MORALITY: At the core of every moral code there is a picture of human nature, a map of the universe, and a version of history. To human nature (of the sort conceived), in a universe (of the kind imagined), after a history (so understood), the rules of the code apply.” - Walter Lippmann - & WORLD VIEW, HUMAN NATURE, HISTORY, MAN, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, NATURAL RIGHTS

MORALITY: Awake for Freedom’s Sake, (Foundation for Economic Education, Irvington, N.Y., $ 5.00, 192 pages) is Leonard Read’s twenty-second book. Like most of its predecessor works it makes its case for the free market in distinctively moral terms. The free market is better not only because it makes for more efficient production, it is better because it builds on the exercise of individual wills, which forces responsible men to think in ways that lead one straight to the Golden Rule as the governing principle of life.” – John Chamberlain, THE FREEMAN, Nov. 77, p.700. - & THE FREE MARKET, GOLDEN RULE, TOLERANCE FOR ALL TOLERANT PEOPLE

MORALITY: Because only the claims of morality are genuine, the idea of war (*), which by its nature settles contradictory claims by violence, is illegitimate The moral claims do not require, and as a rule, cannot be settled arbitrarily by resorting to armed conflict. For the conflict does not settle the moral dilemma, it only suppresses it. Morality and peace are, in Perry’s philosophy, indivisible, since both have that essential regard for the individual person that allows for the full development of the humanity of mankind.” - Irving Louis Horowitz, War and Peace in Contemporary Social and Philosophical Theory, a Condor book, 1957, 1973, Chapter 12: Ralph Barton Perry: Universal Individualism, p.179. – What help are such abstract considerations in the face of open aggression against a peaceful country and its population? Genuine morality should be clearly expressed and publicized in time in form of quite rightful war and peace aims. And these aims should already be practically realized within the country that might be attacked. Only then will it be almost impossible, for any dictatorship, to attack and defeat such a country, because then its own soldiers and civilians will not any longer support such a wrongful regime but, rather, its enemies, as their own and natural allies. Alas, so far, the innocent populations are guilty of not having bothered to find out, realize and publicize such rightful war and peace aims and thus they leave themselves open to attacks. Their differences to despotic regimes are only by degrees, large or small. Fundamentally, they are territorial despotisms as well. – The author speaks as if rightful policing of criminals and aggressors would not be necessary. – As if mere appeals to the “morality” of aggressors and criminals would be enough. Appeals to and sufficient organization, enlightenment, training and even suitable armament of their victims are required, internally as well as externally, as long as frontiers are still allowed to exist. – (*) on the side of the aggressor – JZ, 29.9.07, 9.1.11. - & WAR AIMS, QUITE RIGHTFUL ONES, DECLARED IN TIME, GOVERNMENTS & SOCIETIES IN EXILE, PUBLICITY, SECRET ALLIES, CAPTIVE NATIONS, CAPTIVE PEOPLES

MORALITY: But as I also consider myself a bearer of the light, I will not accept any external moral authority.” - THE DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIP, No.3. - This kind of stand might be generally accepted for quite peaceful, i.e. moral individuals. But those acting upon the "right is might" principle might be forcefully banished or even killed by moral communities. - JZ, 22.12.07. - MORAL AUTONOMY, MORAL AUTHORITY, EXTERNAL AUTHORITY, CONSCIENCE

MORALITY: But it may well be hailed as a tragedy, the tragedy being that no device has been found by which these private decencies can be transferred to public affairs. As soon as people have power they go crooked and sometimes dotty, too, because the possession of power lifts them into a region where normal honesty never pays. For instance, the man who is selling newspapers outside the Houses of Parliament can safely leave his papers to go for a drink, and his cap beside them: anyone who takes a paper is sure to drop a copper into the cap. But the men who are inside the Houses of Parliament - they can't trust one another like that, still less can the government they compose trust other governments. No caps upon the pavement here, but suspicion, treachery, and armaments. The more highly public life is organized, the lower does its morality sink; the nations of today behave to each other worse than they ever did in the past, they cheat, rob, bully, and bluff, make war without notice, and kill as many women and children as possible; whereas primitive tribes were at all events restrained by taboos. …” - E. M. Forster in his Anthology: I Believe - 19 Personal Philosophies, p.48. - Just look at the incompleteness and distortions of the governmental bills of rights or human rights declarations! - JZ, 22.12.07. - TERRITORIALISM, POWER, PARLIAMENTS, REPRESENTATIVES, RULERS, POLITICIANS, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS, PREMIERS, MINISTERS, STATES VS. PANARCHIES OR POLYARCHIES OF VOLUNTEERS, LEADERSHIP

MORALITY: But Kant's point is that human actions are moral (because rational) only in so far as they do not find their justification in appeal to sensuous inclination or desire. And this is because it is only by acting in this way (analogous, in so far as possible, to the way a fully rational being would act) that man reveals his dignity - asserts that autonomy which distinguishes him from the brutes. So when Kant in his Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, asserts the primacy of the good will in morality, he is in effect telling us that the principles of morality bind, not because we desire the ends attained by them, but because they are the sort of principles that a being of good will (that is, a fully rational will) would adopt.” - Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant: The Philosophy of Right, p.45. - & GOOD WILL

MORALITY: But morality is not statistical. If it is wrong for one man to enslave you or steal your pay cheque, then it is also wrong for one million calling themselves a government to do so.” - Duncan Yuille in leaflet: Human Rights. - MAJORITIES & TAXATION

MORALITY: But only where coercive power ends do mutual moral rights and obligations begin.” - John Holt, Instead of Education, p.110. - & COERCION, POWER

MORALITY: But that is Hegel's notion of freedom again. The idea that acting freely is acting morally, and acting morally is acting in accordance with the principle of reason which is embodied in the state.” - Maurice Cranston, Political Dialogues, p.137, putting these words into the mouth of Bakunin. - I doubt that Bakunin ever said or wrote something like the last part of this statement. - Which territorial State did ever fully embody reason? - JZ, 22.12.07. - Unless, naturally, he meant it as an attack on Hegel's position. - JZ, 9.1.11.

MORALITY: Cowardice asks the question 'Is it safe?' Expediency asks the question 'Is it politic?' - Vanity asks the question 'Is it popular?' But conscience asks the question 'Is it right? And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular - but one must take it because it is right. "One has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws - and unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law." - Martin Luther King, Jr., as quoted in the Summer/Fall, 1998, issue of "The FIJActivist", the Newsletter of the Fully Informed Jury Association. – If he had stood up for monetary freedom and against monetary despotism, via e.g. free banks of issue for Negroes, Red Indians, Chinese, Mexicans etc., then he might have achieved more against racist prejudices than by fighting e.g. for equal treatment in public bus services or racially integrated schools. The latter even led to the absurdity of forced bussing, to schools further away, to make up their “racial quota”. But then the Christians tend to believe that all economic problems and the racism that largely results from them, can be solved by charity or benevolent legislation. – JZ - RIGHTS & CONSCIENCE, RESPONSIBILITY, DISOBEDIENCE VS. COWARDICE, SAFETY, EXPEDIENCY, UTILITARIANISM, POPULARITY, UNJUST LAWS, MONETARY FREEDOM

MORALITY: Decline of morality means the death of a free society.” - Christian Anti-Communism Crusade, NEWSLETTER, Oct. 74/6. - As if morality and freedom had ever been sufficiently realized as yet. - JZ, 22.12.07.

MORALITY: Divine morality is the absolute negation of human morality.” - Michael Bakunin, The Knouto-Germanic Empire, 1871. - Gods and their believers have not eliminated war among human beings. Apparently, their morality was not so divine and powerful as they believed it to be. Will human morality be sufficiently improved in our time to eliminate war? Those, who confined their morality to a few slogans and general definitions are unlikely to achieve that objective, i.e., to cut all the territorialist chains or ropes that lead us into wars or even to see them for what they are. - If they do not even recognize and demand all the rights and liberties needed for peace and for effective actions against the threat of war and show not even an interest in them, then what can one expect? - This objective is not e.g. achievable with "Love" or good wishes like "peace and good will on earth" or with suggestions like the "non-initiation of force". - (While ignoring the fact that territorialism is the basic and now almost universal initiation of force. - JZ, 9.1.11.) A few more and better ideas and even detailed blueprints are needed, workable liberation, peace, libertarian revolution and defence platforms, most of all, possibly, a comprehensive code of individual rights and liberty, which most freedom lovers seem content to leave in the tray for "too hard jobs", in spite of the possibilities of world-wide email collaboration, still to be organized for this and xyz other libertarian projects, not yet even listed together. - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11. - DIVINE OR GOD'S? VS. HUMAN MORALITY, TERRITORIALISM, WAR, IDEAL DECLARATION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, NEW DRAFT, PEACE, FREEDOM & JUSTICE MOVEMENTS

MORALITY: Do you not see, first, that - as a mental abstract - physical force is directly opposed to morality; and, second, that it practically drives out of existence the moral forces: How can an act done under compulsion have any moral element in it, seeing that what is moral is the free act of an intelligent being? If you tie a man's hands there is nothing moral about his not committing murder. (*) Such an abstaining from murder is a mechanical act; and just in the same kind, though less in degree, are all the acts which men are compelled to do under penalties imposed upon them by their fellow men. (**) Those who would drive their fellow-men into the performance of any good actions do not see that the very elements or morality - the free act following on the free choice - are as much absent in those upon whom they practise their legislation as in a flock of sheep penned in by hurdles.” - Auberon Herbert, A Politician in Sight of Heaven, Mack edition, Essay Three, p.91. - Never mind the moral state of mind of the one intending to commit murder. The prevention of the murder, if possible, is the decisive thing. - There is a strong case for the use of force against those who act aggressively against involuntary victims, never minding the moral or mental state of the aggressor. He must be stopped before he does any or more wrong and harm. - If anyone can do so with a few well-chosen words, he should do so - but should not let this possibility get into the way of effective self-defence actions. Generally, the aggressors are not in a reasonable state of mind that one can effectively appeal to. And their rights to physical inviolability have no precedence over the same rights of their victims. - (*) But it is moral to prevent him from committing it, if one can. - - (**) Here he simple forgets about his example, in which the rights of the intended victim of a murderous attack are defended by a moral defensive and forceful act of himself or of one who acts as a defender for him. - For the other cases I do agree with him. - JZ, 22.12.07. - Tying up an innocent man's hands MAY be a good enough reason to commit manslaughter by the innocent man against that offender, in an attempt to liberate himself. - JZ, 9.1.11. - FORCE

MORALITY: does legality establish morality? Slavery was legal; apartheid is legal; Stalinist, Nazi, and Maoist purges were legal. Clearly, the fact of legality does not justify these crimes.” - Walter Williams, All It Takes Is Guts. – Are brains, intelligence, judgment and good blueprints, weapons and protective organizations superfluous? – JZ, 22.1.08. - VS. LEGALITY

MORALITY: Does my morality oblige the other to the same morality? I am not the executor of the moral law for all but merely that of my own rights.” – (“Verbinded meine Moralitaet den anderen zu gleicher Moralitaet? Ich bin nicht Exekutor des Sittengesetzes sondern nur meiner Rechte.") – Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Beitrag zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums ueber die Franzoesische Revolution, 1793.

MORALITY: During his twenty-nine years of naval service, Admiral Moreell saw governments from a vantage point ordinarily denied the political theorist. Out of his experience he has framed a rule of political action, which is probably one of the few axioms available to the political scientist. Moreell's Law is as follows: ‘The morality of political action is in inverse ratio to the square of the distance between the place where the money is collected and the place where it is spent.’ - The only point of debate about this axiom is whether it might not be more accurate to say ‘the cube of the distance’." - Edmund A. Opitz, in his introduction to The Admiral's Log II, p. XVI. - As if governments could not commit many great wrongs also in the “nation” or State that they rule directly. Generally, they molest their own subjects even more so than they molest foreigners in foreign countries. - JZ, 22.12.07. - FOREIGN POLICY & TAXATION, POLITICAL ACTION

MORALITY: epigrammatic moralism" - term used by Irving Levitas, in his study: The Unterrified Jeffersonian Bejamin Tucker, p.68, regarding Proudhon. – PROUDHON, SLOGANS FOR LIBERTY,

MORALITY: Ethical actions may be the best survival tactics after all. … Ethics as the best survival policy, even without complete (*) information? He wasn't sure he could accept that as a general proposition, even though it had worked here and now and this time. The most you could say for sure is that if you did the ethical thing and you did survive, you'd have a easier time living with yourself.” - Jerry Pournelle, Janissaries, p.243. - My two peace books deal extensively with that subject. - JZ, 20.12.07. - ( & ) I would deny that there was ever a human being as yet who was fully informed on all his individual rights and liberties and made optimal use of them - or was allowed to do so or free to do so. The suppression of many basic rights and liberties leads us straight to a nuclear holocaust and to many other wrongs and evils on the way. – (*) sufficient? - JZ, 20.12.07. - ETHICS & SURVIVAL, NWT

MORALITY: Ethical victories are lasting.” - (Ethische Siege sind von Dauer.) – G. B. Shaw. – The problem consists only in this, that the victories of ethics take a very long time. Even now we still do not have an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties. Shaw did not provide one, either, but, instead, went from limited anarchism to almost unlimited statism. – JZ, 4.12.07, 9.1.11. - ETHICS, VICTORY, SUCCESS

MORALITY: Ethics, or the principles of right conduct, ignore all crime and wrongdoing. It simply says such and such are the principles on which men should act; and when these are broken it can do nothing but say that they are broken.” – Herbert Spencer. - Ethical or moral arbitration and adjudication systems are also possible, as well as ethical and moral policing and penal systems. But to develop them to their highest potentials they should operate in free competition and under consumer sovereignty and upon voluntary subscriptions, or insurance contributions, paid in advance. – JZ, 6.12.07. - ETHICS, CRIME, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, VOLUNTARISM, CRIME

MORALITY: Every principle that wants to command strong allegiance must make a moral case. Men want to feel that what they are doing is useful, but they want also, and mainly, to feel that it is right. Freedom is one of these principles." - Henry C. Wallich. - PRINCIPLES, RIGHTS & FREEDOM

MORALITY: Everything, which can be called metaphysics in Christian teachings does consist in the simple sentence, understood by all, that all humans are God’s children (*), thus brothers [and sisters! - JZ], and, therefore, ought to love their father and these brothers and act towards all others as they wish that they should act towards them. I believe that every metaphysic, which goes beyond this, is wrong … Leo Tolstoi. Ein Leben in Selbstbekenntnissen. Tagebuchblaeter und Briefe. Herausgegeben von Arthur Luther. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig, An einen russischen Geistlichen, p.347. - (*) Rather, members of a single race or species and, as such, closely related to each other, children of mankind, brothers and sisters, so to speak – with a similar and very long development period behind them, not born enemies of each other but at least potential trading partners if not marriage partners and parents of further more mixed “bastards”, with the same kinds of blood and most of their other genes in common. They have even most genes in common with the higher apes. (Which may explain a lot! – JZ, 7.11.13.) – JZ, 26.2.12. - METAPHYSICS, CHRISTIANITY, GOLDEN RULE, TOLERANCE, MUTUAL RESPECT, LEAVE ALONE, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, NON-AGGRESSION PRINCIPLE, NON-INITIATION OF FORCE

MORALITY: Everything's got a moral, if only you can find it.” - Carroll, Alice in Wonderland, ch.9, The Duchess. - Hyman - Quotations. - Alas, even now there seems to be no serious attempt to assemble all genuinely moral principles into an as complete code of individual rights and liberties as could and should presently be stated. - See my anthology of over 130 private attempts to declare individual human rights, as opposed to those declared by territorial governments, in PEACE PLANS 589/590, - As long as we do not take our individual rights and liberties serious enough, to at least attempt to state them clearly, why should we assume that others will know and respect them in ourselves? - JZ, 22.12.07.

MORALITY: For [Ayn] Rand the moral and the profitable must be co-extensive, otherwise one is left with the absurd conclusion (which, needless to say, many accept) that to be moral one must profit (i.e. advance one's welfare) less, and to advance one's welfare one must be immoral.” - Don Franzen, Reply to Peter Crosby's "Utopia of Competition", in THE PERSONALIST.

MORALITY: For moral demands are imperatives. And this is why morality – so full of advice, injunction, admonition, praise and blame – would be absurd if people were not free. It may not be contradictory to blame a stone for falling on your head, but it is certainly inappropriate and pointless. So Kant’s view is that moral evaluation makes sense only if directed to free agents.” - Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant, the Philosophy of Right, p.42/43. – Moreover, these agents must be rational beings, with sufficient knowledge and respect for rights, liberties and duties. – JZ, 8.12.07. - FREEDOM, RIGHTS &MORAL AGENTS

MORALITY: For moral law operates in depressions as well as in booms. It operates in the same manner at all times, in all places and under all conditions. It is as insensitive to human desires as is the law of gravity.” - Admiral Ben Moreell, Log I, p.9. - The moral laws of full monetary freedom, for instance, are not permitted to operate in a depression and thus to end it. They are outlawed by the laws of monetary despotism. If monetary freedom had been introduced in time, any deflation and any inflation could have been avoided. Apparently, B. M. was unaware of these rights and liberties and their suppression but considered depressions as if they were natural catastrophes. - JZ, 22.12.07. - & DEPRESSIONS, MASS UNEMPLOYMENT, SALES DIFFICULTIES & NUMEROUS BANKRUPTCIES

MORALITY: Force always attracts men of low morality.” – Albert Einstein. – Wilhelm von Humboldt? Goethe? How many were involved in government, who can also be classed, somewhat, as liberty lovers? Who stayed only temporarily in office and were not corrupted by power? – What percentage would they constitute of all those who were in power? – JZ, 2.1.08. - & FORCE, COERCION, VIOLENCE, COMPULSION, POLITICIANS, PUBLIC SERVANTS, POWER & CORRUPTION, PUBLIC SERVANTS, CIVIL SERVICE, Q.

MORALITY: Free society must rely on ethics and honesty for self-enforcement of its rules. If its spiritual and moral values decay enough that only policemen can enforce the rules, then freedom is in danger of disappearing. - A free society must focus on ethics and honor, not on legality and enforcement.” - Newt Gingrich, Window of Opportunity, A Blueprint for the Future, p.209. - That cannot be sufficiently done in territorially and compulsorily organized States, which "unify" widely different people with different aspirations. – JZ, n.d. - ETHICS, SELF-CONTROL, FREE SOCIETY, TERRITORIALISM, ENFORCED UNITY

MORALITY: freedom seems to be the only condition under which any kind of substantial moral fiber can be developed.” – Albert Jay Nock, quoted in THE FREEMAN, 9/77, p. 564. - The author of the article, Miss Fain, comments: “It is clear that Mr. Nock is referring to the fact that to form a moral character one must be free to make his own choices, and his own errors. Good deeds, under compulsion, whatever they may be, bear no relation to the character of the individual; for without the opportunity to do wrong, correct actions are morally meaningless.” - & FREEDOM

MORALITY: Freedom to order our own conduct in the sphere where material circumstances force a choice upon us, and responsibility for the arrangement of our own life according to our own conscience, is the air in which alone moral sense grows and in which moral values are daily re-created in the free decision of the individual. Responsibility, not to a superior, but to one's conscience, the awareness of a duty not exacted by compulsion, the necessity to decide which of the things one values are to be sacrificed to others, and bear the consequences of one's own decision, are the very essence of any morals which deserve the name.” - F. A. Hayek.

MORALITY: Freedom without morality leads to a libertine existence, where men and women constantly violate their moral nature and eventually self-destruct.” - Mark Skousen, "Interview", RELIGION AND LIBERTY, May/June, 1996, p.5. - Quoted in THE VOLUNTARYIST, 2/98, p.3. - Alas, Christians never sufficiently distinguish between sins and vices on the one side and crimes with victims on the other side. The former may be self-destructive to some extent but they do not necessarily interfere with the rights and liberties of others. - JZ, 22.11.02. - ETHICS, LIBERTY, FREEDOM, RIGHTS, CRIMES, VICES, SINS

MORALITY: Generally people or human beings can be maximally pleased and satisfied, in the long run, only within the unrestricted sphere of their own rights and liberties. The others may look like human beings but are really beasts of prey – because they act like them. – JZ, 10.12.93. - RIGHTS, LIBERTY, UTILITARIANISM, HUMANS, MAN

MORALITY: Give currency to reason, improve the moral code of society, and the theory of one generation will be the practice of the next.” – T. L. Peacock. - Why should sound theories require a generation to become widely practised? Why should there not be freedom for already convinced minorities to put them into practice among themselves, almost immediately? Why should they depend on majority opinion and changes of territorial laws? – JZ, 8.12.07. - & REASON, PANARCHISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAW, INDIVIDUAL SECESSIONISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS

MORALITY: Good means not merely not to do wrong, but rather not to desire to do wrong.” - Democritus. - ETHICS, GOODNESS, GOOD WILL

MORALITY: government … if it should succeed in demoralizing the citizens, it will have also succeeded in its own destruction.” – Jackson Pemberton, THE FREEMAN, 8/76. - If it succeeded in imparting morality to its subjects (the contrary tends to be the case) then its would have assured its own abolition. Moral people obviously don’t need governments. – JZ, 1.8. 92. – That may be one motive why the governmental declarations of human rights are so flawed and incomplete. – JZ, 6.8.92, 8.12.07. - DEMORALIZATION, STATE, GOVERNMENT

MORALITY: he shows convincingly that ‘when we perceive the concept of morality from the spiritual side’ then the truth results that ‘the highest morality lies in the rightful practice of the highest liberty’." - John Henry Mackay, Stirner, p.195. - I for one would have preferred him offering a more detailed declaration of individual rights and liberties. But then Stirner condemned the whole "rights" concept or equated it merely with "might". – In this respect he was hardly a sound philosopher, anarchist or libertarian. - JZ, 23.12.07, 7.11.13. – STIRNER, MACKAY

MORALITY: He that will judge of the first principles of morals must consult his conscience, or moral faculty, when he is calm and dispassionate, unbiased by interest, affection, or fashion.” – Thomas Reid, Essays on the Active Powers of Man, III, 1788.

MORALITY: He who is not angry when there is just cause for anger is immoral. Why? Because anger looks to the good of justice. And if you can live among injustice without anger, you are immoral as well as unjust.” – Thomas Aquinas. - JUSTICE, INJUSTICE & ANGER

MORALITY: His was the most dangerous morality of all. He was a misguided idealist. … Today, in an age of monstrous weapons, … he could unleash something totally devastating. … He would do it in the name of the same high ideals he always served, …” - Roger Zelasny, The Last Defender of Camelot, in ISAAC ASIMOV’S, Spring-Summer 1980. - INTOLERANCE, IDEOLOGY, NUCLEAR WAR THREAT

MORALITY: How can a country's morality become so twisted that an individual who works, creates, and uses his reason to be productive, to make a profit, is castigated for his virtues, for his achievements, castigated because he refuses to recognize and voluntarily support the lazy, the indolent, and the professional welfare recipient, castigated because he dares be successful?” - Anderson/Miles, A Constitution for a Moral country, p.31. , SOCIAL JUSTICE, PUBLIC OPINION, POVERTY, WEALTH, WELFARE STATE, ANTI-CAPITALIST MENTALITY, PROFIT, PROPERTY, BUSINESS, STATE SOCIALISM

MORALITY: How does something immoral, when done privately, become moral when it is done collectively?” - Walter Williams, All It Takes Is Guts. – Regarding this title: Often a bit more than mere courage is required. – JZ, 22.1.08. - MAJORITY, COLLECTIVISM, INDIVIDUALISM, Q.

MORALITY: Human nature is bad … to be orderly they must acquire ritual and moral principles.” – Michael Z. Williamson, Freehold, p.304. - MORAL PRINCIPLES, HUMAN RIGHTS, HUMAN NATURE

MORALITY: Hume, Warnack and Machie … tell us that the function of morality is to mitigate the bad effects of man's limited generosity and sympathy. The idea is that morality takes society a little closer to what it would be, if, contrary to fact, we were able to sympathize with all those people whom our actions were likely to affect, instead of just those who are nearest and dearest to us.” - Ian Hinckfuss, SOCIAL ALTERNATIVES, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1982. - I hold that there is hardly lack of sympathy but rather lack of understanding what causes poverty, oppression, wars, civil wars and terrorism. Largely lack of basic political, economic and social rights and liberties, including freedom for voluntary communities to experiment with those systems that they prefer for themselves. Territorialism interdicts such free and tolerant experiments. Sympathy, like love and charity, are by far not enough to cope with the world's remaining problems. No more so than e.g. envy or courage. Even today all too few people have clear enough ideas on all basic individual rights and liberties. Or do you know where they are taught or fully expressed? Do you know of an ideal declaration of this kind? Are you prepared to work towards one? - JZ, 20.12.07, 7.11.13. –TERRITORIALISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM

MORALITY: I am an Epicurean. I consider the genuine (not the imputed) doctrines of Epicurus as containing everything rational in moral philosophy which Greek and Roman leave to us.” - Thomas Jefferson. – The diversity of ethical systems alone is already a sufficient reason for the establishment of communities of volunteers only, none of them with a territorial monopoly. – JZ, 23.1.08. - THE GENUINE DOCTRINES OF EPICURUS, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISMD, VOLUNTARISM

MORALITY: I believe that right and wrong do exist, that any man can ‘know’ them, that they are built into us and into the fabric of the universe. …” - Jim Downard, THE CONNECTION 135, p.27. – I agree with him except for the fabric of the universe, of which I know nothing. - However, we have been all too much institutionalized by territorial statism and its politics, which has little to do with morality and much with immoral and irrational powers. We are left only with limited moral choices in the private spheres and thus never fully developed fully into moral and responsible citizenship. All larger and wider decisions are still made by our feudal territorial lords, although by now we are allowed to elect our masters. But that “right”, and the territorial power we granted them through voting, if we voted for them, gives them even more power over dissenters and among them are most likely to be found not only the less enlightened minorities but also the more enlightened minorities. Anyhow, all minorities have the right to self-rule and self-rule only, which they cannot get territorially, except by usurping territorial power and thus they do have a permanent struggle or even battle on their hands. The majority could obtain self-rule (one without eternal internal opposition – which is inevitable under territorialism), relatively easily, also only under exterritorial autonomy. It would be enough if it simply voted-in this kind of self-determination, self-government and independence, via its representatives or a referendum. – JZ, 5.12.07. - Thereby it would avoid a lot of troubles for itself. - JZ, 9.1.11. - RIGHT & WRONG, MAJORITIES, DEMOCRACY, TERRITORIALISM, VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR ALL, UNANIMITY, UNDER EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY OR PERSONAL LAW

MORALITY: I believe that the experiences of utility, organized and consolidated through all the past generations of the human race, have been producing corresponding modifications, which, by continued transmission and accumulation, have become in us certain faculties of moral intuition – certain emotions responding to right and wrong conduct which have no apparent basis in the individual experience of utility.” – Herbert Spencer, Letter to J. S. Mill, 1868. – MORAL SENSE

MORALITY: I fear we can never exempt mankind from the necessity of learning first of all Defensive Morality.” – Bastiat, Economic Harmonies, p.134. – I can only hope that he has sufficiently defined it somewhere. – JZ, 13.12.07. - DEFENSIVE MORALITY

MORALITY: I propose a humble life devoid of luster, it is all one … All moral philosophy can as well be applied to a common and private life as it can to a richer one; each man carries within himself all of the human condition. …” – Montaigne, book III, chapter two. - (“Je propose une vie basse et sans luster, c’est tous un … On attaché aussie bien toute la philosophie morale à une vie populaire et privée qu’à une vie de plus riche étoffe; chaque home porte la forme entière de l’humaine condition …”) – Quoted in: Paul-Loup Sulitzer, The Green King, Grafton Books, 1985/85, p.579/80. – INDIVIDUALISM, MANKIND, POPULATION, INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY, SOCIETY, STATE, POLITICS, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, DUTIES

MORALITY: If a moral action is compelled, it is no longer a moral action. If an immoral action is prevented by force, the result is not morality but constraint.” - Robert LeFevre, LEFEVRE'S JOURNAL, Summer 78, p.8. - But a restraint might be applied only to the attacker, not to his potential victim. Thus the moral status of the potential victim has been preserved, inviolate, while only the criminal was put under rightful restraint. The offender, by his attack, enforced the use of defensive force against himself. Right is associated with the authority to enforce it, said Kant. That the force is not enough to turn the offender into a moral being should not be taken as an argument against this use of defensive force against him. - Restraint, however forceful, can be quite rightful, if it prevents a wrongful, victimizing act. - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11.

MORALITY: If one has no moral alternative, one's actions cannot be immoral.” - Stanley Lieberman, in review of Perkins, Rational Anarchy, in A IS A NEWSLETTER, 1/72.

MORALITY: If the State cannot be properly viewed in terms of law, as a legal association based on the principle of contract (*), in what terms must it be regarded? One theory is that it is a moral institution, but it cannot directly make men moral. (**) Moral action must be action proceeding from the free choice of the individual person (***); and if the act is done under the compulsion of that command, the act is morally neither good nor bad, but simply neutral. But the State can ensure the conditions under which free moral development of persons is possible (****); that is to say - since these conditions are what we call rights - rights of personal liberty, of freedom of thought, discussion and the like.” (*****) - John Locke in F.B. Willmott, A Philosophy of Production, p.45. - - (*) That would be an exterritorially autonomous community of volunteers, under its own personal law. - (**) Especially since as a territorial State it is already immoral in xyz ways towards all too many people and neither its constitutions nor laws nor human rights declarations are fully moral ones. So, what can be achieved by such a teacher and practitioner? - (***) Precisely what the territorial State prevents in those spheres that it has monopolized. - (****) Another utopian assertion or belief. - (*****) The "and the like" needs spelling out, in detail. This job has still not been done well enough. - Simply for lack of interest? As if not the rights and liberties of all of us, here and now on Earth were involved but merely those of some aliens on an alien planet, still not discovered and visited by us! - JZ 22.12.07. - COMPULSION & THE STATE

MORALITY: If the State machine, from its nature, can have no more moral sense than a Juggernaut or a railway engine, what must we expect in the way of morals from the State-ridden citizen?” – Sir Ernest Benn, The State the Enemy, p.113. - STATE & CITIZEN, STATISM, DEMORALIZATION, RESPONSIBILITY

MORALITY: If there is one thing worse than the modern weakening of major morals, it is the modern strengthening of minor morals.” – Chesterton. - MORALIZING MAINLY ON RELATIVELY TRIVIAL MATTERS WHILE LEAVING THE BIG QUESTIONS ALONE, RELIGIONS

MORALITY: If we did a good act merely from the love of God and a belief that it is pleasing to Him, whence arises the morality of the Atheist?” - Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to Thomas Law (June 13, 1814). - & BELIEF IN A GOD, VIRTUE, RELIGION, Q.

MORALITY: If you get involved for those [4] reasons, you're walking into the Unselfishness Trap or the Morality Trap. What others choose to do with their lives is up to them, but you have no obligation to cooperate.” - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom, p.129. - Here he came close to a genuinely moral stand. - JZ, 22.12.07.

MORALITY: If you were to destroy in mankind the belief in immortality, not only love but every force maintaining the life of the world would at once be dried up. Moreover, nothing then would be immortal, everything would be permissible, even cannibalism.” – Fyodor Dostoyevsky, The Brothers Karamazov. - Nonsensical non-sequiturs! Religion is no substitute for reasoning. It rather distorts thinking and diminishes judgment. - As if one could not come to love a life on Earth in peace, freedom, justice and with sufficient earnings to assure some creature comforts, even if it lasts only a few decades. – As if only the fear of hell fires and the wish for an existence in heaven could induce us to act morally. Actually, if we were so motivated, by a religious kind of Pavlovian conditioning, then our actions would not be genuinely moral ones at all. - JZ, 4.4.89, 6.12.07.

MORALITY: Immorality is the morality of those who are having a better time.” - H. L. Mencken – No objection, as long as they have it only at their own expense and risk. – JZ, 7.8.08. – SIN, PLEASURE, HEDONISM, CHRISTIANITY

MORALITY: immorality means actions that harm people other than the one doing it.” - Stanley Schmidt, in editorial, ANALOG July/August 00, p.4. - By that definition a successful competitor would not only harm but wrong the unsuccessful ones, which he does not. The unsuccessful ones have no right to the custom of those who preferred the services of the successful competitor. - JZ, 24.1.02. - ETHICS, HARM, RIGHT & WRONG

MORALITY: In a community of saints the Moral Law (*) would be the only law needed to provide such a community with perfect peace, complete order and universal justice. It is only when such a community is invaded by amoral or immoral people - or when some of the saints fall from grace - that man- made regulations are required to hold the immoral or amoral elements in line.” - Clarence Manion, The Key to Peace, p.53. - Since concepts of morality do still differ greatly, they can only be realized, so far, in their variety among their like-minded believers, in a voluntary way, in their own communities, established upon their own moral notions, and tolerant enough to put up with different moral ideas and practices in other communities of volunteers. Every attempt to territorially impose the own moral notions upon dissenters is itself immoral. A close to perfect moral code or international law will gradually develop out of the inter-actions of such diverse communities, none with a territorial monopoly. - (*) When and where has it ever been fully expressed? It is certainly not to be found complete in the Bible or in the Koran or in any other "holy" book or in any governmental human rights declaration. - Who of the great prophets or great leaders or saints was aware of all individual rights and liberties? - Who is now? - JZ, 20.12.07.

MORALITY: In complying with the moral law, man does not sacrifice his own concerns for those of a mythical higher entity, whether it is called class, state, nation, race or humanity. He curbs some of his own instinctive urges, appetites and greed, that is his short-run concerns, in order to serve best his own - rightly understood or long-run - interests. He foregoes a small gain that he could reap instantly lest he miss a greater but later satisfaction. For the attainment of all human ends, whatever they may be, is conditioned by the preservation and further development of social bonds and inter-human cooperation.” - Ludwig von Mises, Planning for Freedom, p.145. – EGOISM, SELFISHNESS, RATIONAL SELF-INTEREST, LONG-TERM VIEW, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES

MORALITY: In immoral times the remaining moral people are needed more than ever before, although not consciously by the masses and their immoral “intellectuals”, ideologues and other fundamentalist or fanatic misleaders. The revival of the influence of morality or ethics upon mankind might come through an as comprehensive and clear declaration of all genuine individual rights and liberties as could and should be provided by now by the real leaders and pioneers of mankind. – JZ, 2.1. &  26.2.13. – DECLARATION OF ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

MORALITY: In men it is necessary that the rational principle, or the intellectual discernment of right and wrong, should be aided by instinctive determinations. The dictates of mere reason, being slow and deliberate, would be otherwise much too weak.” – Richard Price, The Principal Questions in Morals, II, 1758. – I wonder how many tens of thousands of more brilliant quotations and formulations I have missed out on in my inevitably limited individual reading? It is up to others to add them. – JZ, 18.2.09, 7.11.13.

MORALITY: In stirring up tumult and strife the worst men can do the most, but peace and quiet cannot be established without virtue.” - Tacitus, Complete Works, edited by Moses Hadas, 593. - ETHICS, VIRTUE, WAR & PEACE

MORALITY: In today's world, it is virtually impossible to find a prominent business executive who is willing to state that private enterprise has a moral foundation that never can be established in a (*) socialist society. (**) We are surrounded by topsy-turvy thinking, and it is often the socialist - the interventionist - who confidently believes that he has morality on his side. (***) Sadly many businessmen often believe that the interventionist is on the right side too, but they still insist that they deserve a place in the sun because they are efficient or supply useful goods and services, and employ people. Small wonder that the interventionists usually wins.” - Melvin D. Barger, THE FREEMAN, 4/76. - (*) State-socialist - (**) Can a state socialist State still be rightly called a "society"? - (***) But only in the parody on justice called "social justice". - The "morality" of most businessmen consists, alas, mostly only of vague Christian notions. They, too, have, usually, quite insufficient knowledge of individual rights and liberties, even of all the economic ones. - JZ, 22.12.07, 7.11.13. - FREE ENTERPRISE, BUSINESSMEN & STATE SOCIALISM

MORALITY: It is God’s will, not merely that we should be happy, but that we should make ourselves happy. This is the true morality.” - Immanuel Kant, Lecture at Königsberg, 1775. – Luckily, he has made some other and better statements on the subject. The student taking these notes may also have misunderstood him or omitted Kant’s qualifications to this statement. Without qualifications it could mean that it is one of our moral options to make ourselves happy by drinking heavily or taking other drugs. Surely, Kant did not mean this kind of “happiness”. – At least he should have added: except at the expense of the rights of others and of our own nature as rational beings. – JZ, 13.12.07. - On the other hand, this might be part of an early lecture, long before his “critical” period. – He too had his stages of mental development. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: It is idle to say, as some do, that no such being [i.e., an "atheist”] exists. We have the same evidence of the fact as of most of those we act on, to wit: their own affirmations, and their reasonings in support of them. I have observed, indeed, generally, that while in Protestant countries the defections from the Platonic Christianity of the priests is to Deism, in Catholic countries they are to atheism. Diderot, D'Alembert, D'Holbach, Condorcet, are known to have been among the most virtuous of men. Their virtue, then, must have had some other foundation that the love of God." - Thomas Jefferson. - The rest of this letter is also interesting because Jefferson goes on to review the various non-religious sources of morality that philosophers have suggested in the past. – JZ, n.d. - Jefferson's works are online now. - VIRTUE, ATHEISM & GOD

MORALITY: It is important to note that in a political system based on individual freedom a human being may practice any form of morality he wishes (including self-sacrifice) provided that he does not initiate force against others, But in a political system based on self-sacrifice the freedom to act upon one's beliefs is obliterated, because the humanitarian seeks to force his sense of "duty" upon everyone else - he employs force to make one human being sacrifice for another.” - The Incredible Bread Machine, 135.

MORALITY: It is no more the function of government to impose a moral code than to impose a religious code. And for the same reason.”– Robert M. MacIver (1882-1970), [1947]. Scottish sociologist. – Let communities of volunteers choose their own moral code for all their internal relationships, their personal laws, all under full exterritorial autonomy. Only in international relations would they have to respect all the individual rights and liberties that the volunteers of other such communities claim for themselves. – JZ, 3.1.08. - PANARCHISM, GOVERNMENT, RELIGION, ETHICS, VALUES, TERRITORIALISM, TOLERANCE, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, GOVERNMENTAL BILLS OF RIGHTS, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM, CONSTITUTIONALISM, LEGISLATION, RELIGIOUS LIBERTY & GOVERNMENT

MORALITY: It is only within a free society that the crucial moral features of human life can be protected and preserved.” - Tibor Machan. – Has a quite free society ever existed? Have the crucial moral features of human life ever been sufficiently protected and preserved? How many million innocent unborn humans are annually wrongfully and unnecessarily aborted? 50 million, 100 million or even more, often with legislative approval. – JZ 26.12.07. - & FREE SOCIETY

MORALITY: It is strangely absurd to suppose that a million of human beings, collected together, are not under the same moral laws which bind each of them separately.” - Thomas Jefferson. - ETHICS, MAJORITIES, INDIVIDUALS

MORALITY: It is the great peril of our society (*) that all its mechanism may grow more fixed while its spirit grows more fickle." - Chesterton. - Free spirits need free individual secessionism and associationism. Otherwise they won't get to the top or won't achieve what they are capable of achieving. – (*) The State is not our society! - JZ, 6.4.91, 12.1.93. – SECESSIONISM, PANARCHISM, SOCIETY, STATE, TERRITORIALISM

MORALITY: Kant's own characterization of morality demands that the values regarded as ultimate be set by reason, not by sensuous inclination If (as in utilitarianism) they are set by inclination, then they are not products of freedom. They are, in Kant's terminology, heteronomous rather than autonomous. Morality is necessarily a system of laws of freedom, telling what ends free agents ought to adopt and how free agents ought to behave with respect to these ends; it is not a description of how people actually do behave (e.g. prefer happiness). This is what essentially distinguishes moral talk from sociological generalization. And this is Kant's basic point against any form of utilitarianism: its ultimate value is not rationally justifiable at all. It merely describes the behaviour of people. Ultimately, utilitarianism is not a moral theory at all. It is merely sociology.” - Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant: The Philosophy of Right, p.44. - FREEDOM & UTILITARIANISM, PRAXEOLOGY

MORALITY: Knowing that freedom, to be real in a practicable sense, requires a universally respected framework of moral certainties, Hayek, ever since "The Road to Serfdom", has been devoting most of his time to determining what he calls ‘the constitution of liberty’." - John Chamberlain, "THE FREEMAN", 12/76. - Even libertarians have still many moral uncertainties among them, e.g. regarding abortion, drug use, alternatives to the classical gold standard, fully free migration, exterritorial institutions as alternatives even to limited governments, the degrees to which their limited governments ought to be limited, whether party politics is rightful, whether defensive force or only non-violent methods ought to be used etc. They can only hope to come to an agreement on tolerant experiments and practices among volunteers, whether these are libertarians or non-libertarians, and on international law rules, in accordance with individual rights, to keep the peace between these. In other words, even the various libertarian and anarchistic faiths cannot provide many or comprehensive moral certainties that are certainties for any but their believers. The limited government, even of the Hayek type, is not a moral certainty or a framework based upon moral certainties. On the contrary. The constitution of liberty does not exist under and cannot be built upon compulsory membership, monopolistic decision-making in many important spheres, compulsory taxes, in short, upon territorialism, no matter how hard and otherwise consistently one tries. - JZ, 8.1.93. – Alas, even Hayek did not attempt to draft an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties and throw it up to public discussion. – JZ, 18.2.09. - & THE CONSTITUTION OF LIBERTY, HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION, MORAL CERTAINTIES:

MORALITY: Knowledge without morals is a beast on the loose.” – Dagobert D. Runes, A Dictionary of Thought. – Also in his: A Book of Contemplation, p.118 - and in his Treasury of Thought, p.125. - Compare e.g. the Nazi’s war machine, unrestrained by any moral principles. – JZ, 18.2.09. - "We are nuclear giants and ethical infants!" - A remark ascribed to general Omar Bradley, shortly after WW II. & KNOWLEDGE, NWT

MORALITY: Laws and institutions cannot regenerate those who are suffering from spiritual disease.” - Alex Comfort, Authority and Delinquency, p.82. - As if moral clarity had ever been general and deep enough. As if enough people were even interested to become quite healthy and informed in this respect. We have assembled all cures for our bodily ills as little as we have assembled all cures for our mental and moral deficiencies, so far. Even when confronted by mass extermination devices in the hands of our "great leaders". - JZ, 22.12.07. - LAW, INSTITUTIONS, RELIGIONS

MORALITY: Legality is not morality." - Source?

MORALITY: Liberty is a condition of any behaviour capable of being placed in a moral category. Unless it is present, human action is not susceptible to ethical judgment.” – Lord Robbins, Liberty and Equality, 1977. – I can imagine no better moral categories than a complete and clear statement of all individual human rights. Territorial governments haven’t and will not provide it and most anarchists and libertarians so far haven’t bothered to attempt this, either. – J.Z, 7.12.07. - LIBERTY

MORALITY: Make every allowance for errors of knowledge; do not forgive or accept any breach of morality." - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.983. - There are also kinds of unforgivable ignorance, and disinterest, especially when it comes to individual rights and liberties. - JZ, 31.10.76, 22.12.07, 7.11.13. – However, within communities of likeminded volunteers, people should be free to infringe their rights and liberties as much as they want to. If they wiped themselves out altogether, I would not mind. But they should not exterminate their babies, infants and children as well. These might still develop into moral and mature human beings, in spite of their parents. – They would not, automatically, have inherited all the “sins”, flaws or spleens of their parents. - JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: Man has a moral sense, enabling and requiring him to choose between good and evil.” - Edmund A. Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 11/72. - MAN, CHOICE, DUTY, GOOD & EVIL, CONSCIENCE, AWARENESS OF GENUINE INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATIONS, DIS.

MORALITY: Man must be free in order to act morally.” - Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddhin, THE FREEMAN, 11/72.

MORALITY: Man, no doubt, owes many other moral duties to his fellow men; such as to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, shelter the homeless, care for the sick, protect the defenseless, assist the weak, and enlighten the ignorant. But these are simply moral duties, of which each man must be his own judge, in each particular case, as to whether, and how, and how far, he can, or will perform them.” – Lysander Spooner - If all genuine individual rights and liberties were already fully recognized and realized, then there would be little need for this kind of charity. We would then only have to cope with personal or community-wide natural disasters, no longer with man-made or government-made ones. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MORAL DUTIES OF MAN

MORALITY: Men are qualified for civil liberties in exact proportion to their disposition to put moral claims upon their appetites: in proportion as their love of justice is above their rapacity.” – Edmund Burke. - SELF-CONTROL, JUSTICE

MORALITY: Men talk of 'mere Morality', which is much as if one should say 'Poor God, with nobody to help him'.” - Emerson, Conduct of Life: Worship. - If we had already a fully developed morality, what good would a God be to us? - JZ, 9.1.11. - & GOD, Q., JOKES

MORALITY: Money, not morality, is the principle of commercial nations.” – Thomas Jefferson. - The monies of full economic freedom, including monetary and clearing freedom and free choice of value standards, would also be the exchange media and methods of a largely moral society and make it possible and likely, while countries in which the exchange medium is monopolized tend to be short not only of sound exchange media but also of genuine morality in many spheres. As Winston Churchill once remarked, the real crime consists in persistently producing losses rather than profits. Only profits out of monopolies and other crimes with victims are to be condemned. - JZ, 23. 11. 06. - "It is a socialist idea that making profits is a vice; I consider the real vice is making losses." – Winston Churchill. – What can one expect from those, who consider property to be wrong? – JZ, 8.2.09. - Compare also: “A fair exchange is no robbery!” (author?) and “Society is exchange!” – Bastiat - MONEY, COMMERCE, PROFIT – DIS.

MORALITY: Moral decisions: A decision that involves possible long-term consequences. Morality: The attempt to consider all the relevant consequences of your actions. Synonymous with personal morality. See also absolute morality and universal morality. Morality Trap: The belief that you must obey a moral code created by someone else.” - Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom, p.391.

MORALITY: Moral law (justice) is simply the codification of the natural right of self-defense – the right of each individual to protect his own life, liberty and property.” – Robert E. Hood, The Law also Is Polluted, THE FREEMAN, July 78. – As if natural rights had already been fully codified. – If it were so simple, then this would already have been done long ago. - JZ, 8.12.07. - MORAL LAW, JUSTICE, NATURAL RIGHTS, SELF-DEFENCE, DIS, HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATIONS

MORALITY: Moral principle is timeless. An act that is wrong ten years from now is just as wrong today.” - Ben Moreell, THE FREEMAN, 4/75. - PRINCIPLES, THEIR TIMELESSNESS

MORALITY: moral, in a social context, means at a minimum, the non-initiation of force. - Peter Crosby, The Utopia of Competition, in THE PERSONALIST. - John Hospers compiled some exceptions to this rule, somewhere. - I found some of his ethical writings and talks quite attractive but have not studied them enough. In his private library I saw more writings on ethics and morality than I have ever seen anywhere before. - However, at least then he still did not favor e.g. free migration or full monetary freedom. - JZ, 22.12.07. - NON-INITIATION OF FORCE

MORALITY: Moralists on the scent of evil will perpetrate any villainy in the name of God.” - George William Russell. - RELIGIOUS ZEALOTS & BELIEF IN A GOD, RIGHTEOUSNESS, FUNDAMENTALISTS, FANATICS, INTORLERANCE, ATROCITIES

MORALITY: Morality and 'practicality' were easily reconciled, because, people, THE TWO ARE ONE.” - AKA comments on LC 34 in LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION 31.3.73. - & PRACTICALITY

MORALITY: Morality ends where a gun begins.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.949. - She should have added: "Where a person with a gun attacks." - Otherwise, it often begins to be upheld again where a person with a gun uses it to uphold a right or liberty against a private or official criminal attempting to victimize him or someone else. - JZ, 2/75, 22.12.07, 9.1.11.

MORALITY: Morality exists nowhere in the Universe - except in the will.” - H. G. Pearce. - And in how many cases does it exist there, so far, to a sufficient extent? What can and should be done about it? - Even the Free will vs. Determinism debate has not yet been sufficiently settled, in most minds, not even after about 2500 years! - Far less the debate about genuine individual rights and liberties. - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11. – Digital “argument mapping” as developed by Paul Monk et al and described online – could soon come to answer such questions – if it were sufficiently utilized. – JZ, 18.2.09. - WILL & FREE WILL

MORALITY: Morality is a luxury of the rich.” - quoted by W. R. Downs, 24.12.84. - It is the most important chance for the poor. - 24.12.84, 9.1.11. - Once fully aware of all their individual rights and liberties or natural law or natural rights, they will not continue to be involuntarily poor for much longer. - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11, 7.11.13. - RICH, POOR

MORALITY: Morality is doing what is right regardless of what you are told. Religion is doing what you are told regardless of what is right. - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. - & RELIGION, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MORALITY: Morality is moral only when it is voluntary.” - Lincoln Steffens. - Thus, by definition, panarchies and polyarchies should be much more moral communities than territorial States can ever be, even though, at least initially, each of them is rather likely to apply a somewhat different moral code and main values and principles among its members. - JZ, 20.12.07. - & VOLUNTARISM

MORALITY: Morality is not properly the doctrine how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy of happiness.” - Quoted by R.C.W. Ettinger, Man Into Superman, p. 147. - & HAPPINESS, WORTHINESS

MORALITY: Morality is not the product of intelligence. In this I have been led, by a very painful process, gradually to reject what in my youth I regarded as the latest insight, and what even my great master, Ludwig von Mises, made the basis of his philosophy; the utilitarian explanation of ethics.” – F. A. Hayek, Knowledge, Evolution and Society, p.46/47. - Admittedly, not only intelligence is involved but also a clear enough definition of right, as e.g. that provided by Immanuel Kant, of which the intellectuals of our time have still not taken sufficient notice. Something like an instinctual moral sense is also involved, as well as sympathetic identification with victims of injustices. But Hayek writes as if knowledge of individual human rights and their clear formulation would be impossible to rational beings. - Some of the private drafts of such rights are certainly already better than those provided by governments. – Intellectuals, even anarchist and libertarian ones, have, alas, so far not worked sufficiently to produce an ideal declaration of individual rights and liberties, as complete and clear as we could and should make it at present. – I offer as a starting point for such a job, a collection of over 130 private human rights drafts, digitized, in an enlarged edition of PEACE PLANS 589/590, – JZ, 8.12.07. - & INTELLIGENCE

MORALITY: Morality is the herd-instinct in the individual.” - Friedrich Nietzsche – What is it or should it be among rational or even reasonable beings, to that they can live peacefully and productively together, in free exchange and free communication? – JZ, 7.8.08. – DIS.

MORALITY: Morality is the observance of the rights of others. One cannot be immoral but in relation to others. What one does to oneself or with oneself may be wise or foolish, but never immoral. - One may abuse his body and yet be respectful of the welfare of others and thus quite moral. (*) And one may discipline his flesh with all precepts of hygiene and asceticism and be a hard, selfish, hurtful person and thus grossly immoral. - It is only in relation to society that man is good or bad, moral or immoral. By himself he may be sober and moderate or very careless, but never good or bad. (**). – Dagobert D. Runes, A Dictionary of Thought. – At least the first two sentences are also in his – “A Book of Contemplation”, p.90. - Even more than 200 years after Kant’s remarks about duties a rational being owes himself as such, the concept is still new or unbelievable to most human beings! - It might clarify this idea more, if one clearly speaks of duties towards one’s own rational self. – JZ, 28.3.94. – (*) What if a father partly or completely incapacitates himself while he has still dependent children? - (**) What if he is not developing some great potential that he has but rather drinks or otherwise wastes his time and energy than fulfilling his family obligations as a father and husband? - JZ, 8.12.07. - DUTIES TOWARDS OTHERS & TOWARDS ONESELF AS A RATIONAL BEING, DUTIES, DIS.

MORALITY: Morality is what is good for human life.” – Zarlanga, The Orator, p.40.

MORALITY: Morality is whatever keeps you interfering with the affairs of others.” – JZ, 30.8.04. – On second thoughts, even imprisonment does that, as far as victims outside of your prison is concerned. And if you are a thief and a policeman observes you, you will also keep your thieving fingers to yourself, for the time being. – Morality keeps you straight even if you have the opportunity to benefit from wronging or harming others. - JZ, 21.5.13. – ETHICS, CONSCIENCE, ETHICS, MORAL SENSE

MORALITY: Morality knows nothing of geographical boundaries or distinctions of race.” - Herbert Spencer, Social Statics, Part 1, chapter 2. - FRONTIERS, RACES, RACISM

MORALITY: Morality makes sense only if men are free; freedom is just the ability to act from reasons; thus morality will make sense only if it is grounded on rationality.” - Jeffrie G. Murphy, Kant, the Philosophy of Right, p.42. – Genuine individual rights and liberties apply mostly only to sufficiently rational beings. The others have only the right not to be unnecessarily killed or cruelly treated. In offspring not their current but their future reality as mature beings has to be taken in consideration. – JZ, 8.12.07. - RATIONALITY, REASON, RIGHTS, OUGHT, DUTY, CAN, CAN DO, & FREEDOM

MORALITY: Morality once shattered destroys the people and the ruler. Outside of prison and this side of hell men are not bound together by the club but by the consciousness of moral obligations.” - Walter A. Lunden, quoted by Leonard E. Read, Castles in the Air, p.85. - When and where was it ever fully realized? - When will many of those who like to spout generalities about morality finally get together and compile an ideal declaration of all individual human rights and liberties? - Most seem to think this job is too hard or even impossible - or not even worthwhile! - JZ, 20.12.07.  - OBLIGATIONS, DUTIES, RIGHTS, DECLARATION OF ALL INDIVDIUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES SO FAR DISCOVERED & FORMULATED

MORALITY: Morality ought to decide politics. And its primary requisites are: voluntarism, autonomy, exterritorialism, individualism, secessionism and panarchism. - JZ, 4.6.92. - It amounts to consistent pluralism, democracy, anarchism, voluntarism and libertarianism. - JZ, 7.1.93. - Territorial politics is inherently and inevitably immoral, by its very nature, at least for all its dissenters. Those who agree with it are accessories to its crimes against its victims. - JZ, 10.12.03. - & POLITICS, TERRITORIALISM

MORALITY: Morality, like art, is the achievement of unity in diversity; the highest type of man is he who effectively unites in himself the widest variety, complexity, and completeness of life.” - Herbert Spencer, in Durant booklet on Spencer, p.47. - Alas, Spencer only discussed, early in his life, in Social Statics, individual secessionism from the State, not what would follow thereupon, i.e., a wide variety of societies and communities of volunteers, within a framework of mutual tolerance, made possible through personal law or full exterritorial autonomy. Later in life he took out this chapter 19 in later editions of Social Statics, i.e., did no longer even advocate individual secessionism, and this without giving any reason for doing so, as far as I know. Roy Childs did the same. Why? Nobody seems to knows. If we had already a complete archive of ideas, we could find out all recorded responses to such ideas. - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11. - UNITY, DIVERSITY

MORALITY: Morality, said Jesus, is kindness to the weak; morality, said Nietzsche, is the bravery of the strong; morality, said Plato, is the effective harmony of the whole. Probably all three doctrines must be combined to find a perfect ethic; but can we doubt which of the elements is fundamental?” - Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy. - Yes, we can doubt all three definitions, especially when we are aware how little these three and many other teachers of ethics still knew and understood of all genuine individual rights and liberties. - JZ, 22.12.07. - Is there even one as yet, who fully knows them all and has clearly put them into writing? - 9.1.11. - HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION.

MORALITY: Morality, when vigorously alive, sees farther than intellect.” - J. A. Froude, Short Studies on Great Subjects: Divus Caesar. - INTELLECT, REASON, RATIONALITY, RIGHTS, UTILITY, FORESIGHT

MORALITY: My father once told me that respect for the truth comes close to being the basis for all morality. 'Something cannot emerge from nothing', he said. This is profound thinking if you understand how unstable 'the truth' can be.” - Frank Herbert, Dune, Complete & unabridged edition, p.199. - & TRUTH VS. "THE TRUTH"

MORALITY: No group can morally undertake an action which is morally impermissible to an individual acting alone.” - Paul Lepanto, Return to Reason, p.105. - This needs some qualification: So a jury of 12 is wrong, just like a jury of 1 or a single arbitrator would be wrong? One has to go back here to the authorization of jurors, judges or arbitrators. If the accused had agreed, beforehand, to their authorization in cases of conflicts, they would be justified, unless they are negligent, drunk or drugged, bribed, coerced etc. - JZ, 22.12.07. - MORAL ACTIONS, COLLECTIVISM & INDIVIDUALISM

MORALITY: No man is wholly free, and no man is wholly a slave. To the extent to which a man has freedom, he needs a personal morality to guide his conduct.” - Bertrand Russell, Authority and the Individual, p.82. – Did he  provide a sufficient guide of that kind? – JZ, 7.11.13. - & FREEDOM

MORALITY: No morality can be founded on authority, even if the authority were divine.” – A. J. Ayer, Essay on Humanism. - On the other hand, a quite genuine morality is itself the highest authority. – So far we had largely only flawed, incomplete or all too fictitious “moralities”. – There exists as yet no complete and generally recognized declaration of individual rights and liberties. Nor even a movement attempting to provide it. – That does indicate to me a very high degree of immorality combined with an inexcusable complacency about morality. - JZ, 8.12.07. – However, those believing that they can establish it by secular authority or divine revelations, should be free to establish and maintain their concept of morality among their own believers. – JZ, 6.12.07, 7.111.13. - & AUTHORITY GOD, HUMANISM, DIVINITY, RELIGION, PERSONAL LAW, PANARCHIES, VOLUNTARISM

MORALITY: Nothing can be politically right now that that it morally wrong and no necessity can sanctify a law that is contrary to equity.” – Benjamin Rush, The Influence of Physical Causes upon the Moral Faculty, 1788.

MORALITY: O times! O morals!” - (O tempora O mores!) - (Oh Zeiten! Oh Sitten!) – Cicero, Catilina I, 1, and in other places. - CUSTOMS, IMMORALITY, TIMES

MORALITY: Of course the popular judgment may be in error as to what is really moral; of course priests and others claiming to be the official guardians of morality have committed great outrages in its name; but our very protests against these outrages and errors are proofs of the existence of something just and true, of some standard to which human action ought to conform. - John F. Kelly - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. – We have not yet done our best in assembling all discovered and known genuine individual rights and liberties, quite clearly expressed, in the best kind of a general human rights declaration, which could and should be compiled and published by now. This has not been done for lack of interest in this task, even among libertarians and anarchists. – JZ, 25.3.12. - ETHICS, GOODNESS, CONSCIENCE, DECLARATION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, NATURAL RIGHTS

MORALITY: Of government, at least in democratic states, it may be said briefly that it is an agency engaged wholesale, and as a matter of solemn duty, in the performance of acts which all self-respecting individuals refrain from as a matter of common decency.” - H. L. Mencken, DECENCY, INDIVIDUALS VS. GOVERNMENTS, TERRITORIALISM, DECENCY, STATISM

MORALITY: Only experience can teach us what brings us joy. … But it is otherwise with the instructions of morality. They command everyone without regard to his inclinations, solely because and insofar as he is free and has practical reason. Instruction in the laws of morality is not drawn from observation of oneself and the animality within him nor from the perception of the course of the world as to how things happen and how men in fact do act. … But reason commands how one ought to act, even though no such instance of such action might be found. … Indeed, concepts and judgments concerning ourselves and our actions and omissions have no moral significance at all if they contain only what can be learned from experience.” - Jeffrey G. Murphy, Kant: The Philosophy of Right, p.44. - & EXPERIENCE, PRECEDENTS, DUTY, ETHICS, CONSCIENCE, GOOD WILL, HAPPINES

MORALITY: Or, in terms of the evolution formula, conduct is moral according as it makes the individual or the group more integrated and coherent in the midst of a heterogeneity of ends.” - Herbert Spencer, in Durant, Herbert Spencer, p.47. - That could be interpreted as a defence of territorialism rather than panarchistic diversity of communities of volunteers, all with somewhat different moral codes for themselves. - JZ, 22.12.07. - MEANS, ENDS, DIS., RIGHTS, HUMAN RIGHTS

MORALITY: Our leaders' task is to grapple with the morality of international actions and not merely to play a mechanical game of chess.” - Alastair Davidson, in THE AUSTRALIAN, 3.10.64. - LEADERSHIP, POWER GAMES, REALPOLITIK, POWER POLITICS, TERROTORIALISM

MORALITY: our organized unpity.” - Poul Anderson, There Will Be Time, p.148. - Pity promotes merely charity rather than individual rights and liberties, which would largely abolish occasions for pity. - JZ, 9.1.11. - Against the natural mishaps we can largely insure ourselves or provide credit arrangements. PITY, MORAL SENTIMENT, ETHICS, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, UNITY, POLICIES, CHARITY, ALTRUISM, INSURANCE, CREDIT, IMMIGRATION BARRIERS

MORALITY: people released from all sense of moral responsibility, are allowing themselves to become chronic moral invalids.” - Cynthia Asquith in Remember and Be Glad, (Barrie and Rockliff), quoted in READER'S DIGEST 3/65.

MORALITY: Physical science will not console me for the ignorance of morality in the time of affliction. But the science of ethics will always console me for the ignorance of the physical sciences.” – Pascal, Pensées, 1670, 67, tr. by W. F. Trotter.

MORALITY: Plato argued that morality determines politics. Machiavelli stated that politics has nothing to do with morality (*). Today we hear a third voice: Politics determines morality. This dogma became the official State maxim of the National Socialism, after it had already been practised for a previous half a generation by the men in power in Russia. All crimes committed by both systems are merely the consequences from the following principle: Right is whatever is useful for the people, the common good. Since all religious and moral values, which formerly determined the relation of individuals to the world, were put aside, what was left over as the single determining factor was merely the collective, the total State, whose interests were equated with those of the power-holders at the time. Thus the process of changing the values has resulted in a total change of the world.” - Dr. Herbert Stegemann, 25.11.51, in an article in DER TAGESSPIEGEL. - (*) However, Machiavelli’s republican to democratic sentiments can easily be read between his lines. - JZ, JZ, 22.12.07. - TERRITORIALISM, LAW, LEGISLATION, UTILITARIANISM, PUBLIC OR COMMON INTEREST PRETENCE, COLLECTIVISM

MORALITY: Princes and nations will disappear without violence from the earth, the human race will become the family and the world the abode of reasonable men. Morality alone will bring about this change imperceptively.” - Adam Weishaupt, 1748-1830. - Albert the Unknown, quoted this in LIBERTARIAN CONNECTION, 8.11.75, p.45.

MORALITY: Question with boldness even the existence of a God; because, if there be one, he must more approve the homage of reason, than that of blindfolded fear ... Do not be frightened from this inquiry from any fear of its consequences. If it ends in the belief that there is no God, you will find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in its exercise ..." - Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to his nephew Peter Carr (Aug. 10, 1787). - GOD, REASON, VIRTUE & RELIGION

MORALITY: Reduced to an a priori declaration, fundamental morality condemns the initiation of force against another who persists only in minding his own business and going about his pursuits in a non-aggressive way.” - Ridgway K. Foley Jr., in THE FREEMAN, Jan. 70, p.18. - While this formula is better than "Love", "Non-violence", "Brotherhood" etc., it still does not provide a good enough blueprint or moral program for all occasions, i.e., it is not a good substitute for a declaration of all genuine individual rights and liberties, one in an optimal form, hammered out in numerous discussions between thousands to millions of people sufficiently interested in the subject. Only so much can be achieved with single sentences. If even intellectuals do not or will not provide more detailed advice, then how will the person in an emergency situation suddenly discover, understand and learn to use his rights and liberties properly? Obviously, our law-makers need such a guide as well, so that they will less often offend against basic rights and liberties. In many countries now there exists freedom of expression and information on this subject. But are they sufficiently used for this purpose? - JZ, 22.12.07, 9.1.11. - & THE INITIATION OF FORCE, DECLARATION OF ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, LIBERTARIAN ENLIGHTENMENT

MORALITY: Religious philosophy holds that man is moral only when he can freely exercise his choice between good and evil. This requirement is the basis of free will. The same applies equally to economic, social and family life. A man will grow to full moral maturity only when he is allowed to take risks, with subsequent rewards and penalties and full responsibility for his decisions. Yet in Britain the state now decides how half or more of a man’s income shall be spent, how his family should be educated, how their health care should be organized, how they shall save for misfortunes and retirement, what library and in many cases what cultural provision they should receive, and where and at what cost they should be housed.” – Dr. Rhodes Boyson, Down With The Poor, p.5/6. - MATURITY, & CHOICE

MORALITY: restoring the individual opportunity, private choice, and personal responsibility that are the indispensable ingredients of a moral order.” – Ralph Harris, in Dr. Rhodes Boyson, “Right Turn”, Churchill Press Ltd., 1970, p. 27.

MORALITY: right conduct … can only exist where my actions are in harmony with the whole moral system.” – Auberon Herbert, A Politician in Sight of Heaven. – It need not be in harmony with all other kinds of moral and ethical systems practised by volunteers among themselves. What it needs to be fully in harmony with is only the moral system of the self-chosen community or society of volunteers. Beyond that merely a policy of defensive reactions to aggressions by others is required and the abstention from committing acts against the volunteers of other communities, which they would perceive to be aggressive ones. (Mere words or images or free actions of others, in their spheres, do not constitute aggression. - JZ, 9.1.11.) When societies consist largely only out of communities of like-minded volunteers, all freely doing their own things to or for themselves, then conflicts between them will become rare, thus defensive reactions and police military actions for protection against aggression will also become rarely needed. For the few cases in which individuals or small groups of different communities clash with each other, arbitration and other adjudication processes can be agreed-upon in advance. In such cases Jerome Internoscia’s New Code of International Law, 1910, in 3 languages, side by side, should always be consulted – at least until a better reference work of this kind becomes available. – JZ, 6.12.07, 7.11.13.

MORALITY: sage morality, says that since Mind is the one holy thing in the universe, whatever is gained through the manifestations of Mind (intelligence, wisdom, intuition, logic, cleverness, reason, creativity, guile (? - JZ), etc.) is justly earned, and that non-sentient things such as nature, have no rights.” - Arthur D. Hlavaty, DIAGONAL RELATIONSHIP No.10. - MIND, NATURE, RIGHTS

MORALITY: Since we are somewhat moral and rational beings, not primitive animals acting merely upon instincts, we ought not only to enjoy the world, society and ourselves as it is and as we are - but to improve them and ourselves, as far as we can – while respecting the genuine individual rights and liberties of all other human beings, who are all different from us, in the likewise tolerant pursuit of their diverse ideals. – JZ, 9.3.12. - CREATIVITY, REFORMS, IMPROVEMENTS, TRIVIA, IDEALS, TOLERANCE, SELF-IMPROVEMENTS, TOLERANCE, RESPECT, DIVERSITY, HAPPINESS, LIFE, MANKIND, HUMANITY, WAR, OPPRESSION, PEACE, LIBERTY, RIGHTS, BETTERMENT, RATIONALITY, DUTY, SOCIETY, WORLD, ENJOYMENT, PLEASURE

MORALITY: Social science must not be afraid of predicting, anticipating, and developing some ethics of reason. – Bronislaw Malinowski, An Anthropological Analysis of War, in WAR – Studies from Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, rev. and enlarged edition, ed. by Leon Bramson & George W. Goethals, Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, New York, London, 1968, p.266. – REASON, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES, ETHICS, SOCIAL SCIENCES

MORALITY: that is, in greater power of self-regulation.” - Herbert Spencer, First Principles, according to E. Haldeman-Julius, editor of “The Gist of H. Spencer”, p. 31. - REGULATIONS & SELF-REGULATION, HIERARCHIES, TERRITORIAL DOMINATION & SELF-MANAGEMENT TO THE EXTENT OF FULL EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR COMMUNITIES & SOCIETIES OF VOLUNTEERS

MORALITY: That which is not free is not responsible, and that which is not responsible is not moral. In other words, freedom is the condition of morality.” – Thomas Davidson, quoted by Joseph DeJan in The Freedom Adventure, p.2. - & FREEDOM

MORALITY: The attempt to consider all the relevant consequences of your actions. (Synonymous with personal morality.) See also absolute morality and universal morality.” – Harry Browne, How I Found Freedom, p.391. – Nobody can foresee all the consequences of his actions. Thus the need to act in accordance with moral principles that respect the equal rights and liberties of others and limit oneself to rightful actions. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: The Bible and the Bible bashers, with their concepts of "sin", have given morality a bad name.” - JZ, 9.10.78. - BIBLE, CHRISTIANITY & OTHER RELIGIONS

MORALITY: The established rules of morality and justice are applicable to nations as well as to individuals; … the former as well as the latter are bound to keep their promises; to fulfill their engagements to respect the rights of property which others have acquired under contracts with them.” – Alexander Hamilton, Vindication of the Funding System, 1791. – Presently, nations and their governments are even less inclined than individuals to do so - than they were then. They are acting barbarically even to the extent of scientifically and technologically preparing for mass murder and genocide. Their organizational form and the ideas they are based upon, see to that. Their organizations amount to organized irresponsibility on a massive scale. – JZ, 10.7.86. - Which rules of morality and justice are firmly established in our times? - JZ, 11.5.87. - Even if the top mass murderers were finally punished or even executed, which has happened, if at all, only to a few of them and then after very long delays, under governmental systems of justice, their single lives could not make up for the dozens to millions of their victims. - Which State has ever lived up to Hamilton’s ideal for long? How many States managed “their” affairs without the robbery of taxation without individual consent? The metaphysics and dogmas and “principles” of territorial “political sciences” are not much better than those of religions. – JZ, 5.12.07. - NATIONAL, TERRITORIAL OR VOLUNTARY & FREELY CHOSEN RELATIONSHIPS?

MORALITY: The existence of a moral government is not logically impossible in the conventional philosophical sense, but virtually impossible in practice. A moral government would have to 1) gain the consent of every citizen (*) that it alone will execute his right to retaliation, and 2) maintain that delegated right through contractual means, somehow providing for the non-coercive incorporation of children (**) into the State system.” – Don Franzen, Reply to Peter Crosby’s The Utopia of Competition, in THE PERSONALIST. – (*) Only of their own and voluntary members. (**) Up to a certain age or degree of maturity their parents or other guardians would have a say on this. - JZ n.d. - MORAL GOVERNMENTS. CONSENT, UNANIMITY, PANARCHISM

MORALITY: The greatest tragedy in mankind’s entire history may be the high-jacking of morality by religion. However valuable - even necessary – that may have been in enforcing good behavior on primitive peoples, their association is now counterproductive. Yet at the very moment when they should be decoupled, sanctimonious nitwits are calling for a return to morals based on superstition.” - Arthur C. Clarke, Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! Harper/Collins, 2000, p.360. - RELIGION, ETHICS & FUNDAMENTALISM

MORALITY: the highest conduct is that which conduces to the greatest length, breadth and completeness of life.” - Herbert Spencer, in Durant, Herbert Spencer, p.47. - & LIFE

MORALITY: The idea of forcing someone to be moral is a contradiction in terms.” - Paul Lepanto, Return to Reason, p.125. - Unless it is done to protect the rights of others. Then one does not try to turn the coerced offender into a moral being but merely prevents him, if one can, from acting effectively as an aggressively immoral being with victims. - Not if one just forces someone to abstain or cease with an immoral action against anybody. However, different understandings or interpretations of morality exist and their holders should be free to practise them - but only within communities of like-minded volunteers. - JZ, n.d. & 22.12.07, 9.1.11. – & MORAL ACTION DEFENCE OR PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AGAINST CRIMINALS OR AGGRESSORS

MORALITY: The Italian historian Ferrero traced the fall of the Roman Empire back to the eclipse of the Senate as the carrier of the state's principle of legitimacy (instead of economic aspects or the invasion by German tribes) and to the decline of the moral sense in the whole world at that time, which resulted from this. (*) The present is similar. For the first time in European history are values as such denied. Formerly each criminal knew that he was a criminal because even for him there was a general inner human order and not only actions that were legally punishable. "Formerly", writes Julien Benda, "the heads of states did conduct ''Realpolitik' (power politics) but they did not especially honor it. Louis XI, Charles V., Richelieu, Louis XIV did not pretend that their actions were morally justified. Morality was offended against but the moral concepts remained intact and thus these all these violent leaders did not destroy human civilization." - Dr. Herbert Stegemann, DER TAGESSPIEGEL, 25.11.51. - (*) We should keep in mind that this is just one of dozens of different theories on the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. At least some factors acted in combination. E.g. slavery and the deflation resulting from monetary despotism and excess taxation for much foreign spending, were two of the significant factors. Another was the decline of the population due to lead poisoning from leaden water pipes. - Even now the final judgments are not yet in or not yet generally recognized as such. - JZ, 22.12.07. – This “intellectual” had such a monopoly hold on DER TAGESSPIEGEL, as its editor, that Ulrich von Beckerath could not get a single article or even a mere letter to the editor published in it. Often editors act as very opinionated and biased censors. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: The Moral Element in Free Enterprise: Let us encourage usefulness to one's fellows by all means, but let us not confuse it with the importance of the ends which men ultimately serve. It is the glory of the free enterprise system that makes it at least possible that each individual, while serving his fellows, can do so for his own ends. But the system is itself only a means, and its infinite possibilities must be used in the service of ends which exist apart.” - F. A. Hayek, THE FREEMAN, 10/75. - Even Hayek did not explore free enterprise in the provision of political, economic and social systems and individual consumer sovereignty towards such suppliers. - Just like Plato, he was still engaged in the utopian attempt to make the territorial State work better than it ever did or could. - To my knowledge, he did not respond to Nozick's concept of a "meta-utopia", either. Just like he ignored his German predecessors in advocating monetary freedom. - In other words, he, too, was a victim of the absence of a genuine free market for ideas, even for freedom, peace and justice ideas. (And of the absence of a complete libertarian library, bibliography, abstracts and review collection, not to speak of a comprehensive alphabetical index, which by now could be largely automatically generated by a computer program. – JZ, 7.11.13. ) And this as a great and life-long scholar! – Everyone has his limitations! And our libertarian references are still all too limited. - JZ, 22.12.07, 18.2.09, 7.11.13. – NEW DRAFT

MORALITY: The moral issue is the basic issue.” - Title by Steven Cord, mentioned in GOOD GOVERNMENT, Dec. 73.

MORALITY: The moral majority is neither.” – Bumper sticker quoted in ANALOG 1/82. - Even the temporary majorities do have their internal dissenting minorities. - How many different "moralities" do exist so far? - JZ, 9.1.11. - MORAL MAJORITY

MORALITY: The moral sense is more reasonably and profitably applied in free trade, free competition and free cooperation than in free mutual aid. – JZ, 6.1.94, 3.12.07. - MORAL SENSE, MUTAL AID, SELF-INTEREST & EGOISM OR SELFISHNESS VS. ALTRUISM, CHARITY

MORALITY: The moral sense, or conscience, is as much a part of man as his leg or arm. It is given to all human beings in a stronger or weaker degree, as force of members is given them in a greater or less degree.” – Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Peter Carr, 1787.

MORALITY: The Natural Moral Law: Here It Is: Do more unto others what they do unto you.” – Pyrrho, THE CONNECTION, 129, 29.7.85. – As if this could not lead to ever escalating wrongful and violent actions. – JZ, 13.12.07. Compare the long persistence of blood revenge in some countries. - MORAL LAW, NATURAL MORAL LAW, REVENGE, RETALIATION, AGGRESSION, CRIME & DEFENCE, PROTECTION, DIS.

MORALITY: The only people who see no moral problem are those who are already amoral.” – THE TERRITORIAL HERALD, No. III/IV, Vol VII. ( By Marc Ely Chaitlin? – JZ )

MORALITY: The open-ended society of Adam Smith, favoring freedom as primarily a moral goal, and viewing prosperity as an incidental accompanying blessing, …” - Bastiat, in G. C. Roche III, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, p.181. – Alas, the “open-ended” society of the 19th century was never open-ended enough. In the main: it did not permit dissenters to secede exterritorially and try other systems among themselves. At most it allowed them emigration into other territorially ruled countries, somewhat better ruled but not good enough, as this cannot be done territorially for a whole population subjected to centrally imposed rules, under the “principles” of “one law for all” and “equality before the law”, as if the law were a moral and efficient divinity or based upon divine revelations. – JZ, 6.12.07, 7.11.13. - OPEN SOCIETY, FREEDOM & PROPERITY

MORALITY: The people who are regarded as moral luminaries are those who forego ordinary pleasures themselves and find compensation in interfering with the pleasures of others.” - Bertrand Russell. - MORALISTS, LEADERSHIP, RULERS, PRESIDENTS, PRIME MINISTERS, POLITICIANS, POWER ADDICTS

MORALITY: The premise is that it is justifiable to sacrifice an unwilling individual for the sake of the group. … the ugliness of moral cannibalism, shamelessly insisting that an individual has a moral obligation to surrender his rights for the good of the mob ('public', 'majority', 'nation', 'community', etc.) and that the mob has some sort of collective right to make him do so. As if there could be a right to enslave.” - Paul Lepanto, Return to Reason, p.146. - TAXATION & CONSCRIPTION, MAJORITARIANISM, MORAL CANNIBALISM, HUMAN SACRIFICES

MORALITY: The religious revolution was followed by the social revolution. The social revolution will be followed by the moral revolution.” – (Auf die geistige Revolution folgte die soziale Revolution. Auf die soziale Revolution wird die moralische Revolution folgen.) - Hans Habe, 1976, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Band 3. - And that will ultimately have to consist only out of one-man and voluntary group revolutions. - JZ, 1.2.02. - REVOLUTION, PANARCHISM, ONE-MAN REVOLUTIONS, VOLUNTARISM, PROTESTANTISM

MORALITY: The State never had and never will have any morality. Its morality and only justice is the supreme interest of self-preservation and almighty power - an interest before which all humanity has to kneel in worship.” - Michael Bakunin, Federalism, Socialism and Anti-Theologism, 1867. - STATE, TERRITORIALISM

MORALITY: The Success of any great moral enterprise does not depend upon numbers.” – William Lloyd Garrison, Life, 1885-89, vol. III. – See; SUCCESS, MAJORITIES, VOTING, DEMOCRACY

MORALITY: The test of the moral quality of a civilization is its treatment of the weak and powerless.” - Judge Jerome Frank. - Quoted by Robert Baker, re rights of children in LAISSEZ FAIRE REVIEW, May/June 74. - Another significant test is how it treats those who became wealthy through offering good services to others. All too often they are penalized through heavy taxation while the under-achievers are subsidized. - As someone has once said: One can have as much poverty as one is willing to pay for. - However, children's rights is a special subject and, like the rights of adults, still far from clarified sufficiently. - JZ, 22.12.07. - POWERLESSNESS, WEAKNESS

MORALITY: The true grandeur of humanity is in moral elevation, sustained, enlightened and decorated by the intellect of man.” - Charles Sumner, American statesman. - So, what was he doing as a statesman? - JZ, 22.12.07. - MAN, HUMANITY

MORALITY: The true politics can take no step without abiding by morality… Right must never be adapted to politics but politics must always be adapted to what is right. All politics must bend its knee before the right.” – Kant.

MORALITY: the ultimate decision about what is accepted as right and wrong will be made not by individual human wisdom but by the disappearance of the groups that have adhered to the "wrong" beliefs.” - F. A. Hayek. – But when knowledge of what is really right and wrong is as scarce as it is and also as limited, then this development will be all too slow and all to bloody and destructive. – JZ, 11.1.08. - The enlightenment process must become accelerated, by fully utilizing all modern information storage and communication means and by experimental freedom for volunteers, with whole political, economic and social systems, none of them privileged with a territorial monopoly or compulsory membership. - He, too, avoided drafting an ideal declaration of all genuine individual rights and liberties, as a very important tool for enlightenment. Phrases like the above of his, are not a good enough substitute for it. Imagine promoting good mechanics and electronics in cars with such phrases, hopes, expectations or predictions - instead of good enough handbooks! - JZ, 9.1.11. - ETHICS, RIGHT & WRONG, REFUTATIONS ENCYCLOPEDIA, NEW DRAFT, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, IDEAS ARCHIVE

MORALITY: the universe is what it is, the moral order is what it is, human beings are what they are. There are limits to how much any of the 3 can be reshaped. If handled too callously, the three will strike back.” – Chad Walsh, From Utopia to Nightmare, p.161. - HUMAN NATURE, REALITY & UTOPIA

MORALITY: The very concept of morality is meaningless in any context in which the individual is not free to choose to act immorally.” - Robert Patton in THE FREEMAN, Jan. 73. - Free choice to act immorally and this not only in a sexual sense, by Christian standards! - JZ, 22.12.07. – But only towards voluntary victims! – JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: There are many religions but there is only one morality.” – John Ruskin. – Aren’t there also many different concepts of justice and many different ideas on human rights and liberties? Is there already unanimity e.g. on capital punishment, children’s rights and abortions? Even in the sphere of morality there should be free choice for individuals to join one or the other system of attempting to achieve the highest morality or justice among volunteers. – We should recognize that not only for e.g. monks and nuns. The justice or international law between such different systems should largely be based on the best declaration of individual human rights and liberties that could presently be compiled. But within competing moral systems, practised by their volunteers, even the best declaration of individual rights should not be enforced. Their members should be free to restrict their own rights and liberties as much as they like – but not those of outsiders or non-members. – Ruskin, too, did not provide, to my knowledge, an ideal moral code, or tried to. - JZ, 5.12.07, 9.1.11. - & RELIGION, JUSTICE, PUNISHMENT, RIGHTS, ABORTION, INTERNATIONAL LAW, HUMAN RIGHTS, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MORALITY: There are no economic fruits without moral roots.” - Gary North, THE FREEMAN, Aug. 74. - & ECONOMICS

MORALITY: There are some who would say that a man need only obey the accepted moral code of his community. (*) But I do not think any student of anthropology could be content with this answer. Such practices as cannibalism, human sacrifice, and head hunting have died out as a result of moral protests against conventional moral opinion. (**) If a man seriously desires to live the best life that is open to him, he must learn to be critical of the tribal customs and tribal beliefs that are generally accepted among his neighbors.” (***) - Bertrand Russell, Authority and the Individual, p.82. - - (*) It all depends whether he has accepted it, i.e, whether it is a voluntary community that he has individually accepted by becoming its member or remaining a member. - - (**) What if they were practised only among volunteers? (Decapitations by religious fanatics has been all too much in the news recently. – JZ, 7.11.13.) -  (***) He should opt out, secede, withdraw and establish or join a community of volunteers with his kind of moral beliefs and practices. Does he have the right to initiate a war against a tribe with different moral practices - if they are confined to their volunteers? I would deny that. To a large extent such tribes would be self-limiting and even self- extinguishing, at least in the long run. If all their members are free to secede and make use of that option and find asylum in better societies, such tribes would tend to disappear, possibly fast. Abraham's tribe might have grown fast largely through the abolition of child sacrifices and of collective responsibility actions. - JZ, 22.12.07. - CUSTOMS & TRADITIONS

MORALITY: There can be no such thing, in law or in morality, as actions forbidden to an individual, but permitted to a mob.” - Ayn Rand. - INDIVIDUALS, MAJORITY, LAW, PROHIBITIONS, RIGHTS, LAWS, LEGISLATION, MOB ACTIONS, MASSES, VOTING

MORALITY: There IS a morality of reason, a morality proper to man and Man's Life is its standard of value.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.940. - MAN, LIFE, STANDARD OF VALUE

MORALITY: There is but one morality and Ayn Rand believed to be its prophet. I hold that Immanuel Kant was a much better prophet in this respect than she was. Perhaps this was one of the reasons why she so hated and misunderstood him. - JZ, 31.7.78, 22.12.07.

MORALITY: There is no morality in obedience when there is nothing else to do. It requires no moral courage to obey an act of Parliament; all that is needed is a spirit of subservience or cowardice. For an action to be moral, a man must be free – absolutely free – either to perform it or not to perform it. He must be “on his honour”, a phrase which was more common in the traditional days of freedom.” – Sir Ernest Benn, The State the Enemy, p.120. - ACTIONS, INITIATIVE, FREEDOM & OBEDIENCE

MORALITY: There is no red or white morality. Morality has no color.“ - Hans Habe, Leben fuer den Journalismus, Bd. III, p.194. (Es gibt keine rote und keine weisse Moral. Die Moral hat keine Farbe.) - Alas, so far we do not have a universally recognized morality but xyz moral systems of principles, all only supported by their volunteers and even that is usually not done consistently in full accordance with the teachings of their prophets, philosophers or holy or scholarly writings. – The laws of their various schisms and sects are much more widely applied. - JZ, 9.1.11, 7.11.13.

MORALITY: There is no such thing as morality without liberty.” - Jacques Élisée RECLUS. - & LIBERTY

MORALITY: There is no such thing as the mass production of morals, and, by the same token, we can never produce any kind of justice on a legislative assembly line.” - Clarence Manion, The Key to Peace, p.28. - If morals or justice could be mass produced vial laws and state courts, we would be flooded with them now. - JZ, 21.11.82. - However, compare the moral effects of some of Thomas Paine's first pamphlets upon the American Revolution, also the effect of the still all too imperfect first bills of rights and human rights declarations. What moral effect a really comprehensive and clear declaration of individual rights and liberties could have we do not know as yet, because we have not yet bothered to assemble or publish it and there seems to be all too little interest in the subject, especially among religious people, Stirnerians, Praxeologists, Utilitarians, philosophers, intellectuals etc. - Nor do we know the effects of a complete declaration of quite rightful war and peace aims, one by the people themselves, rather than by governments, since it, too has not yet been provided. - JZ, 20.12.07 - How can millions of people let themselves be wrongfully and uselessly sacrificed for undeclared or obviously flawed to wrongful war aims of territorial governments? - How can they tolerate the stockpiling of anti-people "weapons" or mass murder devices? - JZ, 9.1.11. - & LEGISLATION, IDEAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, RIGHTFUL WAR AIMS – DECLARED IN TIME, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM

MORALITY: There is only one dogma, only one law, only one moral base for men, and that is liberty.” -Michael Bakunin, Revolutionary Catechism, 1865. - That is still all too general a phrase and not a sufficient guide to full liberties and rights in all spheres. Misunderstandings abound, especially economic ones, in Bakunin's own writings. Is anything in his catechism still useful in our times? He had nothing sensible to propose the revolutionaries of the Paris Commune of 1871. - JZ, 22.12.07. - LAW, DOGMA, LIBERTY

MORALITY: Those actions are moral which maximize the availability of meaningful choices.” – Perry Beider, ANALOG, March 83, p.168. - & CHOICE, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, HUMAN RIGHTS

MORALITY: Those who would treat politics and morality apart will never understand the one or the other.” - Rousseau. - When and where were they ever sufficiently combined in territorial States? - Only the panarchies or polyarchies of volunteers could ever come close to that ideal. - JZ, 22.12.07. - & POLITICS, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM

MORALITY: To deny the freedom of the will is to make morality impossible.” - James A. Froude (1818-1894), Address, "Calvinism," St. Andrew's, March 17, 1871. - & FREE WILL

MORALITY: To educate a man in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society.” - Theodore Roosevelt - & EDUCATION

MORALITY: Truth is certainly a branch of morality and a very important one to society.” - Thomas Jefferson. - Alas, not even libertarians and anarchists have so far bothered to offer all their truths permanently, cheaply and properly examined and defended, in Encyclopaedias of Definitions, of Refutations, of Ideas, in bibliographies, abstracts, indexes and in full-text reproductions, as they could, on cheap, easy and powerful alternative media like microfiche, floppy disks and CDs & HDDs. Instead, they offer only fractions, temporarily, online, at considerable costs to the provider, and considerable risks, labor and costs to the user, especially when he wants not just one book but a whole small freedom reference library. Each online surfer is also forced to go through numerous irrelevant items thrown at him by search engines as well as numerous repetitions. On libertarian CD-libraries these could be thrown out - and 10 CDs of this kind could probably provide a life-time's libertarian reading material. - Can one launch this insight among libertarians without the help of an Ideas Archive or a Libertarian Encyclopaedia, or a libertarian projects list online, at least? - JZ, 1.11.02, 7.11.13. – Truthfulness is. Truth as a general concept is not. Because if truth is the agreement of a statement with a fact, person, relationship or an idea, then a general truth cannot and does exist because there are only diverse facts, persons, relationships and ideas and there is no single truth that covers all of this diversity. Trillions of different truths can be stated but not a single truth that covers all these trillions of of different cases. – Reminds me of the old observation that commonly people believe that they have the words in their power but all too often they are in the power of mere words, wrongly assuming that a reality must exist to correspond to their words. - JZ, 20.2.09. - SOCIETY & TRUTH, ENLIGHTENMENT, LIBERTARIAN LIBRARY, IDEAS ARCHIVE

MORALITY: Uncle Sam has no conscience. They don’t know what morals are. They don’t try and eliminate an evil because it’s evil, or because it’s illegal, or because it’s immoral, they eliminate it only when it threatens their existence.” – Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, 1965, p.3. – Shortly before he was murdered he had, finally, become relatively tolerant. A pilgrimage to Mecca enlightened him e.g. on the race question. If he had lived some more decades … - JZ, 18.2.09.

MORALITY: Under morality I understand the real product of two imaginary factors: The imaginary factors are Duty and Will.” – Frank Wedekind, Fruehlings-Erwachen. (Unter Moral verstehe ich das reelle Produkt zweier imaginaerer Groessen. Die imaginaeren Groessen sind Sollen und Wollen.) – Morality was simply beyond his imagination. – JZ, 21.7.86. – What can we expect when there is still so much confusion and vagueness today, even on such quite basic terms and ideas? – JZ, 13.12.07, 9.1.11.

MORALITY: Unless a good deed is voluntary, it has no moral significance.” – Everett Dean Martin (1880-1941), Political Philosopher. - & GOOD DEEDS, GOOD INTENTIONS, GOODNESS, DO-GOODING, VOLUNTARISM, CHARITY, BENEVOLENCE, GOVERNMENT HAND-OUTS, SUBSIDIES OUT OF TAX FUNDS, WELFARE STATE, GOVERNMENT SPENDING

MORALITY: We are firmly convinced, and we act on that conviction, that with nations as with individuals, our interests soundly calculated will ever be found inseparable from our moral duties.” - Thomas Jefferson – Anyhow, the “national interest” is largely a fiction. There is no more a uniform national interest than there is a uniform national art, fashion, sport, recreation, religion, philosophy, science, etc. What is pretended to be in the national interest is nothing but wrongful territorial privileges, which should all be ended a.s.a.p. – When goods and persons cannot cross artificial borders peacefully then armies will. – JZ, 11.1.08. - & NATIONAL INTEREST, ETHICS & SELF-INTEREST, TERRITGORIALISM, PUBLIC INTEREST? COMMON INTEREST?

MORALITY: We have a moral obligation not to judge other people's standards by our own.” - Brian W. Aldiss, "Danger: Religion!" - As long as they do apply them only to themselves! - JZ, n.d. - & TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM, DOING THE OWN THINGS ONLY, AT THE OWN RISK & EXPENSE, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM OR PERSONAL LAW FOR ALL, VOLUNTARISM

MORALITY: we owe no morality to those who hold us under a gun. So use every power of deceit you can command.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.1013. - COERCION, DECEPTION, DECEIT

MORALITY: We produced the wealth of the world (*) - but we let our enemies write its moral code.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.579. - - (*) Well, a disproportionately large part of it. - JZ, 22.12.07. - CAPITALISM & WEALTH

MORALITY: What is missing … is not an economic but a moral case against regulation … [The liberals] understand one thing, that supporters of the free society have never quite grasped: namely, the priority of moral considerations in the debate on political policy. They see what freedom's friends have been blind to for so long that one must deal with questions of human action in moral terms to win the intellectual victory …” - Tibor Machan, NATIONAL REVIEW, June 11, 1976. - Quoted in PURSUIT, 10/76.

MORALITY: What is morality in any given time or place? It is what the majority then and there happen to like and immorality is what they dislike.” – Alfred North Whitehead. - Or so they believe. Are they right? Only within their own communities of volunteers and by their own standards – until they have learnt to appreciate better ones! – JZ, 6.12.07. - & MAJORITIES

MORALITY: Whenever we depart from voluntary cooperation and try to do good by using force, the bad moral value of force triumphs over good intentions.” – Milton Friedman - VOLUNTARISM, EXTERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, COOPERATION, COMPETITION VS. COERCION, FORCE, COMPULSION, EVEN WITH THE BEST INTENTIONS

MORALITY: Where morality is present, laws are unnecessary. Without morality, laws are unenforceable. – Anonymous - LAWS

MORALITY: Where niti, the moral law, rules, government disintegrates.” - Vinoba Bhave, quoted in GOOD GOVERNMENT, 8/75. - & GOVERNMENT

MORALITY: Wherever morality is based on theology, wherever right is made dependent on divine authority, the most immoral, unjust, infamous things can be justified and established.” - Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872), The Essence of Christianity (1841). - & THEOLOGY, RELIGION, FAITH, BELIEF

MORALITY: Whoever advances in the sciences but regresses in morality makes more regress than progress.” - Aristoteles. (Qui proficit in leteris et deficit in moribus, plus deficit quam proficit. - Wer in den Wissenschaften Fortschritte und in der Sittlichkeit Rueckschritte macht, macht mehr Rueckschritte als Fortschritte.) - PROGRESS, REGRESS, SCIENCE

MORALITY: With Hitler, Britain assumed a moral stance (*), and it was this that inspired her to one of the most heroic acts of resistance in your history. A moral stance, even in politics, always safeguards our spirit; sometimes, as we can see, it even protects our very existence. A moral stance can suddenly turn out to be more far-sighted than any calculated pragmatism.” - A. Solzhenitsyn, quoted in NATIONAL TIMES, 3.5.76. - (*) Apart from her collective responsibility notions, which led to indiscriminate air raids against the civilian population, in which not only 10 German cities were destroyed for every English town, as was promised, but more than 300 times as much of Germany was thus destroyed than German air attacks destroyed in England. - On the other hand, the tyrannicide of Hitler was hindered rather than seriously attempted. Thus millions of innocents were rather killed than the main culprit. Moreover, this indiscriminate bombing was mostly done under the pretence that only military targets were being bombed. Not a very moral stand, I believe. - But then, hitting anything from the air was then very difficult to impossible. - Thus area bombing became the practice and it had little effect upon the armament industries. Attacks on furnaces were, possibly, never attempted and attacks on ball bearing factories only once they were already well protected, late in the war. - Without steel and ball bearings no highly technological warfare can be conducted for long. - Emotions rather than reasoning prevailed on the side of the Western Allies as well. - A German government in exile was never recognized. - JZ, 22.12.07. - Quite rightful war aims were never declared. Refugees, defectors and POWs were not automatically liberated. - JZ, 9.1.11, 7.11.13. - AIR RAIDS, BOMBING, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, WAR AIMS, GOVERNMENTS IN EXILE, REFUGEES, POWS, DESERTION, WW2, TYRANNICIDE, HITLER

MORALITY: Without a moral code no proper human society is possible. Without the recognition of individual rights not moral code is possible.” – Ayn Rand, Textbook of Americanism, in “The Ayn Rand Column”, revised edition, 1998, p 90, Second Renaissance Books, New Milford, Connecticut, – Have the Randians or Objectivists by now agreed upon an ideal rights code? – Have they even attempted it? - JZ, 18.2.09. - MORAL CODE, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & FREE SOCIETIES MORAL CODE, & SOCIETY

MORALITY: Without consistency there is no moral strength.” - John Owen. - The American Founding Fathers are still believed to have been quite moral beings - and yet they tolerated slavery and used and abused monetary despotism! - JZ, 20.12.07.

MORALITY: Without freedom there can be no morality!” – Herbert Read, My Anarchism, in The Cult of Sincerity, p.88. - & FREEDOM

MORALITY: Wouldn't it be wise, and the most peace-making solution, to leave moral standards to be determined by the individuals involved? (*) Certainly, removing the government from this area (**) would remove an element of confusion about moral standards, to let the issues be faced squarely on their merits. Further, of course, there is the dividend that law enforcement procedure personnel would be free to spend more time deterring violent sexual crimes, such as rape, rather than pursuing individuals who quite literally are doing no harm to anyone. - Manifestly "anti-smut" laws are an attempt to impose the moral views of some upon all.” - Roger McBride, A New Dawn, p.84. - (*) I wish he had concluded from this upon full exterritorial autonomy for communities of volunteers, under personal laws. Has he, anywhere? - (**) Has he clearly defined it? - Did he only think of "obscenity" and anti-prostitution laws etc.? - JZ, 22.12.07. - MORAL STANDARDS, CRIMES WITHOUT VICTIMS:

MORALITY: write a moral code that sweeps the world, replaces the love and suicide ethic of religion.” – Jim Stumm, THE CONNECTION 133p.72. – I would add: and of territorial statism. – JZ, 11.8.87, 9.1.11. - Most libertarian attempts in this direction consist only of one or a few sentences. But with as few words one cannot clearly enough describe a comprehensive code of all individual rights and liberties. – Has Jim Stumm made an attempt in this direction in the meantime? I don’t know. – I for one would welcome such a draft by him. - JZ, 6.12.07. – I have collected, partly microfiched in PEACE PLANS 589/590 and later supplemented over 130 private human rights drafts. - But the response to this anthology has so far been zero! Much more input and criticism is needed. All the proposed articles in all their variations should be put together and systematically compared and criticized in the attempt to arrive at ideal formulations. A work for thousands of interested people on a common website. Where are they? Among 7,000 million people, many of them sufficiently familiar with English, there should at least be some. And the input by others, in other languages, should become systematically translated by those sufficiently interested in the subject and able to translate such texts. – There are xyz complaints about human rights violations but where are the efforts to state all of them optimally, to achieve, finally, a sufficient degree of consensus? It is obvious that not all people would be obliged to make full use of all their human rights and liberties. But how far they go and where their limits are should at least be as clearly stated as human beings can. – What not to do in this sphere was clearly demonstrated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the UN of 10.12.1948. - JZ, 18.2.09, 9.1.11, 7.11.13. - HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION, ETHICS, MORALITY, RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, PANARCHISM, MORAL CODE

MORALITY: Yet we believe there's a morality above any law, which must stand watchdog on all attempts at unchanging regulation.” - Frank Herbert, Chapterhouse Dune, p.167. - LAW, REGULATIONS

MORALITY: You are the referee. Morals are your agreement with yourself to abide by your own rules. To thine own self be true or you spoil the game.” - Robert Heinlein, Time Enough for Love, p.586. - MORALS

MORALITY: Yours is the morality of death.” - Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, p.950. - NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY

MORATORIUM AVOIDANCE: While through a moratorium during a deflation, the right of creditors to demand payment in legal tender, could be rightfully stopped, all other payment and clearing options, those of monetary freedom, should, in the interest of debtors and creditors alike, not any longer be prohibited but completely freed. In other words, while a complete moratorium might not only be decreed by a government, thus declaring the bankruptcy of its monetary policy, it might also be insisted upon by the citizens, debtors and creditors alike, for all payments in exclusive and forced currencies. These should be repudiated. Perhaps in combination with a general tax strike. At the same time, the moratorium which monetary despotism had so far imposed upon all monetary freedom and free clearing, credit- and banking alternatives, should be repealed or simply ignored by self-help steps. All ready for sale consumer goods and services, in particular, could be largely monetized by their owners and providers, priced in a sound value standard, also used in their goods- and service "tickets", in money denominations, acceptable for the whole range of goods and services they offer between them, if they form a common issue and loan and loan repayment centre. Then the only obligation they would have is to accept these notes of their own association at par, whenever anyone buys anything from them. Their common issuing centre would also accept these notes in the repayment of all their short-term and turnover-credits granted with these notes. - Retail shops, as members of the note-issuing shop associations, might get such loans, to pay their bills, wholesalers and factories and other enterprises might get short loans especially for their wage and salary bills - against their short term claims for payments due to them for goods and services already supplied by not yet paid for. Being without legal tender, refusable and discountable in general circulation, also having to compete against other existing or potential issuers, such private currencies could not be inflated - and with their free issue deflations could be ended or prevented. - Such self-help attempts were tried again and again in human history, in ten-thousands of instances of token, truck and emergency money issues, but like all other rebellions, these monetary rebellions were usually soon and severely repressed, under the theory that a royal or government prerogative was thereby infringed. The rulers knew better than their subjects how important the money monopoly is for maintaining themselves in power and how much they can exploit and impoverish their subjects through it, keeping them dependent and ignorant of their freedom options and even getting them to grant the sanction of the victims by spreading statist notions and prejudices on money. Consequently, even today probably not even one in a million is sufficiently enlightened on monetary freedom options. - JZ, 18.12.93, 2.5.97, 7.11.13. - MORATORIUM AVOIDANCE THROUGH THE ISSUE PRINCIPLE, CRISIS, DEFLATION, MASS UNEMPLOYMENT, DEBTS & CREDITS, BANKRUPTCIES, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM, LEGAL TENDER, INFLATION

MORATORIUM FOR DEBT PAYMENTS: A moratorium for debt payments in an exclusive and forced currency should be welcomed by monetary freedom advocates - as long as is clearly does not apply to payments in optional, market rated and freely competing local currencies. These could get a boost by such a moratorium on debt payments in legal tender. All debtors, unable to pay in legal tender cash, should publicly declare, towards their creditors, that they are prepared to pay them in their own or combined IOUs and clearing certificates, which they would readily accept at par in all payments due to them. To make this offer more acceptable to their creditors, they might offer them at a discounted rate, one that would provide an incentive for the creditors to look around to find those people in the local community, who could use the services or goods of the local debtors who had issued their clearing certificates. Self-chosen and sound enough value standards should be used. These self-help clearing steps for debt settlements should and would be extensively discussed and they might, sooner or later, become customary and even retroactively legalized. To demand from debtors a means of payment over whose supply they do not have any control, since it is a legalized monopoly money, amounts to an extortion attempt. Promises to pay in such an exchange medium amounts to a speculative dealing in futures, without a withdrawal premium being arranged between the contractors, as is common in futures dealings on stock exchanges. - Central banks have never functioned well enough to supply all circulation spheres evenly and sufficiently with sound exchange media. But they have often under-supplied and over-supplied their forced and exclusive currencies. It is high time that debtors and creditors opt out of that system and make themselves monetarily independent and liquid as much as they privately can or that they obviate the need of cash payments between them altogether, while establishing almost perfect clearing instead and maintaining sounder value standard reckoning than central banks are able or willing to supply. In the same way that customers can ask suppliers only for the goods and services that they have specialized on offering, creditors should become only authorized to ask for those means of payment or clearing-certificates which their honest and capable debtors will always be able to supply, namely, assignments upon their own goods and services, in convenient denominations. Naturally, contractually they might agree to supply other means of exchange, which they do not possess yet and which they cannot print themselves. But then debtors and creditors should be fully aware that in this case they engage in risky trading in futures. Such contracts cannot always be fulfilled and they should thus contain a withdrawal premium clause. To promise to pay in the future some legal tender, not yet in one's possession, is like promising to deliver fish not yet caught or wheat not yet grown. The tacit assumption, that an exclusive legal tender currency would always be so evenly and widely supplied by the managers of that central bank of issue monopoly - that through it all legitimate or honest trade requirements would be served, is not born out by experience. Freedom for self-help measures is required in this sphere as in all others. Monopolism, coercion and fraud are no solutions, not in this sphere, either. - JZ, 5.12.92, 30.4.97, 9.1.11. - See: RIGHT OF CREDITORS TO DEMAND GOLD OR LEGAL TENDER CASH, CLEARING, RIGHT TO ISSUE, RIGHT TO CLEAR, DEBT PAYMENTS BY CLEARING ISSUES.

MORATORIUM ON TERRITORIAL POWER, GOVERNMENT, POLITICS, ELECTIONS, VOTING: A moratorium on government is a far better idea than seeking to thrust someone into a position of power.” - LEFEVRE'S JOURNAL, Fall 76.

MORE & LESS. More means often less. E.g., a paper money inflated in its volume via the issue monopoly and its legal tender power leads to less value for its money unit. More deflation will provide less sales and employment. More spice and more medicine do often not provide more taste and health but less. Excess exercise can be incapacitating. Excess eating will provide less fitness. More government power means less freedom for its subjects. - JZ, 31.5.78, 23.12.07.

MORE MONEY IS NOT NECESSARILY INFLATIONARY: Do not allow any central bank to print even more of its forced and exclusive (legal tender currency) and do repeal all its legal privileges, to stop its inflation. On the other hand, allow people to spend more money, money they coined or issued themselves, based upon their own goods, services and labor, to the extent that they do find willing acceptors for these alternative and competitive currencies. Then such an economy will tend to become a permanent boom economy - unless other despotic economic interventions are continued. Monetary demand will then grow only with the growth of goods, services and labor offered for sale. The change-over from monetary despotism to monetary freedom is the most significant change-over from totalitarian, dirigistic or centrally planned economies (with all the problems they create for themselves and their victims) to the problem-solving free market economics. - JZ, 24.9.93, 24.4.97. 7.11.13. - ELASTICITY, DEMAND, QUANTITY THEORY, INFLATION, ABILITY TO PAY, ADAPTABILITY.

MORE RIGHTS, LIBERTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES, BUT ONLY OPTIONAL: I am in favor of more rights, liberties, responsibilities, opportunities and choices for you - even if you are not. But I also hold that none of these or any particular combination of them should be forced upon you or anyone else, except criminals with victims and other aggressors. - JZ, 17.7.84, 14.1.93, 9.1.11. – VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAW, SECESSIONISM, SELF-HELP, SELF-LIBERATION, SELF-RESPONSIBILITY, RECOGNITION OF ALL INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS & LIBERTIES

MORTALITY, DEATH, LIFE EXPANSION, LIFE EXTENSION: Today Shakespeare might have Puck say: "What fools they be, who chose mortality!" This foolishness remains nearly universal; almost everyone rejects his chance of extended life, as well as his chance to become superhuman, for reasons we shall now discuss further, with some naming of names.” - R. C. W. Ettinger, Man Into Superman, p.206. - I never forget that my father, otherwise an anarchist radical and a life-long vegetarian and health apostle, merely laughed at the idea of the possibility to extend the "normal" lifespan of human beings. This in spite of the fact that the average life-span has already been greatly expanded over the centuries and in spite of the fact that, as a follower of Stirner, he opposed "fixed ideas". He managed to maintain quite a few fixed ideas himself, to his deathbed. – But then nobody is perfect. - JZ, 20.12.07.

MOTHERHOOD: One who frequently goes too far by remaining too near.” - CHANGING TIMES. - EXCESS MOTHERING

MOTHERHOOD: The MOTHER is often held up as the pattern example of duty and self-sacrifice. But would the mother cling to her pains if she could get the blessings of maternity and the consolations of religion without them? Of course she does. This stock example of dutiful sacrifice falls with the whole show, and will not be resuscitated unless the typical mother comes up to the Fabian-Socialist's ideal, by being willing to endure the keenest of anguish: the sacrifice of her infant for the good of the community, because it happens to be club-footed, or has a birth mark, or experts say it is not up to the regulation weight. I admire the natural mother as she exists today, because she considers her child of much more importance than the whole human race; for her child's happiness is a necessary condition to her own, and a source of greater comfort to her, while the rest of humanity only worry her.” - Badcock, Slaves do Duty. - As if it had to be either or, as if not both factors, egoism as well as altruism, could be quite rightfully involved. - JZ, 23.12.07. - MOTHERLY LOVE, ALTRUISM OR EGOISM? RIGHTS, DUTIES, SACRIFICE OR SELFISHNESS?

MOTHERS IN LAW: Every mother is also a lover; she seldom takes any pleasure in seeing her son led away by another younger woman. – Wilbur Smith, River God, Pan Books, 1994, p.594. - If that were true, then the relationships of mothers in law to the husbands of their daughters should be better, since, usually, they do not love their daughters, at least not sexually, as much as their sons. On the other hand, they may be jealous of the younger husband their daughter has acquired. In that case, they should dislike their daughter more than their son in law. Have psychologists sufficiently studied these relationships or is it all left to folklore? – JZ, 29.2.11. – Sexual instincts are often all too little dominated by reason and morality. – JZ, 22.5.13.

MOTIVATION, GOVERNMENT, CARROT & STICK, COERCION & INCENTIVES: I do not mean for you to relate the word "government" to organization. And it is my position, of course, that when it comes to motivating people to perform well that the carrot is always superior to the stick. I think that when we use coercion to get something done what tends to happen is that people will do only enough to prevent punishment. However when there is a long, and often a visionary dream of carrots before one, there is almost no limit to what one will attempt to do in order to increase the supply of carrots. I am using the terms "carrot" and "stick" with the assumption that you are familiar with the old cliché and know what I mean.” - Robert LeFevre, Good Government, p.8.

MOTIVES, MULTI-CAUSALITY: No man does anything from a single motive.” - S.T. Coleridge, 1772-1834. - A. Andrews Quotations, 310.

MOTIVES: It is impossible to describe any human action if one does not refer to the meaning the actor sees in the stimulus as well as in the end his response is aiming at.” - Ludwig von Mises - VALUES, SUBJECTIVITY, UNDERSTANDING, ENDS & MEANS

MOTOR REGISTRATION: Scrap the expensive and useless old bomb - and tax extortion racket: the Department of Motor Transport. - JZ, 1975, 23.12.07. - It is only one of how many thousands associated with territorialism? - JZ, 9.1.11.

MOTOR REGISTRIES, CAR, AUTO, TRUCK, MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATION: How much of its “services” would you buy and at what prices, if you had any choice in the matter? Over 10 years I paid as much in registration as for my used car. Add to this the fuel and oil taxes. – JZ, 10.10.91. – Is any government “service” really worth what taxpayers are forced to pay for it? – JZ, 8.12.07. Only belatedly did I find out that being over 65 I was no longer obliged to pay for it! None of the public servants involved informed me of this fact. The over-paid amounts are also not refunded. Each robber takes as much as he can and a territorial robbery system is not any better in this respect, even when it is lawful in the sense of all too much legislation, which can no longer be fully known by anyone. There was no sign of this exemption in the Motor Registry Office. Only a sympathetic clerk of the NRMA pointed out this fact to me. - Thus I over-paid for about 10 years. - JZ, 9.1.11.

MOTTO: The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. ... Soon or late, it is ideas, not vested interests, which are dangerous for good or evil.” - J. M. Keynes. - "Keynes wrote his own epitaph. How about that!" - ? - Carl J. -Friedrich might also be quoted from his A New Belief in the Common Man, on the revolutionary power of ideas, p.49: "… Ralph Waldo Emerson's 'thoughts rule the world'. … It is the beauty and the terror of a revolutionary age such as ours that theories are probably the most important 'facts' altogether."

MOUSETRAP, BETTER: The observation, "If a man makes a better mousetrap than his neighbour, though he builds his house in the woods, the world will make a beaten path to his door", is popularly attributed to Ralph Waldo Emerson. However, none of his works contain the quotation. - It has been suggested that the minister of a New York church had been the first to use the "better mousetrap", as an illustration in one of his sermons. He had done so, not least, to please a prominent member of his congregation, a Mr. Jay Gould, who had actually invented a new and "better" mousetrap! - That Emerson was given the credit might have a possible explanation. For his many lectures, he made use of thoughts he had jotted down in his Journals. These contain a somewhat lengthy reflection on the circumstances of fame. This expressed the view that "If a man has good corn, or wood, or boards, or pigs to sell, or can make better chairs or knives, crucibles or church organs, than anybody else, you will find a broad hard-beaten road to his house though it be in the woods." - The words obviously express the same idea as the much more concise reference to the better mousetrap. The New York preacher might have paraphrased the passage, adapting it to his purpose.” - R. Brasch, Mistakes, Misnomers & Misconceptions, 1983, Fontana Books, p.210. - Without sufficient publicity, either mouth to mouth, by mass media or an Ideas Archive, the path will not be beaten to his door! - JZ, 19.8.02. See: IDEAS ARCHIVE

MOVE QUICKLY: Move quickly, whether pursuing an opportunity or being pursued by calamity. - Arthur C. Clarke & Michael Kube-McDowell, The Trigger, Harper/Collins Publishers, 1999, p.400.

MOVEMENT: A 'fundamental freedom' should grant every inhabitant of this earth to go where he wants without interference of anybody or any Government.” - Bruno H. Schubert, THE ANSWER, 4/75. - FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, MIGRATION, IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS

MOVEMENT: The Three Freedoms: This economic and social system of Europe was predicated on a few axiomatic principles. These principles were considered as safe and unshakeable by that age as the average American citizen even today considers his civil liberties embodied in the Bill of Rights. - They were freedom of movement for men, for goods, and for money. (*) - Every one could leave his country when he wanted to and travel or migrate wherever he pleased without a passport. The only European country that demanded passports (not even visas!) was Russia, looked at askance for her backwardness with an almost contemptuous smile. Who wanted to travel to Russia, anyway? It was not yet the Mecca for millions of dreamers from all over the world. The trend of migration was westward - within Europe from the thinly populated agricultural east to the rapidly industrializing centre and the west, and above all from Europe to the wide-open Americas.” - Gustav Stolper, This Age of Fable, 1942, p.20/21. - Essentially the European condition for decades before WW I. - However, nationalism, protectionism and central banking were growing in power and prevented a sound and peaceful development. - If full monetary freedom had already been introduced then, for decades, its influence might have prevented WW I and WW II and many other man-made disasters. - (*) For ideas and information as well. - JZ, 23.12.07. - Stolper was one of the few monetary freedom advocates of his time. - JZ, 9.1.11. - FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT, MIGRATION, EMIGRATION, IMMIGRATION, PASSPORTS

MOVEMENTS: A lot of problems, which collectives will have, can be traced to the work habit acquired in the (mass) movement. People perpetuate the passive role they have become accustomed to in large meetings. The emphasis on mass participation means that all you have to do is to show up. Rarely do people prepare themselves for a meeting, nor do they feel the need to. Often this situation does not become evident precisely because the few people, who do the work (those who run the meeting), create the illusion of group achievement.” - Reinventing Anarchy, p. 344. - The same applies to mere subscribers to libertarian publications or donors to libertarian organizations. What is really needed and should be offered to their members, them, most of all, is their creative input as well as their labor of love input when it comes to research, compilations, letter and comments writing, their real participation in the work of a movement, instead of leaving it to a few leaders and activists only. - A movement like that of the WIKIPEDIA collaborators is much more productive than is a movement that organizes mere mass meetings and mass marches and mass demonstrations. - Via electronic media any ordinary member could now, if he really wanted to, make extraordinary contributions e.g. of his own ideas and writings or those of others. - Libertarian publications and organizations really ought to attempt to mobilize and involve their ordinary members as much as possible. (In private firms even mere suggestion box schemes with good follow-up procedures, have been very productive. – JZ, 7.11.13.) There are thousands of libertarian jobs that need to be done, urgently, by many people and most can be completed only via extensive division of labor that would have to be properly organized among them, largely by offering them the full menu of libertarian projects in which they could and should participate, in accordance with their own individual highest interests and priorities. To get this started no more might be needed than that the first few libertarian organizations and periodicals compile and publish a libertarian projects list online and invite all their members and readers to participate in at least one of them. The libertarian periodicals and organizations should also frequently point out such a common list of such projects, inviting all their subscribers and members to involve themselves with at least one of them, collaborating in this with xyz subscribers and members of other organizations and periodicals as well, who are interested in the same project. They might also find it in their interest to support some of them in their publications and meetings. Thus the intentional or unintentional boundaries between libertarian organizations and periodicals could and should be broken down in favor of a practical libertarian international, in which each individual would be working for liberty practically, on whatever project corresponds to his highest interests, across all national barriers as well and as far as his language skills and also organized translation services permit. - A small example: If all were appealed to - to list the relatively few rare treasures in their private libertarian library, digitally, and to send their list via email to an agreed upon centre, to be there combined with the input from all others, perhaps with an abstract or review written by themselves or favored by themselves, we would soon be far on the way to a libertarian bibliography, abstracts and review collection. - Imagine what could be achieved if e.g. a large percentage of the ca. 70 000 subscribers to the electronic newsletter of the Advocates for Self-Government would be thus mobilized. - (Via free individual choice from a common projects list it would amount to self-mobilization in accordance with the own highest interests.) - JZ, 23.12.07. - Back in PEACE PLANS 20, later digitized, see  I listed about 1,000 libertarian projects requiring collaboration. How many would be in a complete list of such projects, offered online? In new book draft, a year ago, so far only called "New Draft" I described my program for accelerating libertarian enlightenment. Gian Piero reviewed in on It is not yet online by I gladly send the draft, zipped, as an email attachment, it comes only to 306KBs. - - PARTIES, PARTICIPATION, LIBERTARIAN PROJECTS LIST ONLINE, COLLABORATION & DIVISION OF LABOR ON THEM, LIBERTARIAN IDEAS ARCHIVE, NEW DRAFT

MOVEMENTS: Better only a small "movement", but consisting out of independent personalities than crowds of camp followers who have only comprehended one half.” - St. Ch. Waldecke, Gedanken ueber Anarchie, p.8.

MOVEMENTS: Can any sound movement really grow and hope to succeed or should it without clearly separating itself from its lunatic fringe and other foolish hanger-on? - JZ, 7.7.82. - Financially these people may be an asset to an organization or periodical - but, otherwise … After all, these people could or should form their own organization or publication. - A panarchist platform would have scope for even these varieties of interests, opinions, ideas, dogmas, errors and prejudices. - JZ, 7.7.82. - LUNATIC FRINGES, PANARCHISM

MOVEMENTS: displays of public independence are catching, and a menace to all good (*) government. To this extent all governments are on the same side – they tend to be members of the same trade union, and to know instinctively that they must support each other, as royal houses formerly supported each other against republicanism, regardless of their quarrels. We may hope for a similar unity of feeling among recalcitrant publics.” (**) –ALEX COMFORT, “Authority and Delinquency. A study in the psychology of power”, 1950, 1970, p.101, a book largely on the delinquency of authority. – Alas, kept out of print and off the Web for all too long. - JZ, 15.5.06. - (*) good? existing! – (**) Especially among communities of volunteers, who strive only for exterritorial autonomy for themselves as well as for all other such communities. – JZ, 15.9.07. - FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM CURRENT GOVERNMENTS

MOVEMENTS: Each group has its own social structure, which binds it together. Group movements are always movements for independence in order that subjugated or oppressed groups may attain self-realisation." - Quathafi, The Green Book. - The anarchist and libertarian movements do not have much of a structure and some anarchist groups attempt to avoid any structure. Very different degrees of independence are striven for and some might act only under paranoid illusions of subjugation or of oppression policy or of "conspiracies" against them. - JZ, - 12.1.93. - Compare the anarchists, who should be Free Traders, joining the Protectionists, under the cover of vague and mostly false "anti-globalist notions". - JZ, 10.120.03. – I saw no hint in it that he favored exterritorial autonomy for dissenters. – JZ, 18.2.09.

MOVEMENTS: Each institution, party, movement, corporation etc. tends to “age” and deteriorate, become corrupted over time, sometimes even turned into its opposite. Although this tendency is not as strong as it is with territorial monopoly bodies, it still exists in private and cooperative associations, enterprises and corporations. Insofar Butler Shaffer’s criticism also of private bodies, boards, directorates, corporations, share companies, committees, etc. is correct. Special precautions, controls, institutions and methods are needed to keep them on the straight and narrow path, as originally intended, with good reasons. (Especially when they have a large income and much capital at their disposal. – JZ, 8.2.09.) Thus they should institute e.g. an internal “devil’s advocate” body for the upholding of principles, a non-torturous “Inquisition”, check and review or watchdog-body, sufficient division of powers, internal decentralization, based or good record keeping, separate profit and loss accounts, other systematic evaluations, via statistics, tests for objectivity, practicality, morality, judgment and fundamental principles. Internal criticism and competition with the dominant point of view should be maintained. Especially the strategies and tactics used should be under constant review and compared with those of all other competing organizations. Organization maintenance and organization-development should be an on-going automatic process. Even the totalitarians introduced degrees of “self-criticism” into their systems to keep them somewhat effective and be it only for the preservation of their totalitarian controls. Otherwise, “who guards the guardians”? One possible measure would be to appoint or elect for each office bearer a stand-by alternative representative, one who would take the office-bearer’s place as soon as he fails in one way or the other, i.e. one with a personal stake that the appointed or elected official does not get away with anything. Another approach would be to develop a methodology for new ideas, beginning with very well conducted suggestion box schemes and going to publishing all suggestions, discussing them openly among all concerned and providing “nurseries” for new ideas and proposals. In other words, establishing an “intellectual ammunition” department or “propaganda ministry” operating as truthfully as possible, organizing frequent enough public meetings, well announced in advance, and electronically opening one’s publications to criticism. Otherwise they will be all too much mere other political parties or politics or business or mere “good intentions” as usual. Or parliamentary misconduct and “managed” meetings of shareholders will continue indefinitely. Not only the subordinates or ordinary members ought to be kept in line, but the supposed leaders as well. Voluntary membership, voluntary finance, consumer sovereignty and individual secessionism and much external competition are not quite sufficient on their own, however important they are. So far it happened even with anarchists and libertarian groups and movements that criticism was simply ignored rather than published, discussed and replied to. The currently dominant “party line” was often upheld, even among these people, all too much, just as it is in territorial politics. – JZ, 16.6.80, 14.10.98, 24.10.07, 7.11.13. - PARTIES, COMPANIES, CORPORATIONS, ENTERPIRSES, INTERNAL DECENTRALIZATION, INSTITUTIONS, INTERNAL CONSTANT REVISIONISM, CHECKS & CONTROLS, NOT ONLY FINANCIAL ONES BUT UPON ALL UNJUSTIFIED DEVIATIONS FROM SOUND PRINCIPLES, BELIEFS, METHODS, MEASURES, INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS, PLATFORM POINTS ETC., SELF-MANAGEMENT SCHEMES, PARTNERSHIPS, COOPS OF THE BEST TYPE.

MOVEMENTS: Each movement is its own worst enemy. – JZ, 6.11.90. – Until it makes panarchism its primary aim. – JZ, 5.8.92. - IDEOLOGIES, ENEMIES & PANARCHISM

MOVEMENTS: It is characteristic of all movements and crusades that the psychopathic elements rise to the top." - Robert Linder, Must You Conform? 1956. - Scum as well as cream rises to the top. In coercive and territorial associations and movements it tends to be the scum. For exterritorially autonomous volunteer communities this trend would be reversed. Under panarchism the incompetent would be fast weeded out or enlightened. They would either have to put up or shut up, being subjected to consumer sovereignty and individual secessionism and extensive competition. - JZ, 20.6.92, 14.1.93. - LEADERSHIP

MOVEMENTS: Mrs. Lane, who didn’t think movements thrived on money.” – John Chamberlain, in THE FREEMAN, 11/73. - Movements don’t thrive on money. – JZ, 10/74 – … but on ideas, enthusiasm, suitable organization, complete enough references and sufficient communications. At least our references are still all too incomplete. – JZ, 31.7.78, 7.12.07.

MOVEMENTS: Some of the worst enemies of liberty, peace, justice and welfare are precisely among those supposedly armed, trained and organized to fight for those aims. – JZ, 2.10.93, 3.12.07. - ENEMIES, FRIENDS

MOVEMENTS: We must not blame individuals, but rather the general movement which carries them along, and blinds them to the real state of the case; …” - Bastiat, Economic Sophisms, p.128. – Also to the fact that there is as yet not exterritorialist movement that favors at the same time all movements, as long as they do not make any exclusive territorialist claims. – JZ, 13.12.07. - LIBERTARIAN, ANARCHIST & OTHERS, PANARCHISM, TOLERANCE, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR VOLUNTEERS, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM FOR ALL

MU INSTEAD OF YES OR NO, ZEN BUDDHISM: Because we’re unaccustomed to it, we don’t usually see that there’s a third possible logical term equal to yes and not which is capable of expanding our understanding in an unrecognized direction. We don’t even have a term for it, so I’ll have to use the Japanese mu. Mu means “no thing”. Like “Quality” it points outside the process of dualistic discrimination. Mu simply says, “No class; no one, not zero, not yes, not no.” It states that the context of the question is such that a yes or no answer is in error and should not be given. “Unask the question” is what it says. (*) – Mu becomes appropriate when the context of the question becomes too small for the truth of the answer. When Zen monk Joshu was asked whether a dog had a Buddha nature he said “Mu”, meaning that if he answered either way he was answering incorrectly. The Buddha nature cannot be captured by yes or no questions. … Yes or no confirms or denies a hypothesis. Mu says the answer is beyond the hypothesis. Mu is the “phenomenon” that inspires scientific enquiry in the first place. There is nothing mysterious or esoteric about it. It’s just that our culture has warped us to make a low value judgment of it.” – Robert N. Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, p.314/315. - (*) Alas, such an answer is not yet permitted e.g. in our court hearings, in witness statements under oath. – JZ, 8.12.07.

MUD PIES: Ask any youngster at his lemonade stand why he doesn't diversify, and he'll promptly give you economics in one lesson: "Well, mister, it's a lot more fun to make mud pies, but there's just no market for them." - How come we grow up forgetting what every youngster knows instinctively? Would you believe that some two-fifth of the time and effort and scarce resources of we the adults of America are going into mud pies! Roughly 40 per cent of our factors of production are being diverted to purposes for which there's just no market.” - Paul Poirot, THE FREEMAN, 12/74, 737/38. - On the ordinary markets for consumer goods and services new ideas and talents sell just about as well as mud pies do. In other words, they still need special free markets to become well enough marketed. - Anarchist and libertarian propagandists should know all about that - but still don't. - JZ, 23.12.07. - GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS, MARKETS, MONOPOLIES & TAXATION, GOVERNMENT BUDGETS & GOVERNMENT SPENDING & IDEAS ARCHIVE, WELFARE STATE

MUHAMMAD: In the Koran, Sura II, verse 275, states: “God hath permitted trade.” – The Koran orders the use of honest weights and measures, the fulfillment of contracts and the payment of debts. And one of the sayings attributed to Muhammad makes him not just the Prophet of Allah but the prophet of Adam Smith: “Only God can fix prices.” – P. J. O’Rourke, “Peace Kills”, 2004, Grove/Atlantic, Inc., then Picador, ISBN 0 330 42125 5, p.98. – At least this it has in common with Judaism. Can one find honesty in measures described as a religious duty in the Christian writings? - JZ, 9.1.11, JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, ISLAM, KORAN, TRADE, PRICING

MULTI-AUTONOMISM: Full autonomy for all - on an exterritorial and voluntary basis and under personal laws. - JZ, 5.9.88. – PANARCHISM

MULTI-AUTONOMISM: Full autonomy for all voluntary associations, on the basis of exterritoriality and personal law. – JZ, 5.9.88. Only then could no one’s ideal, system or belief forced upon all others in a territory. – JZ, 7.12.07. - PANARCHISM

MULTI-AUTONOMISM: i.e. full autonomy for all groups, on an exterritorial, voluntary and personal law basis, in each case at the expense and risk of the voluntary participants. - JZ, 4.3.89. – PANARCHISM

MULTICULTURAL BANK OF ISSUE: I would also like to see a multicultural bank of issue and would consider its free banking practice to be even more important than its clearly expressed lack of racist or cultural bias. - JZ, 27.5.97.

MULTICULTURALISM: Multicultural tolerance is not enough. We must also become tolerant towards multiple kinds of political, economic and social systems, all being peacefully practised, at the same time and in the same country, under personal law or exterritorially autonomous and tolerantly. i.e. among their volunteers only. - JZ, 11 Aug. 89, 10 Oct. 89, 7.11.13. - VS. FULL TOLERANCE & PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE, MINORITY AUTONOMY, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

MULTICULTURALISM: Multiculturalism and pluralism do not go far enough while they do not permit individuals to choose for themselves the political, economic and social system, which they do prefer for themselves. – JZ, 25.1.05, 7.11.13. - PANARCHISM & PLURALISM

MULTICULTURALISM: Multiculturalism as a territorial political policy is nonsense. Freedom, rights and tolerance for individual choices are decisive rather than such “policies”. Under freedom all cultures are free. But freedom goes further than that. It would not only grant freedom of expression and information to all the different cultures but also freedom of action and experimentation, even in the economic, social and political sphere, to all kinds of societies, communities, movements and groups of volunteers. That is what all of us are morally entitled to. That is what our territorial politicians are not prepared to concede to cultural and other minorities. That is largely the practical way to achieve solutions to most of our remaining problems. “Release all creative energies!” – was a frequent appeal by Leonard E. Read. Even those of crime fighters and those of the providers of internal and external security and of alternative societal systems should be included under that motto. None of our territorial politicians has any genuine solution to offer. They are good only in adding to our problems and in coining deceptive election slogans. – JZ, n.d. & 4.12.07. – PANARCHISM, VOLUNTARISM, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, PERSONAL LAW, POLYARCHISM, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR DISSENTING MINORITIES

MULTICULTURALISM: Multiculturalism does not fully free diverse cultures but subjugates them to centralized rule and exploitation, via imposed laws and taxation. Genuine multiculturalism would exist only if all the diverse cultures, represented by volunteers, could gain for themselves full exterritorial autonomy under their own personal law. Precisely this kind of multiculturalism remains suppressed under what is now called multiculturalism. – JZ, 30.7.98, 30.11.07, 9.1.11.

MULTICULTURALISM: Multiculturalism should be an individual option, not an imposition, upon anyone, anywhere or anytime. – JZ, 11 Nov. 92. - Voluntary instead of compulsory segregation, but also voluntary instead of compulsory integration. - JZ, 9.12.03.

MULTICULTURALISM: Multiculturalism, multi-religiosity and freedom of expression and information are important but not enough. We must get multi-politics and multi-economics too – or freedom of action for political, social and economic experiments under full minority autonomy. That can only be achieved on the basis of exterritorial autonomy based on voluntary membership. - One territorial State for all was never anywhere a satisfactory solution for all who lived in that territory. And we should not assume that it ever will be. Even anarchists and libertarians are split into numerous diverse groups and endlessly argue among themselves about some important or minor points. The statists are even more diverse because they are less principled. Their temporary compromises do not constitute unity but merely armistices. –– JZ, 9.10.88, 1.4.89, 7.12.07, 7.11.13. - & PANARCHISM,  PERSONAL LAW & FULL FREEDOM TO EXPERIMENT FOR ALL, VOLUNTARISM

MULTICULTURALISM: Obviously, it is not good enough to establish really free societies. They must be built rather upon multiple social, economic and political systems, societies, communities, ideologies, not only in the religious sphere or that of arts or private life-styles. It must become possible for all minorities to practices all their kinds of ideologies, not only religious ones, under full exterritorial autonomy among their own volunteers, under personal laws, i.e., under full tolerance for all tolerant actions. – JZ, 7.3.93, 4.12.07. - MULTI-PARTY SYSTEM & REGULATED “FREE” ENTERPRISE & “FREE” TRADE, DEMORACY, MAJORITY RULE, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, MINORITY AUTONOMY, PERSONAL LAW.

MULTICULTURALISM: The choice is a between territorially imposed monoculture or imposed multiculturalism on the one hand and freely chosen diversity, under exterritorial autonomy, for individuals and societies and communities of volunteers. – JZ, 1.8.95, 7.1.99, 7.11.13. - & PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY FOR MINORITIES

MULTICULTURALISM: the current fad for 'multiculturalism', for encouraging people to cling to their foreign (*) roots instead of adapting to the culture (**) into which they choose (***) to move." - Stanley Schmidt, editorial, ANALOG, 5/92, p.4. - (*) own! - (**) They migrated usually for other reasons. - (***) They usually choose not another culture but more political and economic freedom. Their shopping baskets should only be filled with their own choices, not with those of the local nationalists. - Would he want them e.g. to throw away all their books in their mother tongue and read only writings of the new country? - JZ, 18.1.93, 5.2.93. - I do even favor full exterritorial autonomy for all immigrants, if they do prefer that for themselves. - JZ, 9.1.11.

MULTICULTURALISM: The fashionable multiculturalism and non-racist immigration policies of Australia, England, Canada, the U.S.A. and Germany do already recognize that no country or continent does rightly and exclusively belong to any particular race or ethnic group, any nationality or ideology. Alas, upon this limited and classical liberal background various attempts are made at new nationalistic “nation-building” upon an exclusive territorial model, and all the different groups are coercively subjected to the same constitution and laws, jurisdiction and other institutions and processes of majoritarian or somewhat representative democracies. That is all right for all those in favor of them but not for any of the peaceful dissenters who would rather do their own things to and for themselves and do have the individual rights and liberties to do so, even though they are not recognized at present by territorial governments or what has been misnamed the “United Nations”. – JZ, 16.5.96, 9.1.99. - & PANARCHISM

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: Government, however (*) necessary for order in society, is, in the final analysis, organized force. Try not paying your taxes and you’ll see what I mean. Multinational corporations, on the other hand, are strictly voluntary organizations. Nobody is twisting your arm to buy a Chevy, a Mazda, 10 gallons of Shell, a Sony color TV or any other product from the MNC.” – William H. Peterson, THE FREEMAN, 8/76. – (*) thought to be – JZ - MULTINATIONALS & GOVERNMENTS: VOLUNTARISM VS. CONTROLS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: If a corporation shifts its production facilities within a country, the unions can and do follow. But they do not have any bargaining power for workers hired in Belgium or Mozambique. - Deliberately ignored by opponents of the multinational corporation was the fact that other nations were building plants in the United States at the same time. Companies in Japan, Germany, England, Switzerland, and other industrial countries were investing capital and equipment in various areas of the world, including America, creating new jobs and contributing to world-wide economic growth. Multinationalism is not a one-way street, and never was. Everyone benefits from it and always did. - No matter, though. The United Nations viewed the multinationals as a threat to its prestige; dictatorial governments saw them as liberators of their own oppressed subjects; and unions feared them …” - Jerome Tuccille, Who's Afraid of 1984? p.127. - I favor full exterritorial autonomy under personal laws for multinational corporations. - And I did not take a grant or donation etc. from any of them for taking this stand. - JZ, 9.1.11. – MULTINATIONALS, GLOVALISM, FREE TRADE, WORLD MARKET

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: If all nations were replaced by multinational corporations - at least at the option of individual citizens - then we would be much closer to peace. - JZ, 27.4.83. - MULTINATIONALS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: In fact, to mark a break with the past and knowing the hatred inspired and spread by the states towards 'multinational' firms, we could say that we are all 'multinationals,' (or transnationals) meaning that we are the result of the mixing of many people and many cultures from various places since the beginning of time.” - Gian Pietro de Bellis, in his 2002 book manuscript on Polyarchy. - TRANSNATIONALS, MULTINATIONALS, POLYARCHY, PANARCHY

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: International corporations should be autonomous – in all but the ownership of scarce natural resources. – JZ, 2/73. In this respect the form of “open cooperatives” would be far more just and effective than any involvement in natural resources by governments. – It does not require expropriation. Everyone in an open coop would still be rewarded according to his work and capital input. - JZ, 7.12.07. – However, even this form of productive organization should only be introduced on a voluntary bases. If it is as good as it is supposed to be then it will spread voluntarily. – JZ, 18.2.09. - MULTINATIONALS, INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS, PANARCHISM, NATURAL RESOURCES, OPEN COOPERATIVES

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: Multinational – I love you! – JZ, 17.8.74. – As the first effective competitors to the territorial nation States! – JZ, 7.12.07. – Let the multinationals take us ahead. – JZ, 75.

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: Multinational companies are truly the servants of demanding consumers around the world. … When governments are slow to grasp the fact that their role has changed from protecting their people and their national resource base from outside threats to ensuring that their people have the widest range of choice among the best and cheapest goods and services from around the world … they discourage investment and impoverish their people.” – Kenichi Ohmae, director of the Japanese office of the American management consultancy McKinsey, The Borderless World, 1990, x-xi. - FREE TRADE

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: Multinational corporations of the world have probably done more to put people in decent houses, to put food in their bellies and shoes on their feet than most governments have.” - THE AUSTRALIAN, quoted in an article by Lang Hancock, 1975. - Full monetary and financial freedom for all multinationals! Also Free Trade and exception from all territorial immigration restrictions. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MULTINATIONALS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: Numerous nationalists, statists and leftists have raised "objections" against multinational corporations and globalization. They seem to be unaware that countries like e.g. Australia and the USA are governmentally organized multinational corporations as well, extending over vast territories and also corporations of the worst type, statist ones, far more coercive and monopolistic than most multinationals are. (Multinationals in the sense that their citizens and subjects come from ca. 200 different nations.) You cannot secede from them. You are forced to contribute to them and invest in them. You do not get your certified share in them and cannot, thus, sell it if you want to. Whatever job you do, you are also working as a part-time serf for this governmental and territorial multinational. To what you call a multinational you can give notice, its assets you can buy and sell, its products and services you can refuse to buy. Try doing this with governmental services, refuse your "voluntary" tax contribution, ignore its monopolies and you might end up in prison or dead. Territorial governments are certainly the most exploitative, wrongful and harmful corporations. - yet the critics of private multinationals seem to love their territorialist governmental equivalents. (What is good about the UN?) And if you really think that all existing multinationals are bad, why don't you start a good one? In your attempt to do so you would soon find out where the real and main threats are to your rights and liberties. - If you were merely objecting to privilege granted by governments to multinationals, e.g. patent- and copyrights, I would agree with you. These should be done away with. A free market would offer better options to innovators and writers than legalized monopolies. - JZ, 14.12.82, 23.12.07. - MULTINATIONALS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: One can buy or sell their shares. One can buy or sell their products or services - or one can ignore them altogether. In other words, they are very different from the single nation territorial and all too statist, monopolistic and coercive and exploitative governments, which tax, oppress, conscript, regulate and even kill us, when they have a mind to do so. Thus it is hard to understand why some people consider the multinational corporations to be worse than territorial States are. I for one prefer them at any time to territorial governments. - JZ, 21.4.80. - MULTINATIONALS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: The MNC’s are getting out of control. In the past few years, while the bureaucrats of different countries were fighting each other, the traders were cooperating internationally and now comprise 50 of the largest 100 economic units on earth. The faster technology advances, the greater the advantage of the MNC over the nation-state. Many important areas of knowledge have a doubling on the order of ten years. The nation-state gained its power in a far more static world. As scientific and technological advances accelerate, the balance of power will shift further toward the MNC. The evidence is growing that trade rather than coercion is the wave of the future.” – Ron Kimberling, INDIVIDUALIST, 6/72. - TRADE VS. COERCION

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: The multinational company has the capacity to diminish the power of centralized government - indeed, perhaps even to distribute power more equitably throughout the world", said Walter E. Schirmer in 1974. His projection at the time turned out to be amazingly prescient. …” - Jerome Tuccille, Who's Afraid of 1984? p.131. - MULTINATIONALS

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: The old cliché World Peace Through World Trade, sounds kind of corny, but it's becoming a reality just the same. Already we're moving beyond world trade into the next phase," he said in 1974. "What's developing is an interlocking corporate structure on a world scale. We're all becoming investors in everyone else's economy. War, hell! The multinational corporations can't afford a major war. They'll do everything they can to avoid one." - Richard Bode was not alone in recognizing the multinationals as an emerging force for world peace in 1974. Historian Arnold Toynbee made the same observation in a magazine article, adding that they were the healthiest force on earth while oppressive political regimes were growing more rickety and inefficient. Critics of the multinationals expressed the fear that they were becoming so powerful they could flout the laws of individual nations and operate with impunity like latter-day pirates, but it soon became apparent that these corporations were better citizens than the local political rulers themselves.” - Jerome Tuccille, Who's Afraid of 1984? p.128. - One of the positive aspects of multinationals is that, due to their international spread they are not dependent upon any particular State. If one treats them too bad, they could simply altogether withdraw all their activities from it. The mere threat to do so can often already serve to keep a bad territorial government somewhat in line. However, the statist expropriators and taxers or tribute-gatherers are still with us, so that multinationals will move as much of their activities as they can into less regulated and taxed countries, boosting the economies of these countries, probably better than the governmental foreign aid efforts. - JZ, 23.12.07.

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS: We must see the wisdom of Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s observation that the MNC is a shining example of the “enormous recent achievements” in international relations, that “combining modern management with liberal trade policies, it is arguably the most creative international institution of the twentieth century.” - I agree. The multinational corporation is far and away the greatest force for world development and, as implied by IBM, for world peace.” – William H. Peterson, THE FREEMAN, 8/78. – On the other hand, we should not overlook how some multinationals are involved in providing some territorial governments with the capacity to provide nuclear mass murder devices. – JZ, 8.12.07.

MULTINATIONALITY: from ascribed nationality to asserted multi-nationality …” - Gian Pietro de Bellis, in his 2002 book manuscript on Polyarchy, 2002. – PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM

MULTIPLE CRISIS THEORIES: Mere further arguing about the cause and cure for economic crises will not soon enough settle such questions. – JZ, 5.10.08. – Not only should all the diverse crisis theories (at least ca. 150) be listed together, with all their pro and con, but volunteers should be free to apply among themselves whatever crises cures they do believe could or would work. No territorial government should any longer have a monopoly power to either cause or attempt to cure any economic crisis. Full experimental freedom for all. Especially since the “cures” by territorial governments usually do not work at all or make matters even worse. – JZ, 7.2.09. – PANARCHISM, FREEDOM OF ACTION, EXPERIMENTAL FREEDOM, HYPOTHESES, DEFLATION, DEPRESSION, INFLATION, MONETARY & FINANCIAL FREEDOM VS. MONETARY & FINANCIAL DESPOTISM

MULTIPLE PATHS: How could each man be so positive that his path, and only his, was the road to comprehension?” - Mark Clifton and Frank Riley, They'd Rather Be Right, ASTOUNDING SF, Nov. 1954, p.112. - VS. SINGLE PATHS, PANARCHISM

MULTIPLE VALUES: ninety-five per cent of the people think in terms of single values. But what about multiple values? … Both science and faith have produced examples of fanatic adherence to one single value, proclaiming it and only it to be the ultimate and absolute truth.” - Mark Clifton and Frank Riley, They'd Rather Be Right, ASTOUNDING SF, Nov. 1954, p.112 & 131 - Compare Don Werkheiser's distinction between "single value relationships" and "mutual value relationships". (Also single convenience vs. mutual convenience relationships.) – His magnum opus on this and related topics may by now have been put online, by one of his followers. D. W. died a few years ago. He had a magnificent alphabetized file archive on paper. I hope it has been preserved and somewhat made accessible, hopefully digitally. – JZ, 22.1.08. - VS. SINGLE VALUES, PANARCHISM, NATIONALISM, MINORITIES, MAJORITIES, DEMOCRACIES, INTOLERANT, BECAUSE TERRITORIAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

MULTIPLICATION RISK FOR BANKNOTES THAT ARE NOT EXCLUSIVE CURRENCIES & NOT LEGAL TENDER? - Ideal banknotes represent pure multilateral clearing transactions taking place over a short period, mediating the exchange of labor, goods and services, with the aid of banks, employers, wholesalers, retailers and laborers accepting the notes and paying their debts with them. Such notes cannot be multiplied at will. Indeed, an order for more such notes might be given to a printer. The issuer might also imagine that he could issue many more notes, than corresponds to the number of his customers and their requirements, to the goods he has in stock now or could quickly order in, or to his total turnover for not only the day, week or month, or, perhaps 3 months, but, e.g., for his expected turnover for the next 3 years. - Experience with his issues would soon teach him otherwise. His potential customers cannot be forced to accept his notes. They remain free to discount or refuse them and they are unlikely to accept more of them than they and their trading partners are likely to require soon for their purchases from the issuer or other debt payments due to him. And since the issuer can be rightly forced to accept his own notes at par, he would be very foolish to issue them - if he could, e.g. at a 90 % or  50% discount, still quite sufficient to cover his printing costs but not necessarily sufficient to cover the costs for his goods and services. Moreover, with as much depreciation, he would lose his good name as an issuer and could, perhaps, never issue again, whilst all his sounder competitors could. It is so relatively easy to keep goods and service vouchers at par with their nominal value, at least within the local community, that only par value private currencies will tend to be accepted there. If otherwise sound private notes would suffer a discount, if e.g. a tourist kept and then offered them far away from the issuer, instead of having exchanged it in time, at par, at the place of its issue, for the currency he wants, then only he would suffer the consequences of his mistake. His mistake would give someone a chance to obtain a sound local currency at some interesting amount below par and then to present it, directly or indirectly, to the issuer at par. Some people might come to specialize on such transactions. I remember a coin shop in London, which accumulated large quantities of German "Groschen" (1/10th of a German DM) for a special customer, who frequently visited Germany, and bought these Groschen very cheaply from that coin dealer, who still made a profit on them. That was at the expense of those tourists, who did not bother to use them at par when and where they could have. Bad luck for them: it was their own mistake or omission or own chosen fate. - Only legal tender and exclusive currencies can be multiplied almost without limits, thousand-fold, million-fold- billion-fold, even trillion-fold, as happened once in Hungary towards the end of WW II or shortly after it, as I was told. The biggest inflationary depreciation should be much better reported than has happened so far, to my knowledge. - JZ, 24.9.92, 30.4.97. - INFLATION, LEGAL TENDER, MONETARY FREEDOM, MONETARY DESPOTISM

MULTIPLICITY OF CURRENCIES & VALUE STANDARDS: The multiplicity of competing value standards and exchange media and clearing avenues would confuse people no more so than the multiplication of individual cheques and credit cards does, or that of shares and bonds and tickets. Indeed, not all the diverse exchange media and value standards will be universally acceptable. But this is not required. There will be some federation-wide means and standards and some only state-wide ones as well as those known and acceptable only within a small local community. The degree of uniformity that would be achieved under freedom of issue and refusal would be all that would be needed and the degree of variety that would occur would not go beyond that degree which would be found acceptable. Uniformity that can only be achieved by legal monopolies, coercion and deception is not something to be desired as much as monetary independence and self-responsibility or maximized "ability to pay", quite independent from the actions or non-actions of a central bank. - JZ, 3.3.95, 16.4.97. -VARIETY & LACK OF UNIFORMITY: CONFUSION THE RESULT & IMPRACTICABILITY? MONETARY FREEDOM

MULTIPLIER EFFECT OF FREE MARKETS: and as a bonus the free economy puts a multiplier onto your efforts to enrich you far beyond what the same effort returns you under any alternative system. - Under primitive conditions a family grows its own potatoes, builds its own shelter, shoots its own game, and so on. But we live in a division of labor society where individuals specialize in production and then exchange their surpluses for the surpluses of other people until each person gets what he wants.” - Edmund A. Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 5/72, p.293. - A FREE ECONOMY, DIVISION OF LABOR, FREE EXCHANGE, FREE TRADE, FREE ENTERPRISE, FREE COMPETITION, LAISSEZ FAIRE

MURDER & TYRANNICIDE: Murder" … the illegitimate depriving of another's right to life."- David Taylor, 5.6.85. - If that were the case, then all acts of tyrannicide would have to be declared to be murder. - Only "immorally" depriving someone else of his right to life could be classed as murder. D.T. is admitting this when he states after this: "Neither is it 'murder' if one is forced to kill another in legitimate self-defence.” - The "force" that is then is only be a moral force. - JZ, 5.6.85. – Few murders could be prevented by the victim appealing, in time, to the moral sense of the murderer. – An armed defence is more effective and quite rightful towards them. All the more towards mass murderers like genuine tyrants. By all means, let there be, in free countries, a first and thorough discussion or even formal court hearing first, on whether a particular ruler is a tyrant or not. – If he is thus found guilty, even in a quite formal trial, he should be formally outlawed and a price should be put on his head. Maybe the price should be doubled if he would be brought alive - before an international and genuine court of justice – JZ, 18.2.09. - ASSASSINATIONS, TYRANNICIDE, MURDER

MURDER: And historically, by far the overwhelming portion of all enslavement and murder in the history of the world have come from the hands of government.” – Murray N. Rothbard, For A New Liberty: The State as Aggressor. - ENSLAVEMENT & GOVERNMENT

MURDER: If you kill one person you are a murderer. If you kill ten people you are a monster. If you kill ten thousand you are a national hero. – Vassilis Epaminondou, Greek social reformer. - MURDERERS, HEROES, WARRIORS, MASS MURDERS, OFFICIAL ONES, SANCTIONED & ORDERED BY THE TERRITORIAL STATE, ESSENTIALLY A WARFARE STATE

MURDER: Most murders are government ordered, organized, conducted and financed. – Even the peace-time victims came to over 200 million during the last century. – See the statistics of Prof. Rudolf Rummel on this, which are online. Compare also the readiness of governments to commit more such atrocities, as exemplified by their stocks of ABC mass murder devices, kept in readiness and "modernized" all the time. – JZ, 30.8.93, 4.12.07. - MASS MURDERS, WARS, & GOVERNMENTS, CIVIL WARS, GENOCIDE NUCLEAR WAR THREAT, DEMOCIDE

MURDER: Perhaps you haven’t read the FBI Report on American Crime for this year. Interesting. Just thirty-four murders every day. Nearly 150,000 Americans criminally killed in the last twenty years. Ian Fleming, James Bond. Diamonds are Forever. PAN BOOKS, 1958 to 1964, p.20. – And some people still believe that the government, its police, courts and prisons do protect them sufficiently. – JZ, 27.2.12. – RATE IN USA, CRIME & POLICE OR GOVERNMENTAL PROTECTION, DETERRENCE, PUNISHMENT, PREVENTION, VICTIM DISARMAMENT, GUN CONTROL LAWS

MURDER: Put a prize of $ 100 000, on each unsolved murder case - and let the finally caught and convicted murderer work this prize money off as well, with interest, and under a gold clause. This should help to increase the conviction rate and thus reduce the number of murders. - JZ, 1.1.79.

MURDER: There are four types of homicide: felonious, excusable, justifiable, and praiseworthy.” – Ambrose Bierce. - ASSASSINATIONS, TYRANNICIDE, SELF-DEFENCE

MURPHY'S LAW: If there is a wrong way to do something, then someone will do it.” - Edward A. Murphy, Jr., "Murphy's Law." - Robert L. Forward, "Murphy Lives!" - SCIENCE, January-February 1983, p.78. Commonly quoted as, "If anything can go wrong, it will." - The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, ed. J. A. Simpson, p.4 (1982), provides interesting historical notes on its origin and use. A longer version appeared in a story about Murphy and his law in PEOPLE, January 31, 1983, p 82: "If there's more than one way to do a job and one of those ways will end in disaster, then somebody will do it that way." - WRONGS, MISTAKES, MISFORTUNES

MURPHY'S LAW: Whatever can go wrong will go wrong.” - Murphy. - Quoted in Cornuelle, Demanaging America, p.51. - At least sometimes or sooner or later. Almost nothing is quite fool-proof. Particularly not the institutions of territorialism. - JZ, 23.12.07.

MURPHY’S LAW: An extension: Everything that can go wrong, will … unless somebody makes it his business to do something about it. – James P. Hogan, Giant’s Star, p.39.

MURPHY’S LAW: Whatever can go wrong will go wrong.” – Reworded by Ed Murphy: If there are two or more ways to do something and one of those ways can result in a catastrophe, then someone will do it that way.” - Dr. Laurence J. Peter, Why Things Go Wrong or The Peter Principle Revisited, George Allen & Unwin, 1991, p.38.

MUSIC, MODERN: Most modern music is spelled wrong. I should be “Moo-sick!” - JZ, 25.8.03. - But then the subjective value theory applies here, too. It probably sounds O.K. to the ones believing in bull. – I never forgot the assertion of a Melbourne Anarchists in 1986, during the Anarchist Festival there, that classical music stimulates thinking while modern music prevents it. Have any tests been done to confirm or refute this view? - JZ, 20.9.08. – JOKES

MUSIC: A method of employing the mind without thinking at all.” - Johnson, heard on radio, 29.11.01. - According to some other hints, classical music tends to stimulate thinking whilst e.g. rock music tends to prevent thinking. I do not know of any scientific research about this. By now we should have more than anecdotal evidence on this. - JZ, 20.8.02.

MUSIC: Beautiful music does harm – when lending respectability to religion. – JZ, 4.4.95. - & RELIGION

MUSIC: If only they would not call it music! – JZ, 8.11.93. – MODERN MUSIC

MUSIC: Millions watch and cheer sports events or participate in them or pursue private hobbies, crafts and arts in a retreat from public affairs to private matters in which they abdicate interest in and responsibility for public affairs, which often seem to go from bad to worse. Indeed, it appears to be much easier to gain personal satisfactions in this way. In this limited private sphere, with some efforts and costs one can get considerable positive results. However, the consequences of the majority thus withdrawing from their rights and duties as human beings and citizens - all too limited as these still are, under all territorial governments - are likely to be disastrous. Public affairs are much too important to remain in the hands of a few power addicts in charge of territorial States. - There are similarities between the "pacem et circenses" (bread and circus performances) policies of the ruling Romans towards the people of Rome and the "Gemuetlichkeit" (private complacency?) of Germans under the Nazi regime and also with the private hobby, craft and amusement activities pursued today by most people, while a nuclear holocaust is well prepared for all of mankind. We need something like a reverse retreatism. From the common preoccupation with minor private affairs into public affairs, but this on the basis of a libertarian and tolerant philosophy and practised on the basis of personal laws and voluntary communities that are only exterritorially autonomous. - JZ, 27.1.82, 23.12.07. - SPORTS, HOBBIES, ENTERTAINMENT

MUSIC: Modern music, paintings, fashions and films are getting louder and more disharmonic, cacaphonic, un-melodical and even absurd, all the time. – Just like the political, economic and social doctrines of the modern, recognized and popular schools and universities. One can “hear” the effects of State subsidies and prizes in “modern music”. - JZ, 14.17.87. – Should one start a class action suit on behalf of all whose hearing has been impaired by all too loudly blasted modern music? - Well, I am just an old and old-fashioned guy. – JZ, 6.12.07. - ARTS, FASHIONS FILMS, MOVIES

MUSIC: Much of modern music is a turn-off, at least for me. Luckily, this is greatly facilitated by switches on radios, TVs, gramophones, cassette- and video-recorders as well as DVD-players. – JZ, 23.4.89, 6.12.07. - If only I could already switch off all government interferences in this way. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MODERN MUSIC

MUSIC: Music is banned in Khomeini's Iran on the grounds that it stimulates the brain. We've done him one better in the land of Coke and honey - Using music to put people's brains to sleep.” - Dead Kennedys, Triumph Of The Swill. - One Melbourne music lover assured me, back in 1986, that e.g. classical music stimulates the brain while rock music puts it to sleep. True or false? - JZ, 26.3.04. - BRAIN STIMULATION & THINKING

MUSIC: Music production, reproduction, distribution, storage and enjoyment is largely panarchistically organized. As a result, different kinds of music lovers may avoid or may merely verbally criticize each other. As a rule they do not fight and their friendships and exchanges tend to be peaceful and international. - JZ, 26.7.87. - TRADE & ENJOYMENT IS ALREADY PANARCHISTIC, MUSIC PRODUCTION

MUSIC: Singing and commentaries distract from listening to music and from reading, writing and thinking. And so does much of  the mere noise of "modern music". - JZ, 13.9.02, 30.10.02. - & MUSICAL COMMENTARIES

MUSIC: Some music is so loud and disturbing that it shakes reason apart and leaves only raw emotion. Perhaps this is why many do like it. - JZ, 16.11.80. - MODERN

MUSIC: The two pianists - really good ones, Hal decided - had finished "An American in Paris", and were now hurling out the tangled syncopations of the "I Got Rhythm Variations". It, too, seemed designed to prevent conversation.” - David Houston, Substance X, p.19: A Melbourne anarchist told me in 1986 that he believed that classical music stimulated thinking while e.g. rock music prevented it. Evidence? - Perhaps different kinds of music stimulate thinking in different kinds of people? I only can say from my own experience that almost any music, if too loud, interferes with thinking. - JZ, 25.1.02. - MUSIC THAT MAKES YOU THINK VS MUSIC THAT PREVENTS YOU FROM THINKING OR EVEN TALKING

MUSIC: There are no sounds in Nature comparable to the lovely sounds that Beethoven evokes. Here man shows himself definitely the superior of God.” – H. L. Mencken, Prejudices: Fourth Series, p.240. - NATURE, GOD & MAN

MUSIC: What people produce or let pass as music is often no better than what they pass as wind. – JZ, 18.11.88. – The only good thing about such “music” is that mostly one is not forced to listen to it. – JZ, 5.12.07.

MUTUAL AID: Does one have to be either hammer or anvil? Does one have to play only zero-sum games? Is the choice merely between ruling or being ruled? Do we really have to fight or struggle for existence or, merely, to work productively and freely? Examples for such claims exist only in the army and the territorial State in general. The contrary is already the rule: Mutual aid, as e.g. in production based on the division of labor and free exchange, at least for consumer goods and services. - JZ, n.d. - DARWINISM, STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE, SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST, COMPETITION

MUTUAL AID: It is your concern when your neighbor's wall is on fire.” - Horace [Quintas Horatius Flaccus], Epistles, I, xviii, 84. -  SOLIDARITY, SOCIAL CONTRACT, HELP, ASSISTANCE

MUTUAL AID: Man is appealed to, to be guided in his acts, not merely by love, which is always personal, or at best tribal, but by the perception of his one-ness with each human being. (*) In the practice of mutual aid, which we can trace to the earliest beginnings of evolution, we thus find the positive and undoubted origin of our ethical conceptions; and we can affirm that in the ethical progress of man, mutual support, not  mutual struggle, has had the leading part.” – Peter Kropotkin. - However, even mutual aid, as well as any other political, economic or social system is to be practised only among volunteers! - (*) At least by his common interest with like-minded people in a community of volunteers, that wants to be left alone to do its own things and is prepared to leave all other communities alone to do their things for or to themselves. – JZ, 15.9.07. - RATHER THAN MUTUAL STRUGGLE, COOPERATION & COMPETITION, AMONG VOLUNTEERS, ALL INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGN OR VOLUNTARY MEMBERS OF EXTERRITORIALLY AUTONOMOUS PERSONAL LAW COMMUNITIES, PANARCHISM

MUTUAL AID: Men are made for mutual help, says Seneca … - soldiers for pay merely, without regard to the cause; whose motto is, the right is where the best pay is.” – Hugo Grotius, On the Laws of War and Peace. – MERCENARIES, PROFESSIONAL SOLDIERS OF TERRITORIAL STATES

MUTUAL AID: Mutual aid is as much a law of animal life as mutual struggle. - Peter Kropotkin - Roy Halliday, Quotations with an Attitude, online. – So why is there still so insufficient international collaboration among libertarians to provide all the required reference tools to accelerate the process of libertarian enlightenment? – JZ, 22.5.13. – NEW DRAFT, LIBERTARIAN ENLIGHTENMENT

MUTUAL AID: The teachings of the division of labor would replace fighting by mutual aid.” - My re-translation from German into English: “Die Lehre von der Arbeitsteilung“, erfaehrt man, „setze an die Stelle des Kampfes ‚gegenseitige Hilfe’.” – Ulrike Heider, Die Narren der Freiheit, S.128, ueber Mises, Die Gemeinwirtschaft, Jena, 1932, S.287. - Heider is biased against market economics and blind to the fact that in free exchange, under division of labor, in a really free market, mutual aid is also involved, as well as profit-making by all participants. – She remained unaware how foolish her “judgment” often is on those, she considers to be fools. - JZ, 4.12.07. - DIVISION OF LABOUR, WITHIN & BETWEEN ENTERPRISES & COUNTRIES, DIS.

MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION, MAD: The citizens of Western democracies have always realized that nuclear weapons are a threat to humanity. People are now becoming increasingly aware that the principle of Mutual Assured Destruction is a policy of bluff through mutual suicide notes. It is little wonder that the public is morally repulsed by a policy to which the acronym MAD is so appropriate. Mutual Assured Destruction is a bankrupt game-theory doctrine, which uses civilian populations as hostages. Its rejection by ordinary citizens shows a better grasp of reality than do the sophisticated rationalizations of our national elite.” - Newt Gingrich, Window of Opportunity, A Blueprint for the Future, p.246. - NUCLEAR WAR THREAT

MUTUAL ASSURED DESTRUCTION, MAD: The US Government had made a deliberate decision to leave the American people totally defenceless in the face of the nuclear threat - with the exception, of course, of the Chosen Few: the politicians, defence personnel, bankers and sundry bureaucrats whose shelters are kept on standby at all times.” - Brian Wilshire, The Fine Print, published by Brian Wilshire, PO Box 209, Round Corner, NSW 2158, Australia., 1992., p.30.

MUTUAL CONVENIENCE RELATIONSHIPS: Let's replace single convenience relationships by mutual convenience relationships. - A suggestion by Don Werkheiser, to replace terms, which are all too misunderstood or distorted by now. - See also the corresponding distinctions Rothbard made in "Power and the Market". - JZ, n.d. - A book by Don Werkheiser on this subject was supposed to have been published after his death. I have not seen it yet. - JZ, 23.12.07. - VS. SINGLE CONVENIENCE RELATIONSHIPS

MUTUAL FREEDOM: Term used by Alan Gewirth in "Must One Play the Moral Language Game?" - AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, April 70.

MUTUAL TOLERANCE: Let us live the way we want to live, I am not asking you to live like me … Thomas Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem, p.298, Fontana/Collins edition, 1990.  – Alas, he did not arrive at the personal law conclusion but remained a territorialist. – JZ, 7.4.12, 15.1.13. - IN EVERY SPHERE, EXTERRITORIALLY OR PERSONAL LAW - FOR VOLUNTEERS, TOLERANCE

MUTUAL TOLERANCE: Not unification is required for strength but mutual tolerance, on the basis of full exterritorial autonomy. Then, for all other and common purposes one could organize some common defence and arbitration services. - JZ, 18.7.87. - VS. TERRITORIAL UNIFICATION, PANARCHISM

MUTUALISM: Economists, in attempting to improve the welfare of society, look for potential transactions in which at least one party becomes better off while no one becomes worse off. The idea is that, without imposing value judgments upon others, we can be safe only by encouraging transactions to take place which are mutually beneficial in they eyes of the participants. To go further than this cooperative trading, and to justify some activities, which bring good to some only at the expense of harming others, requires that we put ourselves in a dictatorial role in evaluating one man’s gain versus another man’s lows. Coercive Redistribution. Which brings us right back to the government. All moves that the state makes involve this trading-off of one’s gain against another’s loss. Private transactions, contrarily, are inherently just – all voluntary arrangements are mutually beneficial or else they would never have been freely created by the people involved.” – Thomas W. Hazlett, The Handshake and the Sword, THE FREEMAN, Nov. 77. - TRADE, WIN-WIN-GAMES, PRIVATE & VOLUNARY VS. OFFICIAL & COERCIVE ACTIONS, COERCIVE REDISTRIBUTION

MUTUALISM: i.e. a society founded on the principles of association and equal exchange.” - St. Edwards, Proudhon, p.55.

MUTUALISM: In a free society, those who earn more than the national average are entitled to enjoy their possessions, for they've gained them in a system of voluntary exchange; the well-being they have bestowed upon other people! There are no valid reasons for anyone to be plagued by feelings of guilt on this score. There is genuine reciprocity in the free society, but its opponents are blind to the market's built-in mutuality.” - Edmund Opitz, THE FREEMAN, 7/75. - RECIPROCITY, FREE EXCHANGE, FREE MARKET, VOLUNTARISM, FREE SOCIETIES, PROFIT, WEALTH & RICHES THAT ARE EARNED

MUTUALISM: Its law, they say, is service for service, product for product, loan for loan, insurance for insurance, credit for credit, security for security, guarantee for guaranty. It is the ancient law of retaliation, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life, as it were turned upside down and transferred from criminal law and the vile practices of the vendetta to economic law, to the tasks of labor and to the good offices of free fraternity. On it depend all the mutualist institutions, mutual insurance, mutual credit, mutual aid, mutual education; reciprocal guaranties of openings, exchanges and labor for good quality and fairly priced goods, etc. This is what the principle of mutualism claims to use, with the aid of certain institutions, …” Proudhon, in S. Edward's Proudhon, selections from his writings, p.59/60. - Panarchies would mutually protect their voluntarism, personal law and exterritorial autonomy - in their common interest. - JZ, 9.1.11.

MUTUALISM: Monetary freedom, a school of thought supposedly started by Proudhon or his followers. Alas, it is still doubtful whether Proudhon, with his “Bank of the People” wanted to establish just one note issuing Bank of the People for all of France or whether that was to be just one of many competitors to the government's central bank. – JZ, n.d. - But then all of his writings are still not published! - JZ, 9.1.11.

MUTUALISM: One which empowered people instead of dis-empowering them.” - Larry Gambone, ANY TIME NOW, No. 10, Sum. 00, p.1. - PEOPLE, EMPOWERMENT

MUTUALISM: Scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours.” - 17th c. proverb. - Hyman Quotes, p.277. - Mutualists are at least mutually tolerant, not necessarily close friends or associates as in the above example. - JZ, 9.1.11. - MUTUAL AID, TRADE, EXCHANGE, HELP, COOPERATION

MUTUALISM: The economic problem can be solved only through ‘a system of reciprocal service. Mutualism must supercede hierarchy. …” - John Bowle, Political Opinion in the 19th century, p.160, on Proudhon. – HIERARCHIES, CENTRALIZATION, TERRITORIALISM

MUTUALISM: the labourer is no longer a serf of the State, swamped by the ocean of the community. He is a free man, truly his own master, who acts on his own initiative and is personally responsible.” – Proudhon, as quoted by Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, p.243. – If only he were, then he would long ago achieved self-liberation in this sphere. – JZ, 3.12.07. - LABOR, WORKERS, SELF-MANAGEMENT, LIBERATION AT THE WORKPLACE, PURCHASE OF ENTERPRISES BY THEIR EMPLOYEES, ON TERMS

MUTUALISM: The term mutual has a certain anti-Darwinist connotation. Mutuality or reciprocity should be regarded as the positive counterpart to privilege in a hierarchical order. Mutuality is based on horizontal connections and relations. This does not mean though, that every hierarchical order must be rejected: such an order is acceptable, if it has come about as the result of decisions freely taken, by the parties concerned, and if the parties can dissolve it. ( See P. Heintz, Anarchismus und Gegenwart, 1951, Berlin 1973, pp. 110-113.)" - Holterman, Law in Anarchism, p.46. - I seek a copy of the book by Heintz. - JZ, 15.1.93. - RECIPROCITY & DARWINISM; HIERARCHIES & VOLUNTARISM

MUTUALISM: You need others. Take care that they need you, too, or you are finished.” - John Henry Mackay, Settling of Accounts. ("Abrechnung") - NEED, OTHERS, RELATIONSHIPS, EGOISM, SELFISHNESS, TRADE, EXCHANGE

MUTUALITY: And this freedom will be the freedom of all. It will loosen both master and slave from the chain. For, by a divine paradox, wherever there is one slave there are two. So in the wonderful reciprocities of being, we can never reach the higher levels until all our fellows ascend with us. (*) There is no true liberty for the individual except as he finds it in the liberty of all. (**) There is no security for the individuals except as he finds it in the security of all. (***) - Edwin Markham. - (*) At least they should have the freedom and chance to ascend or advance in whatever direction they presently want to go. In the long run they would still contribute to progress, even when merely serving as deterrent examples. We do not have to advance all at the same time and at the same speed and in the same directxion - but the possibility to do so and even to advance faster or to lag behind should exist for all individuals. - (**) Not all have to make the fullest possible use of e.g. their liberty of speech and press, but if they want to, they should be free to do so. - If each could be, by his own individual choice, as free or un-free as he wants to be, together with like-minded people, then the security of all of us would be greatly increased. Panarchism and Polyarchism aim at that. - JZ, 23.12.07, 9.1.11. - SOLIDARITY, RECIPROCITY, INTERDEPENDENCE, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, MUTUALISM, TOLERANCE FOR THE TOLERANT

MY COUNTRY: As a panarchist I claim not only exterritorial autonomy within the borders of the country I was born in or settled in but in all the rest of the world, for myself and all my voluntary associates. I do readily recognize the same right for the members of all other communities of volunteer. No one should be more or less penned-in between national territorial walls, like a convicted criminal in a prison and subjected to national prison rules or to the rules made by others for their domesticated animals, against his will. Excepted from this liberty are only those who had severely infringed the basic rights and liberties of others and had been found guilty by a competitive juridical system. – JZ, n.d., 12.1.99. - Cosmopolitan cities, in spite of their territorial governments, do already constitute a model of panarchistic "unity" and independence in diversity. In them all kinds of groups exist and are active, at least with degrees of exterritorial autonomy, at the level of sports clubs, professional and cultural organizations, for instance. Their exterritorial autonomy practice, voluntarism and extensive mutual tolerance ought to be extended to all voluntary political, economic and social groups and their utopias, platforms, panaceas or systems. - JZ, 8.12.03. - RIGHTLY, IS EVERYWHERE! IT IS NOT CONFINED TO ANY TERRITORIAL NATION STATE & ITS BORDERS, EXTERRITORIAL AUTONOMY, PANARCHISM, COSMOPOLITANISM



MY WAY: If a person possesses a tolerable amount of common sense and experience, his own mode of laying out his existence is the best, not because it is the best in itself, but because it is his own mode.” – John Stuart Mill, ON LIBERTY. – Even in the absence of a minimum amount of common sense, experience and knowledge, his own and self-chosen way of life is the best for him and the fastest way for him to progress. Only non-interference with others can be demanded of him and even enforced. – JZ, 8.4.89. – Anyhow, if one is free and also obliged, by survival needs, to make all important decisions on one’s own affairs oneself, one would usually be so busy with them that one has no time or energy to spare to attempt to meddle with the affairs of others. – JZ, 6.12.07. - I DID IT MY WAY, ETC., SELF-DETERMINATION, PANARCHISM

MYOB: A condition where everyone minded only his own business would be a condition of maximum tolerance.” – JZ, n.d. - MIND YOUR OWN BUSINESS, TOLERANCE

MYSELF: As one recovered alcoholic put it, ‘The only person I need to be is myself. I can be really good at that. In fact, I can never fail if I am simply me and let you be you’.” – M. Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy. - SELF-OWNERSHIP, BEING ONESELF, TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM, BE YOURSELF, NON-INTERFERENCE, LEAVING OTHERS ALONE

MYSTERY OF BANKING: Among the several dogmas still surviving in the "mystery" sphere of banking is that of the "creation of money and credit". Many do, for instance, believe private commercial bankers to be able to perform that miracle. Most of them assert that any banker would be able and willing to do so. To this Mises once replied, quoting from my not very reliable memory, not from the relevant book: "Only the government can take two such valuable commodities as paper and ink and turn them into worthless trash." - Non-cash payments, clearing transactions and also credit arrangements, over a period, are quite naturally larger than the cash circulating at any particular time, without any "credit or money creation" and any depreciation of the currency being inherently and necessarily involved. Alas, they are all too often wrongly considered as wrongful and exploitative "blow-ups" or "blow-outs" of the cash currency, precisely because what is involved is to most people still a mystery. When a group of ball-players pass a ball among themselves, and do so for a considerable time, then each is involved in a number of successful (and some unsuccessful) ball transactions but from this one should not conclude that the total number of balls in circulation has obviously been miraculously increased, since the total number of ball passes, over a period, was much larger than one. - Non-cash payments, in their clearing, whether using stone symbols, wooden tickets, beads on a string, shells, or even valuable commodities for accounting purposes, e.g. in form of gold dust or coins or bullion bars, ounces of tobacco or cigarette packs, furs, etc., whether reckoning and transferring physical symbols in the process, like some paper moneys or clearing certificates, or merely book entries or electronic signals, whether using an abstract value or index standard or a physical unit, kilowatt hour, weight of wheat or metal, do not, essentially, for an exchange or the clearing of debts, require ANY physical- exchange medium or value standard. They do not have to be present and used. Nor is a corresponding stock of the value standard units required. The use of the meter standard for measurements does not require that e.g. every meter measure must be "covered" by the physical presence, then and there, of an exact duplicate of the original platinum meter standard stored, I believe, in Paris. And the presence of numerous cheap and even somewhat elastic and inaccurate meter standards for daily measurements does not, in any way, diminish or depreciate the value of the meter measure. Millions of much cheaper but good enough meter measures can be produced and effectively used in millions of meter measures every day, without each being "covered" by a meter stick made up of platinum. The same applies to liters and kilograms etc., as applies to sound value standards, among those who accepted them. - JZ, 3/97.

MYSTICS OF MUSCLE: your modern mystics of muscle.” - Mrs. Young in a remark in her manuscript on Ayn Rand's writings, p.28. – FORCE, COERCION, POWER, STRENGTH, COMPULSION, TERRITORIALISM, STATISM, GOVERNMENTALISM

MYTHS: Contemporary man has rationalized the myths, but he has not been able to destroy them.” – Octavia Paz, The Labyrinth of Solitude, 1950. Modern man has not yet been rational and scientific enough to systematically and encyclopedically refute myths, popular errors, prejudices and the like, simply by confronting all of them with their best refutations. – JZ, 8.12.07.

MYTHS: government is a shared myth. When the myth dies the government dies.” - Frank Herbert, God Emperor of Dune, p.43. - Only competing governments, i.e. governments of volunteers only and confined to exterritorial autonomy, can be more than myths, can be ideals freely chosen by individuals for themselves only and practised as long as they still find them attractive enough for themselves, even when outsiders consider them to be horrible examples of self-abuse, of things not to do, of absurd and counter-productive actions. - The road must be opened for flawed systems as well as all kinds of better ones than those applied in the past or present. - Experimental freedom even for all political, economic and social systems! - JZ, 23.12.07. - PREJUDICES & REALITY, STATISM, TERRITORIALISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM

MYTHS: If men would steadily observe realities only, and not allow themselves to be deluded, life, to compare it with such things as we know, would be like a fairy tale and the Arabian Nights' entertainments.” - Henry Thoreau. - PREJUDICES & REALITY

MYTHS: Let them alone. If people are busy living out myths you don’t like, leave them do it.” – Samuel R. Delaney, Dhalgren, p.278/79. - PEOPLE, BELIEVERS, TOLERANCE, PANARCHISM

MYTHS: Liberty is a concrete entity, not very different from a hat, a table, or a snow shovel. (*) One ought to be able to recognize it when one sees it. But it is no longer very much in evidence because we have so consistently been fed and nourished on political myths - to the exclusion of freedom. Most of us living in the twentieth century have not noticed the erosions of freedom since our political leaders have ingeniously directed our minds to myths by which they may most easily control and direct our destinies.” - George H. Douglas, THE FREEMAN, 12/74. - (*) Only once such a relationship is actually realized. - JZ, 23.12.07. - LIBERTY, FREEDOM, REALITY

MYTHS: Mankind is more deeply swayed by myths than we are ready to concede, and these myths are a major source of conflict.” - Leonard E. Read, The Love of Liberty, p.53. - PREJUDICES & REALITY

MYTHS: Mystiques seldom respond to facts.” - Poul Anderson, A Knight of Ghosts and Shadows, p.77.

MYTHS: myths and lies which tyrants have always counted on to maneuver the masses for selfish design.” - Frank Herbert, God Emperor of Dune. - & TYRANTS

MYTHS: Naturally, if one thinks of the state as having the same properties as an organism and for the same reasons, one can blithely go on saying that the state has a will, a conscience, a power drive; that a statesman or a general knows that the state wants, or thinks, or is insulted about. Small children may treat some inanimate object as if it were a live puppy, talk to it and get angry or affectionate with it. But society is not made up of small children, and it is high time that men ceased to apply mythology to politics and applied science instead.” - O. A. Oeser: Culture Patterns and Social Tensions, in Paths to Peace, ed. by Victor H. Wallace, Melbourne University Press, 1957. - A real political science would explore the exterritorial autonomy options for volunteers as well. - JZ, 23.12.07. - & TERRITORIAL STATISM, PANARCHISM, POLYARCHISM, PERSONAL LAW, VOLUNTARISM

MYTHS: Reality is just too hard for most people to put up with or to try to understand - so they opt for myths. - JZ, 6.6.77, 23.12.07. - REALITY, PREJUDICES, COMMUNISM, CLICHÉS, RED.

MYTHS: The current age may indeed be one of enlightenment - that is, enlightenment of a type pertaining to scientific theory. But let's not kid ourselves by pretending that people today are less gullible than they ever were.” - Fred Woodworth, Anarchism, p.3. - PREJUDICES & REALITY

MYTHS: Their beliefs are even killing them, at least in the long run, when they do not just oppress, impoverish and exploit them. - yet most seem to be ready to rather die than give them up. - JZ, 16.5.81, 23.12.07. - On the other hand, an encyclopedia of the best refutations of the popular myths, prejudices and errors, that are obstacles to progress, has not yet been compiled or published. - J.Z, 23.12.07. - STATISM, MONOPOLISM, NUCLEAR "WEAPONS", TERRITORIALISM, NWT, ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE BEST REFUTATIONS.



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